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ability action activity amount ancestry animal annoying appearance association attitude average behavior bonds cause cent cephalic index child conduction connection course curve disuse doctrine efficiency elements environment equal example exercise and effect experiments fact fatigue gain given grade habits human idea identical identical elements improvement individual differences influence inner instinct intellectual interest law of effect laws of exercise learner learning less man's means measure mechanical puzzles median ment mental function mental traits minutes movements multiplication neurones object one-place numbers original nature original tendencies over-learning period play practice probably produce provoke pupils recapitulation theory relearning resemblance response rest satisfying satisfyingness score selection selective thinking sense sensory sensory neurones shown similar sort sponses Stanley Hall stimulus strengthening synapse theory things tion total situations type theory typewriting viduals words
Página 77 - We may then lay it down for certain that every representation of a movement awakens in some degree the actual movement which is its object; and awakens it in a maximum degree whenever it is not kept from so doing by an antagonistic representation present simultaneously to the mind.
Página 84 - Try to feel as if you were crooking your finger, whilst keeping it straight. In a minute it will fairly tingle with the imaginary change of position ; yet it will not sensibly move, because its not really moving is also a part of what you have in mind. Drop this idea, think of the movement purely and simply, with all brakes off ; and, presto ! it takes place with no effort at all.
Página 5 - The behavior of man in the family, in business, in the state, in religion and in every other affair of life is rooted in his unlearned, original equipment of instincts and capacities.
Página 59 - When put into the box the cat would show evident signs of discomfort and of an impulse to escape from confinement. It tries to squeeze through any opening; it claws and bites at the bars or wire; it thrusts its paws out through any opening and claws at everything it reaches; it continues its efforts when it strikes anything loose and shaky; it may claw at things within the box.
Página 270 - I shall try to defend is that a change in one function alters any other only in so far as the two functions have as factors identical elements. The change in the second function is in amount that due to the change in the elements common to it and the first.
Página 131 - ... between the bars, and bites at its confining walls. Some one of all these promiscuous clawings, squeezings, and bitings turns round the wooden button, and the kitten gains freedom and food. By repeating the experience again and again the animal gradually comes to omit all the useless clawings...
Página 4 - Any man possesses at the very start of his life — that is, at the moment when the ovum and spermatozoon which are to produce him have united — numerous well-defined tendencies to future behavior.* Between the situations which he will meet and the responses which he will make to them, pre-formed bonds exist.
Página 52 - By a satisfying state of affairs is meant roughly one which the animal does nothing to avoid, often doing such things as attain and preserve it. By an annoying state of affairs is meant roughly one which the animal avoids or changes.
Página 113 - If a boy grows up alone at the age of games and sports, and learns neither to play ball, nor row, nor sail, nor ride, nor skate, nor fish, nor shoot; probably he will be sedentary to the end of his days; and, though the best of opportunities be afforded him for learning these things later, it is a hundred to one but he will pass them by and shrink back from the effort of taking those necessary first steps the prospect of which, at an earlier age, would have filled him with eager delight. The sexual...
Página 352 - The financier does not think for money nor the scientist for truth nor the theologian to save souls. Their intellectual efforts are aimed in great measure to outdo the other man, to subdue nature, to conquer assent. The maternal instinct in its turn is the chief source of woman's superiorities in the moral life. The...