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and Androscoggin, which run nearly being almost entirely engrossed, on the south, in directions nearly parallel and one hand, by the cutting of timber in equidistant; while, as they approach the the interior, its transportation to the sea, a number of smaller streams flow mills at the falls of the rivers, the sawin short courses between them, subdivi- ing and exportation of it to the different ding the coast into many capes and pe- ports of the Union and the West Indies; ninsulas, whose number is still further and, on the other hand, by the fisheries increased by bays and coves which set along the coast.

The increase of popup into the land every few miles, and ulation, however, with the rapid disapfringe the southern outline of the state pearance of the forests in the immediate along its whole extent of 221 miles, from vicinity of streams, together with the Kittery point to Quoddy head. The diffusion of just views of the importance northern part of the map presents count- and methods of agriculture, have piroless small streams pouring into the main duced great and extensive improvetrunks of the rivers above-mentioned, of ments; and the benefits resulting to which they are the tributaries ; while the state are already incalculably great. still above them, flowing with a long Manufactures have also been introduced sweep, from north to east and southeast, to a considerable extent, while the minthe St. John's, the principal stream of eral resources have begun to be develthe state, encircles the whole, marking oped, as iron, slate, marble, and espeout the present northern boundary, cially limestone, which is celebrated for till it crosses the eastern boundary, and its excellent quality. Literary instituflows on through the neighboring Brit- tions have been multiplied and well supish province of New Brunswick. ported, and the common-school system

The valley of the Saco embraces 650 has been placed on a liberal foundation. square miles, that of the Androscoggin Trade is much favored by the nature 3,300, the Kennebec 5,280, and the of the coast and the character of some Penobscot 8,200. The smaller streams of the principal rivers; and already great in the south part of the state, before al- | improvements have been made by the luded to, are the Piscataqua, Sheepscot, construction of roads, railroads, and ca Damariscotta, Muscongus, Union, Nar- nals, and the establishment of steamboat ragaugus, and Machias.

The region lines. The principal ports and places of between the Penobscot and the Kenne- trade are Portland, Hallowell, Bangor, bec, a distance of fifty miles, is remarh-Calais, Brunswick, and Belfast and ably well supplied with streams and in- Saco, Machias, and Eastport, have also lets, so that almost every town has a excellent harbors. The exports are navigable channel of its own.

chiefly timber, lumber, dried fish, salt The soil along the Atlantic border, pork and beef, lime, and pot and pearl extending from ten to twenty miles back ashes. from the coast, is generally poor, al- The business of cutting, transporting, though varying from sand to gravel, and manufacturing timber, includes maclay and loam, producing small crops of ny laborious operations, and occupies a giass, Indian corn, rye, &c. The next considerable part of the population. belt of land, from fifty to one hundred Trees are felled in the winter, drawn miles wide, is of better quality, and by oxen to the nearest water-course, and yields, in addition to these articles, left upon the ice, marked with the axe wheat, oats, flax, and hemp, as well as in such a manner that they may be recmost of the northern plants. The tract ognised by the agents of the cwner, stabetween the Kennebec and Penobscot tioned on the lower parts of the main is remarkably favorable to grazing, and, river. In the spring, at the melting of when well cultivated, yields forty bush- the deep snows, the floods carry down els of corn, and from twenty to forty the timber with the broken ice; and, bushels of wheat, to the acre. Agricul- after a long voyage, every log is drifted | ture was greatly neglected for many to the falls of the great stream on whose years, the attention of the inhabitants | branches it has grown. Here numerous


mills a.e kept in active operation by the of cellar-walls and chimneys are found. powerful currents, which bring down as also broken kettles, wedges, &c. At abundant materials to employ them. the head of the bay are the hulks of two Above these are long rafts, or floating or three large vessels sunk in the water; bridges, called buoys, formed of logs, and on the shore, the ruins of an old connected strongly together, and stretch- gristmiil, where the present one stands. ed from bank to bank, to stop the float- On the islands opposite the town, are ing timber. Men are continually em- other ruins, the history of which is unployed with boats, in the spring, in known, as is also that of those already bringing it to the shore as it comes mentioned. The following interesting down; and great care is taken to dis- facts afford a guide to their origin. pose of each stick according to the di- In the year 1605, Captain Weymouth, rection of the owner, whose name is of Plymouth, in England, returned from known from the mark. The millers, an unsuccessful voyage made for the diswith their circular saws and other ma-covery of a northwest passage, bringing chines, saw whole rafts of logs into with him five American savages, whom millions of planks, boards, shingles, he had taken on board in the Penobscot staves, headings, &c.; and vessels, lying river. Sir Fernando Gorges felt so much at the foot of the falls, readily receive interest in these men from a new world, their cargoes of lumber from the doors that, to use his own language, he “seized of the mills, slid down upon their decks upon" them, and had three of them in and into their holds ; and, hoisting sail, his own family for three years; and steer away for many a distant harbor. “this accident must be acknowledged as

HISTORY.—The Jesuits in Lower Can- the means, under God, of putting on foot ada early began their intercourse with and giving life to all our plantations.” the Indian tribes in Maine, and soon He obtained much information from the established a mission on the Penobscot, Indians, and became, from that time, which, according to custom, became a deeply interested in schemes for the setcentre of intrigue and of military oper- tlement of the New World, and an active ations against the New England settle- member of the Plymouth company.

It was at length cut off by an The first settlement was attempted by expedition from Massachusetts, by which, Englishmen, on the Kennebec, at the in a sudden attack, the Jesuit chief, early date of 1609, the same year as that Ralle, was killed. The remnants of of Jamestown. King James having, by the Penobscot tribe are, to this day, request, granted a patent, in 1606, divichiefly Roman catholics. Previously to ding the coast into North and South Virthe landing in Massachusetts bay, a col- ginia, this part of Maine was embraced ony was commenced on the coast of in the former, which extended from the Maine, by Gorges and Mason, under a 38th to the 45th degree of north latitude. grant from the council of Plymouth, While Gosnold, with Captain Smith for England, to whom the territory had been his agent, commenced planting a colony granted by King James I., in 1606. at Jamestown, Captains George Pophamn The first settlements made, at Damaris- and Raleigh Gilbert led another to the cotta and a few other points on the coast, mouth of the Kennebec. They landed were soon abandoned ; and few traces near the island of Monheagan, a few are to be found of any of them. Few leagues east of that river, and soon after inotives were offered to colonists, to entered the stream, and stopped at an counterbalance the inhospitable nature island near its eastern shore, now formof the country, the severity of the cli- ing a part of Georgetown. As Chiefinate, and the exposure to interference Justice Popham had procured an accufrom the Indians and French.

rate survey of the river the year before, Two or three miles from the road it is probable that this place was chosen that leads between Linniken's bay and in England, before the sailing of the exDamariscolta river, where was formerly pedition. an Indian burying-place, the remains But the history of this colony is short




and melancholy. As it did not arrive siderably with the savages for beaveruntil August, there was not sufficient skins, &c. time to complete the necessary prepara

In the southwestern parts of the state tions for the winter, which set in early are several scenes of the later and more and with rigor. A fort was erected, but permanent settlements. many arrangements, important to the Pegipscot Falls.-Near Lewistown, comfort of the people, could not be on the Androscoggin river, is a remarkmade ; and, as the ships returned in able cataract, where the current breaks December, about half of the number through a range of mountains, and pours embarked in them, apprehending severe a broken ledge of rocks. The sufferings from the cold and the want of scene is wild and striking, and derives food. Part of the buildings and provis- an additional interest from its connexion ions were soon after destroyed by fire; with the history of a tribe of Indians and Captain Popham died before spring. long since extinct. According to a traThe first ships brought the news of the de- dition current in the neighborhood, the cease of the chief-justice; and the pain- upper parts of this stream were formerly ful intelligence of the death of a brother the residence of the Rockmego Indians, rendered it necessary for Captain Gilbert who inhabited a fine and fertile plain to return to England. The remaining through which the river winds. The colonists, becoming disheartened, aban- situation was remote, and they had never doned their enterprise ; and, the place engaged in any hostilities with the whites, being deserted, the Plymouth company but devoted themselves to hunting and did not repeat the experiment.

fishing. The ground still contains many Gorges, one of the most intelligent remains of their weapons, utensils, &c. and devoted friends of America among They were, however, at length persuathe members of the Plymouth colony, ded to engage in a hostile incursion endeavored in vain to induce them to against Brunswick, at that time an ex- 1 send out a second colony. Unwilling, posed frontier settlement; and the whole however, to see the object wholly aban-tribe embarked in their canoes to acdoned, he engaged in private enterprises complish the enterprise. The stream for trading with the natives and fishing; flows gently on for a great distance, unand, in 1616, sent out a party, under the til it approaches very near to the falls; command of Richard Vines, to explore and this was the spot appointed for the this part of the coast. They penetrated night encampment. Night set in before into the country, and were kindly treat- their arrival ; and they sent two men ed; but they found the people suffering forward to make fires upon the banks a from the smallpox, and the hostile at- | little above the cataract. For some untacks of the Tarrantines, a nation east | known reason, the fires were kindled of the Penobscot. They met with the below the falls; and the Indians, being Indians who had been in England, and thus deceived concerning their situation, received special marks of favor from did not bring up their canoes to the them. On the approach of winter, which shore in season, and were carried over they had agreed to spend in the country, the rocks, and the tribe all destroyed tothey chose a spot on the western side of gether. Saco river, at its mouth. Some of them It was along the valley of the Kennetook up a hundred acres of land on lease bec that the expedition, formed in the from Vines, one of which was for a thou- winter of 1775–6, for the capture of sand years, at the annual rent of two Quebec, proceeded. The hardships they shillings and one capon, after the pay- endured were very severe, as the counment of a previous compensation. The try at that time was wholly destitute of lease, partly in Latin, was executed in inhabitants through almost the whole 1638. A considerable trade was carried route, after leaving the seacoast, until on here for some years, the colonists approaching the valley of the St. Lawemploying themselves both in agricul- rence. The plan had been formed and ture and in fishing, besides trading con-! adopted while the American army was

engaged in the siege of Boston, and The Nubble is a rocky point, four and General Montgomery was placed at the a half miles from York, and Cape Nedhead of it. Benedict Arnold was among dock lies beyond. While travelling the most active of the officers. After along this dreary country, the road passnumerous delays, caused by the difficul. es the site of an old fort or blockhouse, ties of navigation and transportation, built before Philip's war.

The Agacold and hunger, they arrived at the menticus hills form a range some disFrench settlements; but being unable tance west. to proceed with desirable rapidity, or to Lower WELLES.-There is a little cross the St. Lawrence immediately after harbor here, defended by a sandbar, with reaching its shore, the inhabitants had a narrow entrance under a rock; but it time to make preparations; and, instead is almosť dry at low water. of taking the city by surprise, and at WELLES.—The sea often breaks beauonce finding comfortable quarters, they tifully on the beach, in front of the tavwere able only to encamp on the heights ern. Porpoise point is just distinguishof Abraham, after scaling the precipitous able in the northeast, and the view of shore at Wolfe's cove, with an army be- the sea is fine and refreshing. tween them and the walls. This un- Three miles beyond is Breakneck hill, fortunate expedition failed, after losing over which falls a small stream, from the their commander, who was killed in an height of thirty feet, about forty yards unsuccessful attempt to gain the lower from the path. The old fort was half a town by a night attack, and Arnold, with mile beyond, or a quarter of a mile from a large division the forces, who were the church. This little fortress was once made prisoners in an assault on the up-attacked by five hundred Indians, who per town,

at first supposed, as was the fact, that The first newspaper in Maine was the men were absent from home. The printed on January 1, 1785. It was place was, however, very bravely and called the Falmouth Gazette and successfully defended by five women, Weekly Advertiser," and published at dressed in their husband's clothes. Falmouth (now Portland), by Benjamin PORTLAND. — The situation of this Titcomb and Thomas B. Wait, on a demy place is remarkably fine, occupying the sheet. Its name was changed to the ridge and side of a high point of land, “ Cumberland Gazette,” in 1786. The with a handsome though shallow bay on second was commenced in the same one side, and the harbor on the other. town, in 1790, called the “ Maine Ga- The anchorage is protected on every zette," by Benjamin Titcomb, and con- side by land, the water is deep, and the tinued till 1796; at which time there communication with the sea direct and were but three newspapers in Maine, convenient. Congress street runs along one of them at Hallowell

, and one at the ridge of the hill, and contains a Augusta. In 1810, there were eight number of very elegant private houses. newspapers, and, in 1850, fifty-six. There is also the town-hall, with the

The first daily paper was begun at market below, and a beautiful church, Portland, October 13, 1829, and called with granite columns,

The steps are the “Daily Courier;" and the second, fine blocks of granite, six by nine feet, the “Daily Evening Advertiser,” in brought from the quarry at Brunswick, 1831.

twenty-two miles di-tant. YORK.-There are some pleasant fields From the observatory, south and southabout this little place, but its size is in- west, are seen several distant eminences: significant, when compared with the an- among others, the Agamenticus hills; ticipations formed of its destiny at the northwest are seen, in clear weather, the time of its first settlement; for the lofiy ridges and peaks of the White hills ground was laid out for streets, and the in New Hampshire, which are discovdivisions of the land still retain much of ered at sea often before the nearer land the regular form given it by the first sur-appears in sight. veyors. Population, about 3,500

Cape Elizabeth is the highland on the

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