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it around them this way, year after year. They are a deserving class of poor but industrious people, living cheaply on their own gardens, and sell their manna when they need money. The world's production and supply of manna does not exceed half a million pounds annually; take out 50,000 pounds of crude shipped to America, and the balance is boiled down to 150,000 pounds of mannit, the refined manna, which plays an important role in the health of many people elsewhere, and would be better for our own people than the present use of crude manna.

We therefore respectfully petition your honorable committee to place mannit in the same specific classification as manna on the free list; that is, to have paragraph 620 instead of reading “manna," read “manna and mannit,' thereby benefiting and encouraging the consumer, without injuring any industry or merchant, and without depriving the Government of revenue. Respectfully submitted.

FERDINAND COCORULLO, Importer. Endorsed by the Italian Chamber of Commerce in New York.




Cleveland, January 6, 1913. . SIR: We respectfully ask that paragraph 6 be changed by adding the following: "Tartrate of lime" (after argols).

The paragraph would then read:

"Argols, or crude tartar, or wine lees crude, and tartrate of lime, 5 per cent ad valorem; tartars and lees crystals, or partly refined argols, containing not more than 90 per cent of bitartrate of potash, and tartrate of soda or potassa, or Rochelle salts, 3 cents per pound; containing more than 90 per cent of bitartrate of potash, 4 cents per pound; cream of tartar and patent tartar, 5 cents per pound.”

"Tartrate of lime” is a by-product in the manufacture of cream of tartar, and is the raw material in the manufacture of tartaric acid; hence it bears the same relation to tartaric acid as argols to cream of tartar, and, in our opinion, should come under the same classification, and be subject to the same rate of duty. It has not been heretofore specifically classed. Respectfully,

RALPH L. FULLER, Secretary. Hon. O. W. UNDERWOOD, Chairman Committee on Ways and Means,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.





The witness was duly sworn by the chairman.

Mr. DIPPEL. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I represent the C. Tennent Sons & Co., of New York City. We are the selling agents of the Norwegian Hydroelectric Nitrogen Co. (Ltd.), of Norway, and the article which I desire to bring to your attention is nitrate of ammonia. Under the present tariff it is not specially provided for, and consequently pays a duty under the blanket paragraph No. 3 of 25 per cent ad valorem. Under House bill 20182, paragraph 8, a duty of three-quarters of a cent per pound is provided, which, of course, we think is a reasonable rate when the article is to be used for explosive purposes. Up to the present time it has been used merely for explosive purposes, in the manufacture of permissible powders—that is, for explosive purposes-and in a limited way in the manufacture of nitrous oxide, which is commonly known aslaughing gas."

Since the bill was drawn, however, a wonderful advance in the chemical industries of the world has taken place through the synthetic process for the manufacture of nitric acid and ammonia, which has made it possible now to manufacture nitrate of ammonia at a price which will permit of its being utilized as a fertilizing material if it is admitted free of duty. It contains 35 per cent of nitrogen, which is equivalent to about 42 per cent of ammonia, and in this concentrated form it is most valuable as a fertilizer. In fact, nitrogen in the form of nitrates is the most available of any form of nitrogen, as detailed in Farmers Bulletin No. 44, on page 15, which bulletin was issued by the United States Department of Agriculture; and that bulletin dwells at some length on nitrogen, particularly on nitrogen in the form of nitrates.

In the Southern States, to show you how much of this fertilizing material is consumed in the country-in the Southern States the consumption of fertilizers for 1911 was approximately 4,250,000 tons, of which about 106,000 tons was nitrogen, taken out at 100 per cent; that is to say, the amount of nitrate of soda would be equal to about 530,000 tons in the Southern States alone.

Mr. William H. Bowker, of Boston, conected with the American Agricultural Chemical Co., one of the oldest and best-informed men in the fertilizer trade, in his publication, entitled “ Plant Food its Sources, Conservation, and Preparation," writes in reference to nitrogen:

Nitrogen is so rare an article, the commercial sources of it being so few that he who will discover a cheap commercial process for obtaining it from the atmosphere and combining it in a form that will be servicable to crop production not only will be a great benefactor and inventor but will change the economy of living on this earth.”

This is just what the Norwegian Co. has done. That was written about two or three years ago, but they have done exactly what he refers to here.

The CHAIRMAN. Is that cyanamide ?
Mr. DIPPEL. No; it is not cyanamide.

We have presented briefs, giving in detail full particulars, which we will be glad to have you incorporate into the record, and we do not think any lengthy argument is necessary to show the committee the great value which will accrue to the agricultural interests of the country if this article is placed on the free list.

In order to make it obtainable to the American farmer all duty must be eliminated, otherwise it can not compete with nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, and other ammoniates for fertilizing purposes which are at the present time on the free lists.

Congress has always been in sympathy with the free importation of fertilizing materials, and, as far as I know, no duty is at this time imposed on an article used for this purpose.

In the Payne-Aldrich bill of 1909 these fertilizing materials, namely, sulphate of ammonia, basic slag, cyanamide, and lime nitrogen were all placed on the free list, while prior to the passage of that act rates of duty of three-tenths of a cent a pound and $1 per ton and 25 per cent, respectively, prevailed.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the amount of importation of this product?

Mr. DIPPEL. The importation now is limited, because it is only used for explosive purposes. You are speaking of nitrate of ammonia ?

The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Is cyanamide on the free list now? Mr. DIPPEL. Cyanamide is now on the free list, and also nitrate of lime. In fact, there are no fertilizing materials that I know that are not on the free list. If nitrate of ammonia is placed on the free list, our company can import it to compete with nitrate of soda and other ammoniates; and we feel that after knowing the facts and giving due consideration thereto you honorable committee will put it on an equal basis with these articles.


New York, January 16, 1913. Honorable COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIRS: We, the United States agents for the Norwegian Hydro-Electric Nitrogen Co. (Ltd.), do respectfully submit for your consideration the following in the contemplated revision of the tariff:

Nitrate of ammonia. This material has been imported for several years for the purpose of being used in the manufacture of safety explosives and also in a limited way in the manufacture of nitrous oxide. Under paragraph 8 (H. R. 20182) a duty is proposed of three-quarters of a cent per pound, which, at the present time, is a reasonable rate of duty on the material when nitrate of ammonia is used for either of the aforesaid purposes. We do, however, respectfully claim that,

Nitrate of ammonia when used for fertilizing purposes should be placed on the free list for the following reasons:

The development of the synthetical process for the manufacture of nitric acid has made it possible to manufacture nitrate of ammonia in Norway at a price 80 low that it can be used as a fertilizer. Nitrogen in the form of nitrates is the most valuable form in which nitrogen is obtainable for fertilizing purposes, and the ever-increasing demand in the United States, as evidenced by the increased importations of nitrate of soda, shows conclusively that the United States is not able to produce sufficient nitrogen for the requirements of the country. In the Southeastern States-Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, and Mississippi-the consumption


of fertilizers for the year 1910 were, according to the 1910 United States census advance reports, 3,761,972 tons, a large percentage of which was in the form of nitrogen. The demand for nitrates from the Northeastern States and Pacific coast is also on the increase, and the consumption in the entire United States will undoubtedly continue to increase steadily as the yield for each acre of cultivated land in the United States, on the average, is only about one-half of the yield obtained from most European soils of equal quality. Consequently it is absolutely essential to secure fertilizer materials to be applied to the agricultural lands in the United States. The sources of supply in the United States are mainly from the waste substances of the slaughterhouses, such as dried blood and tankage, which, naturally, are limited.

Nitrate of ammonia contains 35 per cent nitrogen and represents the most concentrated form of nitrogen as a nitrate. This material, on account of its highly concentrated form, will be a great benefit to the American farmers and consumers.

The Norwegian Hydro-Electric Nitrogen Co. (Ltd.) can manufacture nitrate of ammonia to compete with nitrate of soda and other ammoniates, if it is admitted free of duty. It is being used abroad in an experimental way, and the company informs us that they are prepared to manufacture 60,000 tons, of which 30,000 tons can be available for export to this side.

We commend this to the attention of your honorable committee, and we feel that the benefits to be gained by the American farmer by the use of this article can not be overestimated. Yours, faithfully,

E. O. LEMON, Vice President.


Nero York, January 29, 1913. Honorable COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. Subject: Nitrate of ammonia, which we think should now be placed upon the free list in the interest of the American agriculturalist.

DEAR SIRS : We desire to supplement our brief of January 16 on this subject.

Nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash are the constituents most likely to be deficient in soils or most quickly exhausted by the production and removal of crops. They are known as essential fertilizing constituents, and a value of commercial fertilizer is determined almost exclusively by the amount of form of the nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash which it contains.

The Farmers' Bulletin, No. 44, page 12, United States Department of Agriculture, says about nitrogen, “Nitrogen is the most expensive of the three essential fertilizing elements. It exists in fertilizers in three distinct forms, viz, as an organic matter, as ammonia, and as nitrate."

(1) Organic nitrogen.The most abundant supply of nitrogen occurs in organic forms, and the most available source of organic nitrogen, from the standpoint of uniformity in composition, richness in the constituents, and availability are dried blood, dried meat, and concentrated tankage, which are produced in large quantities in slaughterhouses; also dried fish, refuse from fish oil and fishcanning establishments; also the residue of cotton seed after the oil has been extracted.

(2) Nitrogen as ammonia.—Nitrogen of ammonia exists in commercial products in the form of sulphate of ammonia; it is more readily available than nitrogen in organic forms. Ammonia nitrogen is derived to-day almost exclusively from sulphate of ammonia, the commercial product of which contains about 20 per cent of nitrogen; this form of nitrogen is readily converted in the soil into nitrate,

(3) Nitrogen as nitrate.—Nitrogen as nitrate exists in commercial products to-day in the form of nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash, and nitrate of lime. These, like the ammonia compounds, are extremely soluble, and the nitrate contained in them is readily available as food for plants. The nitrogen in this form is directly and immediately available, no further change being necessary. The main source of nitrate nitrogen is nitrate of soda; this Chile saltpeter contains 15.5 per cent nitrogen.


Nitrate of lime has been placed on the market the last few years. It contains 13 per cent nitrogen, and is produced from synthetic nitric acid and limestone. The development of the synthetic nitric acid and ammonia industry has made it possible to manufacture nitrate of ammonia at a price low enough to permit its use in Europe, and it could also become available to the American farmer in the United States in competition with Chile saltpeter if put upon the free list.

The consumption of fertilizers in the Southern States was in 1911 approximately 4,250,000 tons, containing about 106,000 tons of nitrogen. For 1910 the consumption, according to the 1910 United States Census Advance Report, was 3,761,972 tons. The demand for nitrogen has been increasing very rapidly over the entire United States and must continue to gain as the demand for fertilizers increases; for example, the consumption of sulphate of ammonia in the United States in the year 1900 was 36,011 tons, and for 1911, 230,743 tons. It is also a fact that the importation of nitrate of soda from Chile shows an enormous increase over the corresponding period.

One of the greatest problems to be solved in the United States is how to increase the yield per acre of cultivated land under the various crops. To illustrate: Germany: Bushels. United States:

Bushels. Rye


16 Barley 38 Barley

211 Oats


25 Potatoes 158 Potatoes

83 England obtains a little more per acre than Germany. The difference in the output between the United States and European countries lies in the lavish use of fertilizers in Europe. All of the different kinds of fertilizers are now on the free list-nitrate of soda, nitrate of lime, sulphate of ammonia, tankage, fish scraps, etc.--and we now respectfully petition that nitrate of ammonia be placed upon the free list, where, in all fairness, it seems to belong.

As shown by the foregoing, the economic production of nitrate of ammonia is of recent origin; the new industry has come into existence since the last tariff act. Nitrate of ammonia has been imported into the United States in limited quantities for the explosive industry. The argument here is exactly the same as with nitrate of soda now imported from Chile which enters into the fertilizer industries and is on the free list. Yours, truly,

Wm. J. DIPPEL, Secretary.


Alumina, hydrate of, or refined bauxite, containing not more than sixtyfour per centum of alumina, four-tenths of one cent per pound; containing more than sixty-four per centum of alumina, six-tenths of one cent per pound. Alum, alum cake, patent alum, sulphate of alumina, and aluminous cake, containing not more than fifteen per centum of alumina and more than three-tenths of one per centum of iron oxide, one-fourth of one cent per pound; alum, alum cake, patent alum, sulphate of alumina, and aluminous cake, containing more than fifteen per centum of alumina, or not more than threetenths of one per centum of iron oxide, three-eighths of one cent per pound.




Mr. PURVES. I have the honor to represent before you, gentlemen, the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co., in whose behalf I request your attention in connection with the proposed reduction of the duty

Mr. HARRISON (interposing). Please give your name.
Mr. PURVES. A. M. Purves.
Mr. LONGWORTH. To what paragraph are you referring ?


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