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Camphor, refined, and synthetic camphor, six cents per pound.





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Boston, January 6, 1913.

. Hon. Oscar W. UNDERWOOD,

Chairman of Ways and Means Committee, Washington, D. C.
SIR: We respectfully bring to your attention the importance to the
American refiner of camphor that there should be no change in the
existing rate of duty under the present tariff.

Crude camphor is a monopoly of the Imperial Japanese Government and is admitted free of duty.

Refined camphor is manufactured by the American refiner from the crude camphor imported from Japan and Formosa.

Notwithstanding a duty of 6 cents per pound on refined camphor, the imports of Japanese refined camphor are constantly increasing, as will be seen by the following statement: Imports Japanese refined camphor.


87 1896.

153, 912 1900.

109, 971 1905.

214, 049 1909.

430, 524

492, 583 At the present time Japanese refined camphor is selling at from 1 to 2 cents per pound less than the home product, notwithstanding the duty of 6 cents per pound.

In consequence of the fact that labor in Japan is less than onefourth of the amount paid in the United States for similar labor, and as refiners here are not favored as are the refiners in Japan, it will readily be seen that if the duty on the refined product is decreased, or if a duty is placed on crude camphor without a corresponding increase in the duty of refined camphor, the industry in the United States must be discontinued.

We shall be pleased to furnish any additional information or to
answer any inquiries.

CHAS. A. WEST, President.


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NEW YORK, January 8, 1913.
Chairman Committee on Ways and Means,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR : In reply to your notice of tariff hearings, dated De-
cember 11, 1912, we beg to submit the following:


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“Paragraph No. 12. Refined camphor, present duty, 6 cents per pound.

We beg to enter our protest against any changes in the present tariff reducing the tax on refined camphor from 6 cents per pound and placing a duty on the crude material, which is now on the free list,

Should the changes in H. R. 20182 become effective, it will be the equivalent of reducing the present duty on refined and synthetic camphor 663 per cent.

The crude supply of the world is controlled by the Japanese Imperial Government monopoly.

Due to the advantages enjoyed by the Japanese refiners of location and cheap-labor conditions, even under the present duty imports of refined camphor have increased as follows :

Pounds. 1890

87 1896.

153, 912 1900.

109, 791 1905.

214, 049 1909.

430, 524 1910.

492, 583 We have been refiners of camphor for about 40 years and desire to remain in the business, but any radical changes in the present tariff schedules will put the business in the hands of foreign refiners. We remain, very respectfully, yours,




Chairman Committee on Ways and Means,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: Pursuant to your notice of tariff hearings, 1913, dated
December 11, 1912, we beg to submit the following:

The paragraphs mentioned below refer to the present tariff law.

Paragraph 12. Camphor, refined, and synthetic camphor.-- Present rate, 6 cents per pound.

It is evident from the fact that refined camphor is constantly being imported into the United States in increasing quantities that the refiners in the United States are not enabled to compete successfully with the foreign refiners, especially those of Japan, where all the costs of refining camphor are vastly lower than those of our own country. The imports of refined camphor into the United States in 1900 were 109,971 pounds, and have been constantly increasing since then, until in 1911 the imports were 492,111 pounds.

We submit, therefore, that if this industry is to be continued in the United States the present duty should be maintained, if not increased.

Paragraph 527. Camphor, crude, natural.On the free list of the present tariff.

78959°-VOL 1-13


PARAGRAPH 12-CAMPHOR. This is the raw material for the manufacture of refined camphor. Supplies of the world of crude natural camphor are now practically under the control of a monopoly established by the Imperial Japanese Government. Crude natural camphor is not only the raw material for refined camphor, but also for other important products manufactured in the United States.

We submit that this article should be retained upon the free list. If, however, for reasons of revenue it is deemed wise to place a tariff upon this material, then we suggest that a proportionate increase should be made in the tariff for refined, bearing in mind that 100 pounds of crude camphor represents in the finished refined product 85 to 87 pounds. Respectfully, yours,


FRANKLIN BLACK, Secretary. NEW YORK, January 6, 1913.


NEW YORK, January 30, 1913. The honorable COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. SIRS: We beg leave to present to your committee for consideration the following data relating to the chemical schedule of the tariff revision:

1. Crude synthetic camphor from oil of turpentine.-The tariff act of 1909 provides that natural crude camphor enters the United States free of duty, excluding, however, absolutely a crude synthetic camphor, because the impurities of the latter are not identical with those of natural camphor. Importers of crude synthetic camphor are required, therefore, to enter the product under the paragraph which provides that “Refined or synthetic camphor shall pay a duty of 6 cents per pound.” Competition with the natural product is made impossible, therefore, although it is well known that neither the natural nor the synthetic crude camphor can be used for the production of a satisfactory colorless grade of celluloid.

We recommend that this paragraph be changed to read: “Refined natural or synthetic camphor shall pay a duty of 6 cents per pound” and that paragraph 527 dealing with natural crude camphor be supplemented to include also the synthetic crude camphor.

2. Chemical compounds and salts containing alcohol, or in the preparation of which alcohol is used.—Paragraph 3 of the tariff act of 1909 provided that chemical compounds and salts containing alcohol, or in the preparation of which alcohol is used, shall pay a duty of 55 cents per pound, but not less than 25 per cent ad valorem n. s. p. f.

We recommend that this paragraph be changed to exclude chemical preparations in the preparation of which alcohol is used which do not contain alcohol, however, and that an ad valorem duty be provided therefor not higher than that assessed on medicinal preparations. The present rate of duty is absolutely unjust, because it exceeds in many instances many times the value of the merchandise. Chloral hydrate, for instance, entering under this paragraph, has a

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market value of about 15 cents per pound and the duty thereon is 55 cents per pound.

3. Tannic acid Tannin.—Tannin is specially provided for under paragraph 1 of the tariff act of 1909 to pay duty at the rate of 35 cents per pound.

In view of the fact that its market value rarely exceeds 35 cents, we recommend that the duty be modified to an ad valorem rate on the basis of chemical compounds or chemical acids, n. s. p. f. Respectfully,


Chalk, when ground, bolted, precipitated naturally or artificially, or otherwise prepared, whether in the form of cubes, blocks, sticks or disks, or otherwise, including tailors', billiard, red, or French chalk, one cent per pound; manufactures of chalk not specially provided for in this section,

twenty-five per centum ad valorem. See M. Ewing Fox & Co., page 324.

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Mr. TIRRELL. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I wish to call your attention

The CHAIRMAN. What industry do you speak for?

Mr. TIRRELL. Stickney, Tirrell & Co.; Paris white, coming under two different articles in the schedule.

First, I will take chalk. Please refer to the present tariff under the free list, page 71, section 531, and page 2, section 13. Please note that H. R. 20182, page 21, section 84, continues chalk on the free list, but the wording of section 17, page 4, would impose a duty on "Chalk, natural,” of 10 per cent ad valorem. Eliminate the word "natural" in H. R. 20182 and, as relates to chalk, it is consistent. There are no deposits of chalk on this continent from which the American manufacturer can obtain his supply of raw material, so that it must be imported from Europe-mostly from England and France-paying the ocean freights on same. The advantage to the foreign manufacturer under these conditions is obvious, as he has his whiting factory adjoining the chalk quarry. It is unquestionably most beneficial to all concerned in this country that chalk"crude or natural chalk”—shall be continued on the free list; we understand this to be your intention. In this section-17--please note that chalk, ground or bolted, becomes by this process of manufacture whiting, and should carry the same rate of duty as whiting and Paris white. We would suggest, to avoid confusion, that the following be stricken out of section 17, page 4, line 24, viz: “Natural ground or bolted, ten per centum ad valorem.” Also permit us to call your attention to H. R. 20182, page 20, section 74, line 14, "French chalk, powdered, washed, or pulverized.”. By this process it becomes whiting and should carry the same duty as whiting and Paris white. Chalk—"crude, natural”—whether English or French,


reduced to powdered form by any process of manipulation, becomes whiting and Paris white.

"Whiting" and Paris white" are commercial terms and refer to merchandise produced principally from crude or natural chalk. A ton of chalk will not make a ton of whiting or Paris white. It requires from 2,700 to 2,800 pounds of the crude material to make 2,000 pounds of whiting or Paris white. The freight and handling charges on this 700 to 800 pounds per ton of waste reduces by so much the duty protection. We have no knowledge of any demand or request from the American consumer for a reduction in the present duty of one-fourth of 1 cent per pound. Please refer to the present tariff, page 5, section 54. Also please refer to H. R. 20182, page 18, section 65, proposing reduction to one-tenth of 1 cent per pound. The Government has imposed a duty on whiting and Paris white since 1816, and under any and all conditions never less than the present duty, and during most of this period the duty has ranged from one-half to 1 cent per pound, except from July, 1846, to July, 1862, when the "bars were let down,” resulting in wide and violent fluctuations in prices, caused by short or oversupply in importations and ruling rates in ocean freights. "Corners were of frequent occurrence and the very conditions which dealers and consumers seek to avoid were always present, creating an element of uncertainty. During this period the industry languished in this country. The universal sentiment expressed by dealers and consumers is that prices under the present rate of one-fourth of 1 cent per pound are satisfactory and that what is most desired is stability and uniformity of price—which is secured to them by competition among the American manufacturers--and the avoidance of fluctuations certain to prevail under a tariff that would eliminate the American manufacturer. The present tariff is not prohibitive, although very little whiting and Paris white is imported. This is because of the low rate of prices of the American manufacturer. There is no trust or combination in the business. There have been no fortunes made by the whiting manufacturers. Competition among American manufacturers is, and always has been, intense. The margin of profit to the American manufacturer is so small that freight rates in this country largely determine the market in which the consumer places his orders.

Consumption of whiting and Paris white in this country, based on the statistics of 1911, is about 100,000 tons yearly. If the entire amount were imported under the proposed tariff rate, the Government would receive about $200,000 in duties and the loss to labor in this country would be about $500,000 to $600,000 per annum.

Labor is all able-bodied men and the scale of wages in this country ranges from $1.65 to $3 per day, the same being somewhat over 50 per cent higher than for similar labor in Europe.

The cost of chalk and labor to the European manufacturer is from $4.50 to $5.50 per ton less than to the American manufacturer, so that the present rate of one-fourth of 1 cent per pound duty on whiting and Paris white is protecting the American laborer only and does not contribute to the American whiting manufacturer's margin of profit. It is by superior methods of manufacturing we are able to maintain

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