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1751. The number of inhabitants in Philadelphia was estimated at

about 11,000 whites, and 6000 blacks. The entries at Perth P. Amboy. Amboy, the capital of New Jersey were 41, and the clear

ances 38.2 Baltimore. In the month of October, 60 waggons, loaded with flax seed,

came from the upland parts of Maryland into Baltimore.3 Ginseng.

Ginseng was found at Stockbridge in Massachusetts. It grew in abundance in that township, and in the adjacent wil

derness. 4 Moravians. The United Brethren, or Moravians, purchased a tract of land

in North Carolina, consisting of about 100,000 acres, and called it Wachovia, after the name of an estate of count Zinzendorf, in

Germany.5 S. Carolina The South Carolina Society was incorporated by an act of

ity. the legislature.6 Kennebeck. The forts Richmond and Frankfort were erected on Kenne

beck river; and the proprietors of the country associated under

the name of the Kennebeck Company." Dudleian Paul Dudley, chief justice of Massachusetts, died at Roxbury. lecture

By his last will, he bequeathed to Harvard College £100 sterlfounded.

ing, the interest of which was to be applied to support annual lectures on the four following subjects : the first lecture to be for proving, explaining, and the proper use and improvement of the

sented the calumet to Hendrick, a Mohawk Sachem, who gracefully accepted it, and smoked. The king then passed the pipe to each sachem in the front rank, and several in the second rank reached to receive it from him to smoke also. The Catawba singers then ceased, and fastened their feathers, calumets, and calabashes, to the tent pole; after which the king stood up, and, advancing forward, began his speech to the Six Nations. The late judge Wendell of Boston, then a young man, was present at this treaty, and gave me a verbal account of it. He told me, that the hatred between the Catawbas and the Six Nations was so virulent, that the commissioners judged it expedient to keep the Catawba king and chiefs recluse in a chamber, previous to the opening of the treaty, to prevent any act of violence.

1 Brit. Emp. ii. 482.

2 European Settlements, ii. 195. There were exported 6424 barrels of flour, 168,000lbs. of bread, and 17,941 bushels of grain, beside other commodities. Ib. See Brit. Emp. ii. 420.

3 Univ. Hist. xl. 473. Brit. Emp. iii. 26.

4 Hopkins, Memoir Hous. Indians, 143. Adair (Hist. American Indians, 361.) says, " each of our colonies abounds with ginseng, among the hills that lie far from the sea. Ninety Six Settlement [Cambden) is the lowest place where I have seen it grow in Carolina." See 1715.

5 Alcedo, Tr. Art. WACHOVIA.

6 Drayton, 215. It originated in a small number of citizens, who met once or twice a week, and, as a stock to be employed for charitable purposes, made a contribution, which was at first a piece of money called two bitts. In 1739, its common stock was no more than £30. 108. iod. sterling. In 1770, the society consisted of 360 members, and possessed a capital of more than £7500 sterling. In 1802, its capital was nearly £20,000 sterling. From this fund unfortunate families of its deceased members are supported; and their children receive a useful education.

7 Sullivan, 117, 176; " about this time.”

1751.

principles of Natural Religion ; the second, for the confirmation, illustration, and improvement of the great articles of the Christian Religion ; the third, for detecting, convicting, and exposing the idolatry and various errors and superstitions of the Romish Church; the fourth and last, " for the maintaining, explaining, and proving the validity of the Ordination of Ministers or Pastors of Churches, and so their administration of the Sacraments or Ordinances of religion, as the same hath been practised in New England from the first beginning of it, and so continued at this day.”. Dit

James Logan, of Philadelphia, died, aged 77 years.2

J. Logan.

1752.

the

The trustees of Georgia, finding that the province languished June 20. under their care, and weary of complaints of the people, surren- Geomein

Chajter of dered their charter to the king. Their fundamental regulations, surrendered though wholly formed on generous principles, are pronounced to to th have been ill adapted to the situation and circumstances of the poor settlers, and prejudicial to the prosperity of the province. By granting their small estates in tail male, they drove the settlers

on Beam 1 Will of the Founder in Harvard College Records. The trustees, appointed by its Founder, are the President of Harvard College, the Professor of Divinity, the Pastor of the first Church in Cambridge, the senior Tutor in Harvard College, and the Pastor of the first Church in Roxbury. The first lecture, on this foundation, was preached by president Holyoke in college chapel, 11 May, 1755.

2 Proud, i. 479. Mem. Pennsylv. Hist. Soc. i. 132. Miller, i. 134; ii. 240. In 1699 he accompanied William Penn to Pennsylvania ; and in 1701' he was by commission from the Proprietary appointed Secretary of the province, and Clerk of the Council. He afterward held the offices of Commissioner of property, and Chief Justice, and for near two years governed the province as President of the Council. He was a man of extensive learning, and distinguished as a botanist. His principal works are: “Experimenta Meletemata de plantarum generatione," or his “ Experiments on the Indian Corn or Maize of America," published in Latin at Leyden, in 1739, republished in London, with an English version by Dr. Fothergill, in 1747 ; “ Canonum pro inveniendis Refractionum, tum simplicium, tum in lentibus duplicium focis, Demonstrationes Geometrica" &c. printed at Leyden in 1739; and Cicero's Treatise “ De Senectute,” with explanatory Notes, and a recommendatory Preface by Dr. Franklin, in 1744. He died at Stenton, his country seat, near Germantown, leaving his very valuable library which he had been 50 years in collecting, “ as a monument of his public spirit and benevolence to the people of Pennsylvania." This was called « The Loganian Library.” He built a house for its reception, and vested it in trustees for the use of the public forever. It consisted of more than 3000 volumes. William Logan, who acted as librarian, and died in 1776, devised to it about 1300 volumes. After his death, the Library remained unopened, until the legislature of Pennsylvania, at the request of James Logan, the only surviving trustee, passed an act for annexing the Loganian Library to that belonging to the Library Company of Philadelphia, who made an addition to their building for the purpose of keeping the Loganian Library forever separated from their other books. See an Account of this Library, written by the late Ebenezer Hazard, Esq. in 2 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 269. The Philadelphian Library, including the Loganian, contains about 15,000 volumes. Miller.

I

1752. from Georgia to other parts of America, where they obtained

lands on a larger scale, and on much better terms. By the prohibition of negroes they rendered the subjugation of the thick forests, and the culture of the lands, very difficult, if not impracticable. By prohibiting the importation of rum, they deprived the colonists of an excellent market for their lumber in the West Indies, and of an article, which, properly used, is supposed to be beneficial in that climate. The government of Great Britain had been at great expense, beside private benefactions, for supporting the colony ; but had yet received small returns. The vestiges of its cultivation were scarcely perceptible; and its commerce was neglected and despised by the parent country. Its whole annual exports did not amount to £10,000 sterling. On the surrender of the charter, the people were favoured with the same liberties and privileges as were enjoyed by their neighbours under the royal care ; and, in process of time, the colony began to flourish.?

În conformity to an act of parliament for regulating the comadopted.

mencement of the year, and for correcting the calendar in use, the new style took place in the American colonies, and in all the British dominions. . From this time, the year, instead of beginning on the 25th of March, was computed from the first day of January. The third day of September was now dated the 14th, and all the other days of the year were reckoned accordingly.3 This reformation of the calendar, rendered necessary by the precession of the equinox, had been made by pope Gregory XIII. in 1582; but, though it was readily embraced in all Roman Catholic countries, protestants were slow to receive the improvement, however useful, from the pope of Rome.4

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1 Such, though more positive, is the statement of historians. In relating facts without comment, we become not responsible for the principles, which they involve. It seems incuinbent, however, to remark here, that there is one principle, which, neither in public nor private life, ought ever to be violated, whatever advantages may be expected to arise from its violation. Aristides furnishes a noble exemplification of this principle. Themistocles declaring, at a public assembly of the people, that he had formed a design which would be of great advantage to the state, but that, it was of such importance, it ought to be kept secret; he was ordered to communicate it to Aristides, to whose sole judgment it was referred. When Themistocles informed him, that his project was to burn the whole Grecian navy, by which means the Athenians would become so powerful as to be the sovereigns of all Greece, Aristides, returning to the assembly, told the Athenians, “ that nothing could be more advantageous than the project of Themistocles, and that nothing could be more unjust.” Themistocles was ordered to desist from his design. Plutarch, Life of Aristides.

2 Hewatt, ii. 43, 44, 165.
3 English Statutes, vii. 329. See NOTE I. at the end of the volume.

4 Alsted, Encyclop. Histoire Impartiale des Jesuites, ü. 215–217. Pope Gregory XIII. invited all the astronomers to devise means to remedy the evil arising (in the use of the calendar) from the precession of the equinox, Lilio, an Italian physician, proposed to retrench 10 days of the current year, and to make one year in every four years one day longer than usual. Of all the methods proposed, this, as the most simple, was adopted.

and mipis ters.

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South Carolina was in so thriving a condition, that upwards of 1752. 1600 foreign protestants arrived, this year, at South Carolina. The commerce of that colony was, at this time, large and valuable; and employed annually 300 ships. The taxable in- Pennsylhabitants of Pennsylvania were 22,000.3 There were in Penn- vania. sylvania 9 episcopal ministers, and 27 episcopal churches; in Episcopal New Jersey, 8 episcopal ministers ; in New York, 12; in churches Connecticut, 8 ministers, and 16 churches; in Rhode Island, 5 ministers, and 6 churches; in Massachusetts, 10 ministers, and 10 churches; in New Hampshire, 1 minister, and I church; and in Newfoundland, 2; making collectively 55 episcopal ministers, and about 96 churches.

After a remarkably hot summer,5 a dreadful hurricane was Sept. felt at Charlestown, the capital of South Carolina. The wind Hurricane having blown hard at the northeast the preceding night, and town, s.c. continued with increasing violence until morning, the flood, about 9 o'clock, came rushing in with great impetuosity, and, in a short time, rose 10 feet above high water mark at the highest tides, inundating the town, and covering the streets with boats, boards, and wrecks of houses and ships. Before 11, all the ships in the harbour were driven ashore, and the smaller vessels were dashing against the houses in Bay street. The inhabitants, expecting the tide to flow until 1 o'clock, its usual hour, retired to the upper stories of their houses at 11, in despair. In this moment of desperation, the merciful interposition of divine Providence surprised them with a sudden deliverance. Soon after 11, the wind sbisted; in the space of 10 minutes, the waters fell 5 feet; and the town was saved from the threatened destruction. “Had the water continued to rise, and the tide to flow until its usual hour, every inhabitant of Charlestown must have perished.”6

Charles

1 Wynne, ii. 272. Univ. Hist. xl. 443. The governor observed in his speech: “ There are, at present, in this harbour of Charlestown, two ships with upwards of 800 foreign protestants on board ; and two others are hourly expected with a like number. If they are settled comfortably, they will not only by this means be kept here, and be a considerable addition to our strength, but will encourage many others to come; and even the settling of these in proper places may be made subservient to our security.”

2 Gordon, Geog. 361.
3 Franklin, Pennsylv. 196.
4 Pres. Stiles, Lit. Diary.

5 During the months of June, July, and August, the mercury, in the shade, often rose above the 90th, and at one time was observed at the 101st degree of the thermometer. The mean diurnal heat of the seasons in that climate has, on very careful observation, been fixed at 64 degrees in spring, 79 in summer, 72 in autumn, and 52 in winter; and the mean nocturnal heat, at 56 degrees in spring, 75 in summer, 68 in autumn, and 46 in winter. Hewatt, ii. 136, 179. See Note II.

6 Hewatt, ü. 179—182. Most of the tiled and slated houses were uncovered; several persons were hurt, and some were drowned; the fortifications and wharves were almost entirely demolished; the provisions in the field, in the

1752. The small pox prevailed in Boston ; and of 5544 persons,

» who had this disease the natural way, 514 died; of 2109, who Small pox had it by inoculation, 31 died. The total number of inhabitants in Boston. in Boston was 17,574 ; the ratable polls, 2789.? Franklin's Benjamin Franklin, of Philadelphia, having conceived and electrical suggested the idea of explaining the phenomenon of thunder discovery.

gusts on electrical principles, completed his grand discovery by

experiment.3 Pennsylv. The Pennsylvania Hospital was founded about this time.4 Hospital.

The Marine Society of Newport was established. St. George's

chapel, an episcopal church, was built in New work. N. Jersey

A folio edition of the laws of New Jersey was printed by James Parker at Woodbridge.?

maritime parts of the province, were destroyed; and numbers of cattle and hogs perished in the waters. The pest house on Sullivan's Island, with 15 persons in it, was carried several miles up Cooper's river, and 9 of the 15 were drowned. The situation of Charlestown is so low, that, as you approach it from the sea, it appears almost on a level with the water. The hurricanes commonly proceed from the northeast; and, as the Gulf Stream flows rapidly toward the same point, this large body of water, when powerfully obstructed, has been supposed to recur upon the shore. But this hypothesis is weakened by a fact, observed by sailors : “ The Gulf Stream is always most rapid when the wind blows most violently in a direction exactly contrary to that of its motion.” A philosophical gentleman of my acquaintance in Georgia, Mr. Stephen Briggs, in a letter to president Stiles, requesting a solution of this matter, observed, « This is a fact, confirmed by every old seaman."

1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 216. Whites, who had it the natural way, 5059; blacks, 485. Of these died 452 whites, and 62 blacks. Whites inoculated, 1970; backs, 139. Of these died 24 whites, and 7 blacks. Ib.

2 Pemberton, MS. Chron.

3 Life of Franklin, 118-121. He prepared a common kite, by attaching two cross sticks to a silk handkerchief, and to the upright stick affixed an iron point. The string was, as usual, of hemp, excepting the lower end, which was of silk. Where the hempen string terminated, a key was fastened. With this apparatus, on the appearance of a thunder storm, he went into the commons, accompanied by his son to whom only he communicated his intentions), and placed himself under a shed to avoid the rain. His kite was raised. A thunder cloud passed over it; but no sign of electricity appeared. In the moment when he was ready to despair of success, he observed the loose fibres of his string to move toward an erect position. He now presented his knuckle to the key, and received a strong spark. Repeated sparks were drawn from the key ; a vial was charged; a shock given ; and the various electrical experiments performed. Dr. Franklin began his electrical experiments in 1747. See his Works, vol. iii. containing his “ Letters and Papers on Electricity.” He wrote several letters to Peter Collinson, F. R. S. containing accounts of his electrical experiments (one on the Electrical Kite, 16 Oct. 1752), which were published at London in a quarto volume, and passed through several editions. Dr. Watson drew up a summary account of them, and of all that he afterward sent to England on the subject; and this summary was printed in the Transactions of the Royal Society. Of that Society Dr. Franklin was now chosen a member, and was excused the customary payments. The next year he was presented with the gold medal of Godfrey Copley for the year 1753. Memoirs in his Works, i. 162–165.

4 Life of Franklin, 137. 5 Hardie's Tablet. 6 Smith, N. York, 190. A neat edifice, faced with hewn stone, and tiled. 7 Thomas, ii. 121, 122. The first press established in that province was at

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