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In the following table I give the range of wages, but for comparative purposes use the maximum figures:
Comparative weekly earnings.
Women.. Saggar makers. Mold makers. Packers. Laborers:
Fine work. Printers... Transferers. Gilders:
Men (fine work)..
The table following gives the actual piecework prices paid in certain of the German factories. The price given indicates the net prices paid for the completed article. It is the practice in some, if not of the German factories to deduct percentage for the use of the machinery, steam, etc. In some cases as much as 15 per cent is charged for this service.
Comparative piecework prices.
6-inch, plain, deep.
Thin. Cups only:
2 and 24 inch.
The following is a comparative table of the materials used in Austria:
Labor--Comparative weekly earnings.
4 06- 6.09 2.03- 4.87
4.06- 6.09 2.03– 4.06
None. 4. 46- 7.10 2.84-8. 12 3.26- 8. 12
7.10 8. 12 8.12
3.26- 6.09 2.64- 3. 65 7.20- 8.00
6.09 3.65 8.00
20.00 None. 22.00
None. 2.64- 3. 65 3.65- 8. 12 4.06- 8. 12 3. 25- 4.06
2. 43- 4.06 2.03- 2.44 3.65-10.15 4.06- 6.09 1.60- 3. 65
Men.. Pressers. Throwers. Turners. Kiln placers:
Women. Sagger makers. Mold makers.. Packers. Laborers:
Women. Painters. Printers. Transferrers. Gilders:
Men (fine gold work)..
30.00 None. 27.50 22.00 18.00
.091 .06 .051 . 13 .111 . 10 .05 .05
10-inch. 12-inch. 14-inch.
73 1.70 3.75 1.55
.33 1.00 2.00 1.121 .75
2 and 24 inch.
On the Continent of Europe pottery is made very largely by female labor. As stated before, the American potter employs on an average of 19 females, women and girls, to 100 males, men and boys. England employs 80 females to 100 males, while in Germany in many of the factories 300 females to 100 males are employed.
Briefly summarizing the results of my investigations, I find:
First. That it is impossible to show with absolute accuracy the actual difference in the cost of production of pottery wares at home and abroad. The figures I have secured represent what would be a comparatively accurate presentation, if the work was all done by journeymen, working under similar conditions, but such is not the
The difference in cost, represented by the figures contained in report, is great, but when the difference in conditions is considered, the apprentices, the hours worked, the amount of female and child labor on the one hand, and the regulations of the American trade-unions on the other, a greater difference actually exists than is possible to express in figures.
Second. That the cost of producing pottery ware differs to a great extent in the several European countries, the cost being largest in England, decreasing in the order of the countries named: Germany, Belgium, and Holland, in the production of earthenware, and England, France, Germany, and Austria, in the order named, in the production of china.
Third. That the facts and figures relative to the producing cost of English earthenware being full and accurate, only as above stated, on a basis of journeymen's wages, indicate that the total cost in America is about 78 per cent higher than the total English cost.
Fourth. That by using the several elements of English cost as a basis the costs in the several continental countries can be closely approximated for comparison with the American cost figures.
Fifth and finally. - That in the last analysis is the rate of wages per hour, earned by all the pottery employees in the various countries, is the final comparison of wage cost. The figures of the various foreign countries are based upon the assumption that the operatives must necessarily work approximately the full number of hours to constitute a day's work. I have, however, made some allowances for lost time.
Although the rate of wages and the actual amount of wages earned differs very greatly in the several countries, compared with the United States, these differences PARAGRAPHS 92-94-POTTERY.
do not account for the still greater difference in the rate per hour earned. The
Average rate of wages.
0825 England. .11 Belgium.
0913 Holland. Austria. 086 Japan...
.025 All of which is respectfully submitted.
STATEMENT OF GEORGE KOLB, OF NEW YORK. Mr. KOLB. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, Mr. Seigal and I, as chairman of the committee, would like to present this brief.
The CHAIRMAN. Do you desire just to present your brief?
Mr. KOLB. I think I would like to read it and present some samples. Hon Oscar W. UNDERWOOD,
Chairman Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. Sir: Under the present tariff act and all previous ones back to the Wilson bill of August, 1894, the domestic potteries have been protected by an apparent nominal duty of 55 per cent on white and 60 per cent on decorated china upon importation into the United States, but the plain and incontrovertible fact is that the actual protection amounts to as high as 120.91 per cent. Tables showing just how there figures are arrived at are herewith shown, based on importations of various German china laid down in Baltimore as a central distributing point:
EXHIBIT A. One case containing 18 dozen decorated German china cuspidors, at 3.25 marks, equals 771 cents a dozen, $13.91.
Weight, 572 pounds; measure, 35 cubic feet.
On the basis of 1912 ocean freight rates, it cost $16.82 to land $13.91 worth of china cuspidors in Baltimore. Attention is called to the fact that in the present year, 1913, the ocean freight rates are 31.6 per cent higher than given in this illustration and exhibits.
Attached hereto and made part of this brief are other illustrations marked "Exhibits A to P."
These illustrations serve to show the exorbitant character of the present tariff on chinaware and how, owing to the value of the cases and packing being dutiable at the rate of the contents plus the geographical protection, the domestic potters have been so favored far and beyond all reason for revenue and all protection of "infant industry” as to steadily drive certain lines of import chinaware entirely from the market. The leading potteries in this country are continually adding to their output and building new and larger kilns to take care of the enormous business they are absorbing.
By reference to the illustration above it will be noted that while the actual value of the merchandise is $13.91, the cost of the case, which is $2.40, is 17.26 per cent of the