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Memoir respecting the Waldenses. rushing torrent is generally heard ; requires, to useful labour for their and sometimes, especially at Pral, the subsistence. A robbery seldom or dreadful avalanche overwhelms an in- never occurs in the valleys. Assured dividual on the road, or a family in of this, I felt no anxiety, though once their cottage.

overtaken by night near the woods, I now proceed to some cursory re. and entirely at a loss which of the marks on the character and manners numerous intersecting hy-ways to of the Waldenses, premising that it choose. My companion and myself is not at all intended to go through walked fearlessly along till we perthe round of mortal virtues, and shew ceived a light, and got an obliging how far they are respected or exem- Vaudois to attend us home. plified by the people, but merely to We find, indeed, more than mere state a few particulars of which I was honesty among them; even a geneinformed, or which fell under person- rous disinterestedness, though so poor. al observation.

I could not prevail upon a man at one They preserve from their forefa. time, upon a child at another, to take thers a sincere respect for pure and any reward for a trifling service they undefiled religion. Public worship had rendered ; and I recollect seeing is very generally and conscientiously a soldier, who offered himself to the attended ; and when I had an oppor- King of Sardinia instead of his brother tunity of witnessing a communion- or some other individual, unaccusday, the church was quite full, and tomed to war, who might be required the behaviour of the communicants to serve. solemn and pleasing. * Nor is their Hospitality is another very pleasing religion wholly confined to their tem- trait, and exercised in such a manner, ples : on the Sunday evenings in win- that when you quit their roof, the ter several families assemble in a sta- Vaudois seem as if they had received, ble (partly induced by the intense and not conferred a favour. Their hucold), and unite in religious exercises, manity is also, on many occasions, as reading the scriptures, and singing conspicuous. If any one is ill, the psalms and hymns.

neighbours cheerfully and gratuitousThe social duties they also exercise ly sit up at night in the sick chamber, to a very considerable extent. For and there is even a sort of dispute instance, though more frequently per- who shall pay the first and the greatsecuted than protected by their sove. est attentions. In case of an accident reigns, the Waldenses are loyal sub- that a poor person has met with, a jects. When the king of Sardinia sernion is sometimes preached, and a was lately restored to his crown, they collection made. But this kindness sang “ Te Deum” on the occasion, as is by no means confined to their own well as presented an address of con- friends. Whilst the Catholics around gratulation : and when, at a former usually relieve the necessitous of their period, Louis the Fourteenth's army own religion, the Vaudois give what invaded Turin, Victor Amadeus 11. they can spare to the destitute of eiwas advised to rely upon their loyal. ther communion. There is one illusty, and take refuge in Rora : he did trious instance, in particular, of their so, and remained scéure sill Prince humanity, which should not pass unEugene came to his relief.

noticed. When the Austrians and They are also remarkably honest. Russians, under Marshal Suwarrow, Whilst the immediate vicinity (the compelled the French army to retreat, plain) is infested with robbers and as. three hundred wounded French sol. sassins, these valuable men devote diers received all the assistance, with themselves, with that industry and respect to medicines, &c. that could patience which the nature of the soil be given; and at the request of M.

Rustan, their Minister, the inhabi

tants of Bobbi carried these poor men * Religious instruction is very carefully

on their shoulders over the mountains instilled before young persons become for to the French territory-a most painthe first time communicants. I was told ful task, as those can well attest who that a young lady of Turin had been four have taken the tedious and difficult months at a relation and minister's house, road of the mountains from Piedmont passing through a course of religious stu- to Dauphine. Their conduct appears dies,

to have been a pure act of humanity,


Memoir respecting the Waldenses.

135 not the result of any partiality to the of self-defence as of pleasure. After French; yet, but for the generous Easter the inhabitants of the several interposition of Prince Bagration with parishes (each body with an elected the Commander in Chief, it would king at its head) receive each other have exposed them and their proper with peculiar respect, fire at a mark ty to considerable danger. The Aus- with a musket ball, and afterwards trians could not withhold their admi- adjudge rewards to the most skilful. ration ; and the French General This tends to cement the union of the (Suchet) published an order of the several parishes. Their marriages, day for the very purpose of acknow. baptisms, &c. usually take place in ledging such a singular instance of winter, and then they often indulge benevolence.

in their favourite amusement of dancI will mention but one moral fea- ing. In 1711, a synod prohibited ture besides, and that is, their grati- dancing, but the prolibition does not tude. They have been long indebted seem to have been attended with suc(as will be seen in the sequel) to our pation for its sympathy and protection, I will next describe what I am perand especially to a British Princess suaded will interest, I wish I could (their guardian angel, if we may so add gratify, benevolent persons in speak), for her munificence. These England--the state of their schools. benefits have never been forgotten : They were once flourishing, and the on the contrary, the pastors and peo- sum of six thousand livres of Pied. ple regard the English as their best montt was annually remitted from friends—in seasons of difficulty, their Holland for the purpose of supporting chief resource ;* and I remember I fifteen great, ninety little (or winter) was very forcibly struck with the re- and two Latin schools; part of the mark of the amiable wife of one of money being reserved however, for. their ministers, who told me, that the widows of ministers, for disabled they made a point of instilling into ministers, for the poor, and for an altheir children respect and estcem for lowance to five deans. The events the English from the very dawn of of the late war have entirely changed, reason in their minds.

this happy aspect of affairs. Since Having said thus much of some va- the year 1810, two thousand livres per luable qualities of the mind, a few annum only (100/. sterling) have been observations may be added respecting received from Holland; and as halfi zheir manners. They are in general the people had not the means of pay, very correct, such as one might anti-, ing, the schools have exceedingly decipate amongst a people well instruct.' clined, and even run the risk of comed, little used to intercourse with the plete decay. With the exception of world, and devoted to the laborious ihe Latin schools, however, they exoccupations of ploughmen, herdsmell, ist at present (barely exist, and but ill shepherds and vine-dressers. The late provided with teachers), as charitablo war, however, has in some degree persons in the valleys have hitherto injured them, as it obliged many paid for the poor. of their youth to become soldiers in They have been equally unfortuthe French service. There was also nate with regard to the pensions a fortress established by the French which Queen Mary II. granted to of late years, not far from St. Jean. thirteen schoolmasters; for this ro They have experienced, no doubt, source has also failed since 1797. It like most others, the melancholy truth is highly important that Christian beof the maxim, “ Evil communications nevolence should avail itself of the corrupt good manners." The princi- occasion here presented of benefiting pal amusement of the people has in the rising generation, both in grantitself something of the martial; it is ing such an allowance as shall procure their great ambition to be expert efficient teachers, and in suggesting marksmen; a circumstance to be the various improvements in system traced, probably as much to a motive which have lately taken place in the

* It is to the British representative they have confided their Memorial and interests at the present Congress of Vienua.

+ About 3001. sterling.

i The five senior ministers are always deans,


Memoir respecting the Waldenses. education of the poor in our own coun: and snow in winter, no place of sheltry.

ter and rest (the church standing or The next subject that claims atten- an isolated spot), before the service. tion is the condition of their ministers He fell, at length, a victim to his exand churches.

ertions, leaving a widow and seven Each of the thirteen parishes has a daughters, the eldest only fourteen settled minister; and to each parish years old, to lament so scvere a loss. several hamlets are annexed, in which The pecuniary resources for the supthere are also temples. Queen Mary port of so numerous a young family established what they term the royal are very sleuder indeed. When I subsidy, a grant of 400 livres (201.) stood near the grave and read this annually to each pastor; but from this simple inscription on a rude headfund nothing has been received since stone : “ 1814, J. D. 0. Pasteur et the year 1797. What they call the Juge;" and when I cntered his libranational subsidy, is the product of a ry and opened the books he had been collection in England about forty years used to read, and looked thoughtfully ago. Part of ibis is intended for the around the room which bad so often widows of ministers; and ministers witnessed the prayers of a father for themselves derive from it the annual bis family, and a pastor for his flock; sum of four hundred livres, which has this consideration that their circumbeen regularly received. It is ob- stances were so reduced, could not vious, from this statement, that those but awaken still deeper sympathy for pastors who have not private proper- this afflicted family. ty, must be in unhappy circumstan- It has been already stated that there ces; and indeed the royal subsidy hav- are thirteen parishes ; of these my ing failed, some have been reduced short residence only permitted me to to the painful necessity of borrowing see nine. The old chapel of St. Jean money of their respective flocks. had been destroyed by persons hostile

Few would imagine that persons to the principles of the Waldenses; of learning and taste are to be found but of late years they have, with the among them, and yet there are: their assistance of friends at Turin, built a education places them on the same, new church. This seems to confirm or nearly the same, level with the. what has been advanced of the segenerality of ministers in this country. rious view of the importance of reli

The Swiss Cantons, which have gion which reigns in the valleys. But ever shewn a friendly regard to the this is not all: they have likewise interests of the Waldenses, assisted erected a new church, almost wbolly them in this respect; and in 1729 an at their own expense, at St. GerEnglish lady settled a pension upon main,* an earthquake (which is no a student, which was paid through uncommon occurrence among them) the consistory of Amsterdam. Their having greatly injured the former one candidates were educated at Geneva in 1808. With regard to church goand Lausanne ; but I think I am cor- vernment, there is a moderator elected rect in stating that their pensions have at every synod; each church has a failed (the events of the late war bav. deacon, who attends to objects of ing introduced change and disorder charity; and several elders; the disinto every department), and that they cipline is less strict than formerly ; will experience difficulties in future, the liturgy used in public worship is on account of the expense of an aca- that of Neufchatel; the festivals obdemical education. I am sorry to say served are Christmas, Easter, Asceuthe case of at least some of the widows sion Day, and Pentecost.+ of deceased pastors is also distressing. Other particulars, with which either There are now six : one, who has a daughter, has only about 10l. a year -she had a son, a student at Lau

The United Brethren kindly advanced

something. sanne, who was compelled to serve

† All the offices of their church are in in the army: he afterwards died at French, which they often speak; but the home of his wounds. The late Mr. patvis of Piedmont is also prevaleut among O. had a very laborious parish in the them. The ancient Waldenses were Epismountains; often a long and fatiguingcopalians with respect to church governwalk; and then, after both the in- ment, and the sermons in Italian, or a lan. tense heat in summer, and the rain guage in some measure similar to it.

Memoir respecting the Waldenses.

151 personal observation or the informa- people a warm interest in the best tion of others has made me acquainted, affections of their fellow.christians. I forbear to mention in so brief a Me- Of this I am very sure, that if, inmoir, and therefore pass on to a hint stead of seeing their condition through or two as to the means of promoting the medium of an imperfect memoir, the welfare of this valuable class of they found themselves actually in the our fellow-christians. They are clear- valleys, and, holding a history of the ly in want of pecuniary aid; and such Vaudois in their hands, cast the eye is the benevolent disposition of Bri- around spots consecrated by the suffish Christians, that to mention this ferings of so many disciples of the fact is quite enough. Yet, however Lord Jesus, they would be filled with anxious that they should not be over- esteem for the people, and a desire to looked in this age of beneficence, I promote their happiness. The evenam fully aware, that, since there are ing before I quitted them, a solitary magnificent institutions in the coun- walk afforded me full scope to indulge try wbich have a much higher claim such a train of feelings :-a sacred upon Christian Jiberality, donations luxury it may well be termed, since are chiefly to be hoped for from per- the sensations of delight were really sons whose affluence enables them, such as neither the treasures of art after subscribing to larger societies, deposited in the Louvre, por the stuto spare something for others of an pendous views of nature unfolded in inferior description. Very many such the cantons of Switzerland, had pospersons are to be found ; and one sessed in an equal degree the magic cannot for a moment suppose that they to impart. All around seemed to have will permit this interesting people, so a tendency to foster the disposition ; eminently protected by the English a torrent rushed by on the left; the in the eighteenth, to be neglected in evening was so mild that the leaves the nineteenth century. There was scarcely stirred; and the summits of a time when the Waldenses did not the mountains, behind which the sun 80 much receive as impart benefits. had just set, appeared literally above Their college of Angrogne sent forth the clouds. The emotions produced zealous missionaries to convey pure by the scenery and recollections assoreligious knowledge to several parts ciated with it, will not be soon efof Europe, then involved in ignorance faced: it might be the last time I and superstition. They were, indeed, should see those mountains, which according to the import of their ar- had been so often the refuge of the morial bearings, a light shining amidst oppressed those churches, wherethe thick darkness.* If, in these latter doctrines of the gospel had been so days, something of the apcient splen- long and so faithfully maintained dour of their picty should, through and those friends, from whom a stran)divine grace, re-appear, those Chris- ger from a distant land had received tians will have reason to esteem them so many proofs of affectionate regard ! selves very happy, who, by their ge- Full of such thoughts as I walked nerous efforts, may be in some de along, I arrived at length at the house gree honoured as instruments of the of one of the pastors, to pass the revival. It is unquestionably the duty night. The next day he accompaof believers to endeavour to promote nied me to the limits of his parish, on and to pray for such a revival of vital the Col de Croix, which separates piety in churches once renowned, as Piedmont from Dauphine. The walk well as the diffusion of divine truth being long and tedious, he had brought among the heathen.

bread and a flagon of wine, and obI am sensible that this appeal in served, as he gave me the refreshbehalf of the Waldenses is in no re- ment, it was “ une espèce de commuspect worthy of the cause it under- nion"--might be almost considered a takes to advocate; yet since, how- sort of communion. We then parted ever unadorned, it has at least the with expressions of Christian esteem ; simplicity of truth, and the impor- and, descending the other side of the tance of the subject to recommend it, mountain, I soon lost sight of the I could willingly cherish the hope lands belonging to the Vaudois-dethat it will secure for this excellent scendants of a class of men who were, * “ Lux in tenebris ;” the arms of the

for a series of ages, “ destitute, aftown of Luzerde, which once belonged to

Aicted, tormented, but “ of whom them.

the world was not worthy!" VOL. XI.

6 138 )



Difficulties on the Subject of the analogy of his actual proceedings botu Resurrection.

in the ordinary course of nature and Maidstone, Feb. 12, 1$15. by miracle ; and further, that he can Sir,

receive no assistance whatever, from VOUGH I by no means wish secondary means, all created existCredo (p. 25,] in his purpose of ob- otherwise, existing only as the pure viating the difficulties alleged by your effect of bis power; and consequently Cambridge correspondent, in what being entirely at his disposal either to he conceives to be a more satisfactory preserve, remove or restore at his manner than I was enabled to do; pleasure. This was the leading subyet justice to myself, and the causę ject of our discussion, or at least

have espoused, requires that I should which I undertook to discuss; as I correct a palpable mis-statement which perfectly coincided with him in opinoccurs at the commencement of his ion, that the hypothesis of Dr. Watts, letter, and which appears and influ- concerning, “ an indestructible germ ences his remarks throughout. He of matter, being the nucleus of the sets out with the phrase “physiolo- regenerated man, is altogether a grą. gical correspondence" as descriptive tuitous supposition." of the Letter of Cantabrigiensis, and The question between us, therefore, çonsequently of the subject for our instead of being of a physiological namutual consideration. He also states, ture, and relating to the probability that the leading difficulty to be con- of a resurrection, by any such seconsidered was, whether if a man dies dary means as Credo appears to have wholly, a resurrection is within the iu contemplation, was wholly theolobounds of probability. The difficulty gical, or relative to what was possible which he has not very judiciously as the pure result of the divine enersevered, is thus ingenuously and suc- gies. cinctly stated by Cantabrigiensis him- Whatever Credo may be about to self : “ If I die wholly a resurrection do in his next letter by way of more appears scarcely within the bounds effectually clearing up the difficulties of possibility. There may be a new of Cantabrigiensis, he has hitherto creation, but can the regenerated be done very little except misrepresenting be myself? If there be nothing to ing and distorting his expressions, constitute my individuality but the and making heavy complaints against will and power of the Creator, I seem me, for not answering him by such reduced to the absurdity of thinking argumeuts as he deems most cogent. that my consciousness may be confer- In No. 1, of his remarks, he twice rered on any number of created forms." peats his misrepresention of the leadThus it clearly appears that he felt ing difficulty; and then complains of doubts concerning the possibility of a me for replying directly to it, instead resurrection by the energy of the of wandering into other topics. He is Creator alone, independent of some displeased with the length of my arsecondary means, such as the “ pre- gument, and that it is metaphysical, servation of consciousness” in the in. The first of these inconveniences he terval between death and the resur- has himself sufficiently remedied, rection. He suspected that a com- though so much at the expense of plete resurrection or restoration of vi- perspicuity and sense, particularly at ial existence after it had wholly ceased the closing sentence of his abridgment to be, involved some absurdity, and (1), thạt I should much rather he had consequently was not an object even left it to speak for itself in its original, of infinite power. To this difficulty uninviting condition. The reason I undertook to reply, by shewing that why it could not be physical has been it is equally in the power of the Cre- explained; it necessarily relates who ator to restore life and consciousness as it was originally to impart, preserve and withdraw those blessings : and Ercited in the second paragraph, that it is sufficiently agreeable to the Vol. viii. p. 734, sbould have been userted.

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