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Dr. Chauncey's Opinion of the Future State.

205 in which the total omission of the munication with the world they shall word actually clears the sense in the then be placed in ; that they will bequotation.

come fitted for sensations of pain, vasta

ly more various in kind, and greater “I trembling wak'd and for a season after

in degree, than at present, which yet Could not believe but that I was in hell."

they will be able to endure for a much I think he will discover the evident longer continuance; but that, in time, difference between that but which an- the torments they must endure, will swers to his description and the but (again) end in death, that is, in a (sea which Mr. Tooke derives from be-utan cond) dissolution of the union between and signifies be-out, nisi.

their souls and their bodies; that, in S. W. God's time, their souls shall be (again)

united to their bodies; and if, by means Mansfield, March 11, 1816. of the torments of hell, they have SIR,

been humbled, and so brought into I

BEG leave to propose to your cor- subjection to the government of God,

respondent W. H. to reconsider as that they are meet for his mercy in the ground upon which he has stated Jesus Christ, the bodies they shall be it as Dr. Chauncey's sentiment, “that related to shall, by the Divine wisdom the righteous, in successive ages, will and power, be fitted for that glorious pass throagh many deaths, or states of dispensation when God shall be all in oblivion" (M. Rep. for Feb. p. 69). all; but, if not, they shall again, in The Doctor's words, in his treatise some other form of existence, be put “On the Salvation of all Men" (Lon- into a state of suffering and discipline, don, printed in 1784) are as follows: till at length they are, in a wise and “ Some will be disposed and enabled rational way, prepared for final and in this present state,' to make such im- everlasting happiness" (p. 281, 282). provements in virtue, the only rational On the contrary, he maintains, in repreparative for happiness, as ihat they gard to the righteous," that they shall enter upon ihe enjoyment of it will pass into that final dispensation. in the next state. Others, who have (in whích God himself will be immeproved incurable under the means diately all in all), not by dying again, which have been used with them in but probably in me way analogous this state, instead of being happy in to that in which the believers that are the next, will be awfully miserable; alive on the earth at Christ's second not to continue so finally, but that coming, shall pass into the resurrecthey may be convinced of their folly. tion state ; upon which account their and recovered to a virtuous frame of life and happiness may properly be mind. And this, as I suppose, will said never to have an end" (p. 283): be the effect of the future torments in proof of which he refers to those upon many; the consequence whereof passages which speak of their not being will be their salvation, they being thus hurt by the second death, of their fitted for it. And there may be yet putting on incorruption and immor. other states, before the scheme of God tality, and especially to that declaramay be perfected, and mankind uni- tion of Jesus that they can die no more. versally cured of their moral disorders, (Rev. ii. 11, 1 Cor. xv. 53, 54, Luke and in this way qualified for, and fi- xx. 36-see p. 287). Without entering nally instated in, eternal happiness," into a discussion of Dr. Chauncey's (p. 12.) He considers the “death," opinions concerning the nature of man, which is said (Rom. vi. 23,) to be or the operation and effect of death, I

the wages of sin," as the same with presurne that these quotations will sufwhat is called (Rev. ii. 11, xx. 14, ficiently prove that the sentiment asxxi. 8.)“ the second death" (p. 277). cribed to him (that the righteous will, And, having asserted (p. 279)*" that in successive ages, pass through many the first death is intended to put an deaths) was not his. end, not to our existence, but only to

J. T. its present mode, with all its connections and dependencies,” he maintains,

Bromley, Jan. 12, 1816. that, “at the resurrection, the souls SIR, of wicked united sea men har systeins of matter, will

of sondehow adapteil, by the wisdom of God, to render them capable of com

• Inserted

p. 50.-Ep. IB

VOL. XI.

206

Belfast Resolutions on. Persecution in France. lately sent me by a much valued friend sured the proceedings in the South of of mine, who took a prominent part France if we had not impartially rein the proceedings of the day, I send probated the conduct of our Irish the same to you, not doubting but they Orangemen, as being alike hostile to will be generally acceptable to your the principles of civil and religious lireaders, as a gratifying proof how berty.” warmly “ the cause of universal liber Yesterday's post brought me the tý of conscience” has been recently as

Belfast Commercial Chronicle of Sa. serted in the sister kingdom, by per- turday, Jan. 6, 1816, from which I sons of the inost opposite sentiments send you the following interesting letor the doctrines of the Christian reli- ters, and remain, sincerely yours, gion.

THOMAS FOSTER. After expressing his preferenee for the 5th of those Resolutions as it was

Friends of Civil and Religious Liberty. fitst moved, my friend in a letter an- subject of the Resolution passed at the

The following correspondence on the Aered to thein makes the following Meeting held in this town on the i1th ult. pertinent observations, which you are has taken place. The Resolution ran thus: ai liberty to present to your readers. Resolved' l'nanimously—I hat the thanks

I do not," says he, "charge the of this meeting be returned to DANIEL British ministers with directly proino- O'CONNELL, Esq. as being the first in tren ting persecution in France, but I cer land to call public attention to the Persecut tainly do conceive they were less sus

tion of the Protestants in France, ata neet: ceptible of alarms on this subject than ing of the Catholic Association in Dublin, in their zeal against liberty and revo Ulius evincing, that in the honourable pus:

suit of Catholic emancipation, and protec lutionary principles. They were anxious to place the old dynasty on the he only sought for lituself, and his fellow

tion from the hostility of Urange Outragen throne of France; thus ihey risked the Catholics, that Liberty which he was equal. more than probable return of the bi- ly ready to grant to others.” gotry which characterized many of this Lisburn, 12th Month, 13th, 1813. feeble race.

ln ibe present temper of DEAR FRIEND I have great satisfaction the times, the governors intoxicated in communicating to thee the annexed re with their triumphs on the restoration solution of a meeting held in Beltast on the of legitimate despotism, and the people 11th inst. It is a just tribute to thy homeanly crouching to them, I should nourable firmness and read in the cause of not be much surprised, if for a season,

civil and religious liverty, which, alter arbitrary power should again come into close attention, I have always found to be fashion, and by the people surrender displayed in thy public conduct, as well as ing their rights, freedoin, both civil thou hast occasionally favoured me.

in the private currespondence with which and religious, should becoine. Dream

I am, with sincere respect, thine truly, of a dream and shadow of a shade.'

JOIN HANCOCK. “ I embraced the opportunity of the Dan. O'CONNELL, Dublin. persecution in France by Catholics to turn the public attention to the perse

Merrion Square, 10th Dec. 1816. cution at home of our Protestant

Mr Dear Sir-Tbe kind manner in Church and State mob against Catho. which you have transmitted iv me the vote lics, and even against the liberal areng

" of the friends of civil and religious liberty the Protestants. Our doinèstic perse

in Belfast,” demands my sincerest thansa cution is less severe than the late at

I am truly proud of that vole. It is a ricu tacks in France, but in the course of

Teward, intinitely beyond the value of any twenty-two years many have fallen poor exertions in the sacred cause of itee

Huiu 'of conscience. victims to it, and many Catholie cha

I have ever sought Catholic emancipation pels have been burned, as well as in on priíciple, and as a matter of rignit. That numerable ontrages of less inagnitude priseiple, if established, would be equally committed. The Orangeinen have also useful to the Protestant in France ar.. gone as far as the spirit of the times Italy, as to the Catholic in Ireland. It is and the circunstances of the country a principle which would leave conscience would permit, and our Irish persecu. tree and unshackled in every country, and tion has only differed from the French without which real liberty cannot, in Big in being more limited in extent, but opinion, exist in any country, not in the spirit which actuated it. In

As a Catholic I feel myself bound, bot short, I think it would hare been hy- but ly the glorious example of other C'a

only by the genuine precepts of nay religion, pocritical affectation in us to have con. tholics, to be the first in my humble sphere

Proposal for Abolition of Tythes,

207 to disclaim and oppose the persecution of to their proper rank and station in the Protestants. The state which first, after community. the reformation, established freedom of con

The abolition of tythes would be science, was a Roman Catholic State--that also a narional advantage, especially of Maryland, in North America. The only in the present distressed state of agrigovernment in modern days that has granted culture, whose necessities imperiously total and unqualified emancipation to a religion different from its own,' is the Roman demand their remission. Catholic Government of Hungary ; in which

Who are the persons that would the Protestants were in our own times fully consider themselves aggrieved ? Those emancipated by their Roman Catholic coun who are not entitled to any favour or trymen.

consideration from the public,—the inLet us hope that the day is not distant, dolent and lururious clergy, the when those noble ex.mples of justice and “ fruges consumere nati.” I compare pure religion will be not unly admired but this class to a large and increasing wen

imitat d by Christians of all denominations. attached to the body politic, which is Let us hope that man shall at length be al- drawing off its nourishment, and will Towed o worship his Creator according to the dictates of his conscience, without the prevent iis restoration to health until impious interference of penal laws; and that

it be removed. bigotry and persecution may be banished The money drawn annually from the from anungst nations boasting of Christiani- industrious part of the community unty and civilization.

der the head of tythes is enormous, and I have the honour to be,

the shameful manner in which it is With sincere respect,

distributed renders the burthen more Your very faithful and obedient servant, grievous and intolerable.

DANIEL O'CONNELL. With civil sinecures let us then get John Hancock, Lisburn,

rid of spiritual ones, and it would

strengthen us to raise the supplies for Sou!kampton, 13th March, 1816.

the year, and save us from the alarmSir,

ing apprehensions and dreadful conse

quences which our present distressed tion of your readers to the great cite in the breast of every thinking

and oppressed stale cannot fail to exquestion of a religions establishmentis it wise, just, necessary or politic?

B. T. The Disser ters from the Establishment are now become so numerous and re

SIR, spectable as to challenge and deserve the serious attention of the legislature

COPY the subjoined from Niles's - let then then unite on the broad Baltimore, America, Vol. II. p. 33,

Weekly Register, published in ground of dissent, and present a respeciful petition to the House of Com

thinking it not unsuitable to your

work. mons, that they may be no longer sub.

A. B. ject to the payment of tythes.

To be obliged to support a church Legislature of Kentucky, Jan. 10, 1812. whose doctrines we reprobate, as con

Report of the Committee of Religion. trary to reason and scripture ; and to be punished and disgraced for our dis

The Cornmittee of Religion to whom was seni, by being excluded from the dis- referred the petitions of sundry persons re

specting the people called SHAKERS, have, charge of civil offices, is no longer to according to order, had the subjects of the be borne.

same under consideration, and beg leave to Let every congregation then be re

report-quired only to support its own minis Without regard to religious persuasions, ter, as is the case in Americu, and sects or faith, of any particular denominaelsewhere - particularly in Prussia; tion whatever, your committee recommend and let not one sect be obliged to sup

to the consideration and adoption of the port another, by a tax levied upon the house, the following Resolutions : community at large.

1st. Resolved - That an open renuricia The beneficial effects of such an ar

tion of the marriage vow and contract and

total abstinence from sexual and connubial rangement, in whatever light we view intercourse, agreeably to the intentions and them, are greater than many persons objects of matrimony, ought to be provided are aware of. One in particular would against by law. be, the abolition of religious distinc end. Resolved_That provision ought to tions, and the restoration of Dissenters be made by law, for the competent support

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man.

208

Report of Kentucky Legislature on Shakers. of the wife out of the husband's estate, when senters in general, that I scarcely conabandoned by him under such circumstances

. ceive an apology to be necessary for re3rd. Resolved. That provision ought to questing permission to call their attenbe made by law, for the competent support tion through the medium of your of children out of their father's estate, where they shall be by such father aban- pages, to a subject which has remained doned under like circumstances.

long enough, secretly wounding our 4th. Resolved— That guardians ought to peace, to a rite which has scandalized be appointed to the children of husbands our profession, or is calculuel to rob so abandoning their wives, who should have us of some of our inost delicate enjoythe care of the persons and estates of such ments. I refer to the subject and to children.

the rite of inarriage, as this rite must 5th. Resolved – That when a wife is of necessity be submitted to by the so abandoned she ought by law to be per- English Dissenters, if they have not mitted to acquire and hold property as a made the bold resolution of not subfemme sole, as well as to have reasonable pa- mitting to it at all. It happens to rental control over lier children, by the have fallen to my lot to fill the office husband so renouncing the marriage contract; and when prayed for, she should of Secretary to the Devon and Cornhave divorce granted, without its benefits wall Unitarian Association, which was being extended to the husband so abandon- established last midsummer twelveing her.

months. At our last July meeting, In adopting the foregoing Resolutions, which took place at Tavistock, this your Committee are not unmindful that re- was one of the subjects which engaged ligious tenets are not the subject of legisla- our attention, and it was rendered ihe tive or judicial interference.

more interesting from the circumstance They entertain too high respect for their of our having in company a more than country, this legislative body, and them- usual proportion of those gentlemen selves to recommend any measure contravening those golden provisions of our con

who are known by the name of Old stitutions, which declare--" That all men

Bachelors. It did not appear whether have a naturaland indefeasible right to wor

these gentlemen had been influenced ship Almighty God according to the dictates by Unitarian scruples, or by scruples of their own consciences ; that no human of any other character, in determining authority ought in any case whatever, to

thus to abandon the first duty of an control or interfere with the right of con- active citizen ; but, Sir, we did not science."

quit the room in which this interesting Your Committee can but regret, that in subject was discussed ull I had received all ages and countries, individuals have been

a charge in the character of Secretary, found too ready to condemn all other sects and persuasions, save that adopted by them- which meet in other parts of England,

to correspond with the Associations selves, should they have adopred any. These unfortunate individuals, wanting

and endeavour to unite then all in the benign influence of Christianity become resolute exertions to seek for relief on odious themselves, by that interference this point. It has occurred to me, which prompts their exertious to bring however, that the better way of bringodium on others. It is the good fortune of ing this subject before the public, is by the real Christian, that in our enlightened means of the Repository. Allow me day, this intolerance recoils back on the then to offer some thoughts upon this intolerant ; and thus, while working their very interesting subject, in the hope own destruction, they make the rays of that they will call forth other and more Christianity shine but the brighter. With these sentimetits your Committee they will, ere long, bring about our

interesting and useful ones, and that leave the Shakers, and all other sects, to pursue, uninterrupted, the dictates of their the highest degree to all classes of

wished-for end. It is interesting in own consciences--leaving their religious creed to the approbation or disapprobation Dissenters, who cannot but wish to be of themselves and their God.

released from the necessity of taking

their brides 10 the established church ; Mr. Worsley on the Marriage Cere. but to Unitarian Dissenters it is most

of all important, and seems upon the mony. Plymouth, Feb. 16, 1816. their serious consideration and their

ground of absolute duty 10 demand SIR, I AM so perfectly aware of your

wish This is a subject, Sir, which natuto promote the investigation of all rally unites the serious with the gay; subjecis which are interesting to Dis- and it may be considered on the broad

firm purpose.

Mr. Worsley on the Marriage Ceremony.

209 basis of general expediency and justice, rite and made one of the seven saor upon the more limited ground of craments of the Church of Rome private feeling.

by Pope Innocent the third: and We are not permitted to enjoy the the Church of England, which in privileges of wedded life unless we so many things adopted ihe plans of will go to the priest of a certain reli- that Church, did not think it'expedigion, which may be the religion we ent to give up. so profitable a concern, approve or not, as the matter happens as that of being instrumental in ad to fall out, and without uttering cer- ministering to a man's pleasures, at a tain words he dictates to us, which moment when he is usually, most of may or may not contain sentiments of all moved to be liberal to his benewhich we conceive to be indecent, factors. absurd, nonsensical or idolatrous. Here But the Church of England did not then our rights as subjects of a free at first take to itself the exclusive government, in which the people bear power of performing the ceremony of å respectable and powerful part, are marriage. For when the principles of certainly broken in upon. We ex- the reformation had spread in this pect indeed to give up some of our country and different classes of Protesnatural rights and privileges in order tants sprang up, they all performed this to enjoy those of social lite; but there rite for theinselves; the Dissenters is no occasion for us to abandon any , marrying in their respective places of in the enjoyments by which we can- 'worship. This general practice prenot injure the society in which we vailed in this country till the year 1753. live; nor have we any occasion to in the reign of George II., when the submit to forms and ceremonies which celebrated Marriage Act was passed ; to us appear absurd and mischievous. the object of which too plainly is to We shall not object to other men's turn the attention from the pure act of being as absurd and as foolish as they marriage, to the ceremony which the please to be ; but they have no claim priest performs, and which gives occaupon us to jusiify their folly by follow- sion to much deceit and wickedness. ing their example ourselves.

By the English law, marriage is reIn the earlier periods of society the garded as of divine institution. Now ceremony of marriage, though ever if the reader would know what is the equally important, assumed a very ceremony of inarriage as it has been different character to that which ít ordained of God, and was recognised now bears in our country. It was re- by the Levitical law, let him look into garded as nothing more than a social the 22d Chapter of Exodus, ver. engagement entered into by a man and 16, 17, and into Deut. xxii. 28, wherein a woman, to increase the virtuous plea- the case is clearly and fully described ; sures of life, and to convey down to and then let him examine the laws of other creatures the privileges of hu- England, and refer to the various deman beings. It was then performed, cisions of our Ecclesiastical Courts, he as it generally still is in most parts of will find they are of a contrary characthe world, by a man going to the ier, and militate directly against the house of the woman's parents, and clear object of that law. there in the presence of the family and The marriage act declares, that, other friends taking her to wife; or "if a person shall solemınize marriage, by taking her froin the house of her except it be in Scotland, or except he father to his own honse, where he be a Jew, or a Quaker, in any other called in his friends and neighbours to place than in a- Church or public bear witness that he had taken her Chapel after the publication of bans as for his wife. Christian priests appear therein directed, or by special licence to have been more skilful in cutting from the archbishop's court, such nar. out work for themselves which would riage shall be null and void ;" hereby be profitable to their fraternity, than completely taking away from all other even the priests of the ancient Pagan Dissenters the privilege they had presystems or those of Jewish renown, viously enjoyed, and giving all the celebrated as they were for gulling the power and benefits of the marriage people by an abundance of rites and ceremony to the Clergy of the Church ceremonies, and fattening upon their of England. Spoils. The ceremony of marriage But exceptions are made in favour was first converted into a religious of the Jews and the Quakers. It may

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