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GRAMMAR AND ANALYSIS

MADE EASY AND ATTRACTIVE

BY

DIAGRAMS

CONTAINING ALL THE DIFFICULT SENTENCES OF HARVEY'S GRAMMAR DIAGRAMMED; ALSO, MANY
DIFFICULT SENTENCES FROM OTHER GRAMMARS; DESIGNED FOR BOTH

TEACHERS AND PUPILS

BY

FRANK V. IRISH, A.M.

Lecturer, and Instructor in Teachers' Institutes. Author of Orthography and Orthoepy,"

Treasured Thoughts,etc.

“That which strikes the eye lives long upon the mind;
The faithful sight engraves the knowledge with a beam of light"

NEW YORK :: CINCINNATI : CHICAGO.

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY,

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PREFACE.

T diagram a few, easy sentences, as our grammars do, does not satisfy the needs of either

the teacher or the pupil. A more complete work on diagramming is demanded: one that presents a great variety of construction, and grapples the difficulties and intricacies of the “ English Sentence.” Again, many systems of diagrams now in use are either too complicated for practical purposes, or do not truthfully picture the offices and relation of the different elements in a sentence. Whether the element is co-ordinate with or subordinate to another element should be clearly shown by the diagram. If an element is a modifier, the diagram should be so drawn that it shows just what it modifies. If an element modifies a part of the predicate, or a part of a phrase, the lines should be so drawn as to indicate that it modifies a certain word or group of words, and not the entire predicate or phrase. Finally, the diagram should picture with great clearness the office of connectives, especially the double office of conjunctive and relative adverbs, and relative pronouns.

By permission, I have used Prof. W. F. L. Sanders's system of diagrams, with the following changes, which I think to be improvements :

A different use of the dash; first, to separate the copula and attribute; second, to separate the preposition and its object; but never to separate a verb and its auxiliary. A different position of the introductory conjunction, expletive adverb, and an adverb modifying a separable phrase. The parsing of difficult words is indicated by the use of Arabic figures, placed under or over the words, and referring to the rules in Harvey's Grammar.

The very favorable reception of the author's small work, published some time ago, and the large number of flattering notices and testimonials from State Superintendents and other prominent educators, and from leading educational journals, are unmistakable evidences of the popularity of this system.

The utility of diagrams in teaching grammar and analysis is shown by the same process of reasoning by which we show the utility of Geometrical Diagrams in teaching Geometry; Maps, in teaching Geography; or Figures, in teaching Arithmetic. By diagrams an abstract truth is made tangible; the eye is permitted to assist the mind; and, in the language of the poet,

“ Things that address the ear are lost and die in one short hour,

But that which strikes the eye lives long upon the mind :
The faithful sight engraves the knowledge with a beam of light."

The study of grammar can be made just as interesting as the study of arithmetic if the same means are employed. The child loves to see and do. In this respect more advanced pupils, and even teachers themselves, are but children a little older grown.

The improved straight-line system of diagrams presented in this work is eminently natural and practical; it is peculiarly simple in its elements and laws; it gives the clearest view of a sentence as a whole ; it saves time in teaching grammar and analysis, and makes these branches the delight of pupils; it adapts the study of grammar and analysis to the taste and capacity of the pupil. Hon. A. J. Russell, Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Florida, sums it up thus: “I consider it of great help to the teacher and positive good to the pupil, in that it relieves the study of grammar of that which makes it so universally repulsive to young pupils, and creates an interest novel and pleasing, while it gives a knowledge of the use of language the old methods are slow to impart."

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TO TEACHERS.

room.

YO

COU will do me the greatest kindness by communicating directly to me any errors

you notice in this work, or any criticisms or suggestions you may desire to offer concerning it. This book is not to take the place of the books on grammar and analysis, but is to be used with them, and even before they are needed in the class

If possible, put it into the hands of every pupil who studies these branches. By the skillful use of blackboard and slates or paper, the study of grammar and analysis may be made interesting and attractive to the dullest pupils. Too much technicul and not enough practical grammar has been taught in our schools. Practical grammar, in the form of correct speech, should be taught even before the child enters the school-room. Language lessons follow as soon as the pupil can read and write. In these lessons in sentence-building, punctuation and the use of capitals are to form an imp

tant feature. The analysis of simple sentences, using diagrams to interest and please, as well as to teach accuracy of thought, should be introduced at an early age; certainly, before technical grammar is taught. For, “Parsing without a preceding analysis can lead but to a very imperfect knowledge of the organical structure of sentences.” Gems of thought and sentences from the best authors should be selected for these exercises in analysis; thus leading the children by delightful paths up to an appreciation and even a love for our standard literature, the real grammar of the language.

The acknowledgments of the author are due for much encouragement and many valuable suggestions from former pupils, friendly teachers and superintendents, as well as from leading educators and authors. These highly esteemed favors are appreciated, and will not be forgotten.

Actuated by a desire to make the labor of the teacher and student of grammar and analysis a “delightful task," the author humbly sends this work forth on its mission.

F. V. I. COLUMBUS, 1894.

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INDEX.

.

Outline,
Nouns, .
Adjectives,
Pronouns,
Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives,
Participles,
Verbs,
Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Verbs, .
Adverbs,
Prepositions,
Conjunctions,
Interjections,
Miscellaneous Sentences for Parsing,
Syntax, showing all kinds of Elements,
Abridged Sentences,
Miscellaneous Sentences to be Analyzed,
Sentences illustrating Rules for Parsing,
Infinitives,
Subordinate Connectives,
Miscellaneous and Difficult Sentences,
Difficult Sentences from other Grammars,

PAGE

6

9
9-11
11-17
17-20
21, 22
23–25
26-28
29, 30
30, 31
31-33
34, 35
35-44
45-69
70, 71
72-85
85-102

93-97
100, 101
102–113
113-118

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