Safe Handling of Radioactive Isotopes
National Committee on Radiation Protection (U.S.), National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (U.S.)
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949 - 30 páginas
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absorbent absorption accumulation active materials activity alpha American amounts Appendix applies Association beta beta radiation blood count body Bone chairman chamber chemistry circuit clothing Commission Committee considered containers counter covered deposition detection determined disintegrations disposal dose dust effective elimination emitted energy equipment exceed exposure external Feces film filter gamma radiation gamma rays give half-life Handbook handling hands hazard indicated individual inhalation inspection irradiation isotopes laboratory lead levels limited liquid Liver maximum measured ment meters method million monitoring mr/hr National Bureau necessary normally operation organizations package packed permissible personnel Persons physical pocket possible potential present protection radioactive materials radioisotopes radium range recommendations regulations removed response rules safe samples sensitivity shielding shipment significant solutions specifically studies Subcommittee sufficient suitable surface survey TABLE tests thickness tion Tracer transportation Urine waste X-ray
Página 26 - Radioactive materials that present special hazards due to their tendency to remain fixed In the human body for long periods of time (ie, radium, Plutonium, and radioactive strontium, etc.) must, in addition to the packing...
Página 28 - ... 0.1 millicuries of radium, or polonium, or that amount of strontium 89, strontium 90, or barium 140 which disintegrates at a rate of more than 5 million atoms per second; or that amount of any other radioactive substance which disintegrates at a rate of more than 50 million atoms per second.
Página 6 - It represents that dose which produces energy absorption of 93 ergs/gram of tissue. The actual energy absorption in tissue per roentgen is a function of the tissue composition and of the wavelength of the radiation. It ranges between fiO and 100 ergs/gram.
Página iii - At a meeting of this committee in December 1946, the representatives of the various participating organizations agreed that the problems in radiation protection had become so manifold that the committee should enlarge its scope and membership and should appropriately change its title to be more inclusive. Accordingly, at that time the name of the committee was changed to the National Committee on Radiation Protection. At the same time, the number of participating organizations was increased and the...
Página 26 - All outside shipping containers must be of such design that the gamma radiation will not exceed 200 milliroentgens per hour or equivalent at any point of readily accessible surface. Containers must be equipped with handles and protective devices when necessary in order to satisfy this requirement.
Página 26 - Radioactive materials which emit gamma rays must be packed in suitable inside containers completely surrounded by a shield of lead or other suitable material of such thickness that at any time during transportation the gamma radiation at one meter...
Página 26 - The package must be such that no significant alpha, beta, or neutron radiation is emitted from the exterior of the package and the gamma radiation at any surface of the package must be less than 10 milliroentgens for 24 hours.
Página 26 - ... be packed in suitable inside containers completely surrounded by a shield of lead or other suitable material of such thickness that at any time during transportation the gamma radiation at one meter (39.3 inches) from any point on the radioactive source will not .exceed 10 milliroentgens per hour.
Página iv - With the increasing use of radioactive isotopes by industry, the medical profession, and research laboratories, it is essential that certain minimal precautions be taken to protect the users and the public. The recommendations contained in this Handbook represent what is believed to be the best available opinions on the subject as of this date. As our experience with radioisotopes broadens, we will undoubtedly be able to improve and strengthen the recommendations for their safe handling, utilization,...