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On the Marriage Ceremony. duces sounds, and affords us informa- acting in a more humble degree. tion of things occurring at a great What the powers of the brain may distance. But the most perfect of all hereafter be capable of, under new the senses, and, perhaps, next to the circumstances and combinations in more simple operations of the mind, life, remains for futurity to ascertain. is that of sight. The eye, the beautiful organ of this power, is a type of SIR, its functions ; in transparency, delica

AGREE with some writers in

I cy, and brilliancy, it surpasses all the your valuable work, that the marother parts of the body, appearing to riage service is a subject of great and lose the grosser characteristics of ani- just complaint to Dissenters in genemal matter, and to approach the na- ral, but particularly so to Unitarian ture of the mind, to which it serves Dissenters, who if they even consider as the most useful, rapid and exten- it as a mere ceremony, their feelings sive messenger, for procuring know- must be hurt, and their minds revolt ledge of the various objects in creation at, what is so opposite to their senaround us."

timents, the Trinitarian form of worSuch is the varied distribution of ship contained in it. Aud as no good sense which the brain and nerves be- reason can be given why the feelings stow upon the other parts of the and consciences of so large and reframe. We are familiar with its uses; spectable a class of society should be we know the kinds of bodies which thus wounded and oppressed, and in are calculated to impress the different a matter too the most serious of their organs, and the manner in which lives; let the evil be stated, the wrong those bodies effect their impressions, be expressed, and if possible a remedy but of the nature of the brain and its be procured. It may be asked, why operations we know nothing but by not perform the marriage union bethe effects produced.

fore the civil magistrate, as it is now To estimate the capacity of this or- virtually a civil matter, and the breach gan we must trace the history of the of it an offence at common law. When human race from the beginning, and a husband, or a wife so grossly fails the systems which man has contrived in coujugal duty, that a remedy is and executed during this long period, sought for, recourse is generally had for the accomplishment of his happi- not to the Church, but to a civil ness: all his establishments, political, court. The marriage service then civil and military, are but develope- ought to be performed in that court, ments of the mental faculty : by it where the parties can alone be made have been framed all his regulations, responsible for a breach of the consocial and moral. In short, every tract. But if the marriage of two improvement has its origin from this persons ought to be purely a religious

contract and service, then let any By his superior intellect the philo- one consider, whether in reason, such sopher surveys the creation around contract ought not to be performed him, and in a certain degree trans- agreeably to the religious sentiments fuses into the affairs of men, the wis- of the parties immediately concerned, dom, and the beneficence which he and whether such a mode would not discovers in the system of the universe be likely to be more binding, and -the astronomer penetrates the hea- have a more lasting influence upon vens, discovers new worlds, and thus their minds, than when performed acexpands our admiration of the Su- cording to the creeds and ceremonies preme Being in his works by the of a church deemed by them errone. same means the chemist and experi- ous. This is clearly a question of pomentalist are enabled to analyse the licy and of revenue on the part of various substances about him, and the Established Church, as no good over which he has any power, and ground from scripture or reason can tracing nature to her recesses, draws be made out for such monopoly. If forth valuable instructions for the ap- the Quakers can properly marry aplication of bodies to our wants and mongst themselves, so might equally enjoyments. While the bulk of man- all other sects; and Dissenters ought kind led by the knowledge of others as men of honour and conscience, to are directed in their proceedings by protest against such partiality and the same intellectual faculty, though oppression, and as knowing themselve



On the Use of the Word eur.

23 to be loyal men and true, ought never meant the One Supreme."--Gifford's to cease their efforts till every civil Illucidation. disability, imposed on the ground of “ Four miles from this stands the differences of religious opinion, be re. Castle; I have no doubt but the Ro. moved. But even should this be at mans occupied it, and possibly the tained, and all penal statutes against Saxons and Danes."-Hist. of Eng. Dissenters as such, were removed, “ I take up the pen, not doubting that might not alter the present mode but the remarks I offer will be reof celebrating the marriage service in ceived with candour and affection.” the Church, and to this point I am -Mr. Wright. desirous of calling the attention of The conjunction that would have your numerous readers ; I am the distinctly conveyed the author's meanmore induced to do this, as a member ing. of parliament gave notice last sessiou Dr. Priestley appears to have been that he would early the next session fond of the old fashioned way of unitbring the marriage act before the ing the two conjunctions in one place, House for amendment. Would not by which means he certainly might this afford a proper opportunity for convey an idea the direct contrary of the Dissenters, who all complain of what he intended. Thus the grievance in question, to come

“ It will not be denied but that forward as a body, and lay their com man has a right to employ one of his plaint in a respectful but manly tone hands." He meant that he has the before parliament. If they were to right. act with zeal and union, their pum “ We have no occasion to enforce bers and influence are of too much our principles by penal laws, having importance to be lightly disregarded ; no doubt but that the clergy will be Lord Sidmouth's bill is a case in able to support them by reason and point: If they are not wanting to argument." Would not this secm themselves, similar exertions may to imply that we have a doubt ? produce similar results. Having thus “ But notwithstanding this, I have briefly introduced the subject I trust no doubt but that I shall make it

apsome of your learned and able corres. pear perfectly intelligible to you.” If pondents will enforce it in a more the word but had been left out in practical shape, and stimulate our these sentences his meaning would Dissenting brethren to measures at have been distinct. The following, once prompt and efficacious.

in the same page with the last, clear. D. E. ly shews that this criticism is just.

“ Indeed, if he had, many doubts

could not but have arisen in his mind On the Use of the Word BUT. SIR,

with respect to it." Here the but

Compare these two sentences ; the better grammarian to set me right other, yet both formed alike.

one conveying an idea contrary to the The use of words is a matter of great importance, inas nuch as they are

6 I trembling wak'd, and for a season designed to give the clear and precise

after explanation of the thoughts of the Could not believe but that I was in hell.”. mind; I apprehend, however, that He thought he was in hell. several of your correspondents, as well “ Having no doubt but that the as other good writers, have erred in clergy," &c. He had not a doubt of the use of the word but. This is a the matter, although the expression conjunction, which, when we meet seems to convey it. with it, is a kind of stop to the sense, In the following sentence from Dr. and prepares the mind to expect a Paley, appears a similar' redundancy : change of subject, or an opposition An agency so general as that we to what went before. You shall have cannot discover its absence or assign this, but--you shall not have that. its place.”

In the passages I shall quote below, Dr. Priestley is with great propriety has not this word then been mis- regarded as an authority in the Enused ?

glish language; and I should have been “ It cannot be doubted but the fearful of remarking upon the use he scribe, when he spoke these words, makes of words were it uot that it is

Imiris possible I may be mistaken : is propers --See Familiar Letters.

if I

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24 Octavius Cæsar-William Pitt. State of Religion in France. well known Dr. Blair was himself external peace, and sole arbiter of guilty in his writings of the violation the destinies of the world. But Wilof all the rules he had laid down for liam Pitt, in the plenitude of his powthe study and use of our language. er, regardless of all liberal patronage,

J. W. involved his country in a most disas

trous war: and, having contributed Octavius Cæsar-William Pitt. largely to the subjugation of Europe,

Aug. 18, 1815. like another Phaeton, unable to guide CTAVIUS CÆSAR entering the chariot of his father, perished

early into public life, was re- amidst the conflagration which he had commended no less by the celebrity 50 rashly caused. Octavius Coesar, of his uncle, Julius Cæsar, than by therefore, having been, by the genehis own insinuating manners and ad- ral voice of his countrymen, proclaimdress. William Pitt, also, on his first ed Augustus, has been honoured by appearance, at an early age, was as the eulogy of eminent writers, in his much indebted to the high reputation own and each succeeding age. Whilst of his father, William Earl of Chat- William Pitt, having no correspondham, as to a commanding and per- ing claims to the applause of the hissuasive eloquence peculiarly his own. torian or the poet, however flattered Octavius Cæsar at first, pretending by his infatuated or interested adhegreat zeal for the republic, strenu- rents, as the saviour of his country, or ously supported Cicero against the the heaven-born minister, will be more designs of Anthony, and raised an justly appreciated by posterity as the army for its preservation and defence. bane of Europe, and the chief proWilliam Pitt, espousing with the same moter of his country's fall. Whilst, apparent warmth the great cause of therefore, in the comparison of these his country, joined with Horne Tooke two men, the parallel at times apand other popular leaders, against the pears so striking, the equally marked prevailing abuses of the representa- contrast is by no means favourable to tive system, and three times moved the character of William Pitt. the House of Commons for their reform. Octavius Cæsar, afterwards Sir, coalescing with Anthony, turned his 'THE following extract from a bookarms against the steady friends of the republic, and gave up Cicero to the tend to shew in some degree the state vengeance of an enemy, by whom he of religion in France, which is unwas unjustly put to death. William happily confirmed by the reports of Pitt, also, having with equal readi- travellers into that unhappy country. ness, accepted office in alliance with the supporters of the old system, not “ Selecti a sacris scripturis versionly opposed successive motions for culi ad usum studiosæ juventatis. 2 a reform in the representation of the partes in 12. people, but acquiesced in the prose. “ On ne peut disconvenir que nos cution of Horne Tooke, a more con- livres saints ne soient maintenant, sistent reformer, on an unprecedented presque aussi inconnus à nos jeunes charge of High Treason. When, etudians que le Coran au les livres however, Octavius Cæsar abandoned mystiques de pretres' Indiens. Cet exthe cause of the republic, he united trait de toute lecriture sainte est diswith the adherents of his own family posé de telle maniere que deux veragainst the very men by whom his sets seulement appris chaque jour penuncle had been publicly assassinated. dant les cours des humanites peuvent But William Pitt on his apostacy, by en donner au moins cette connaissance a more flagrant dereliction of princi- generale de laquelle tant soit peu inple, entered into the closest ndion with instruit devroit se faire une obligation the political enemies of his father, rigoreuse." against his own early and most dis

TRANSLATION. interested friends. Octavius Cæsar, Verses selected from the Holy Scripalso, when he had attained the object tures for the use of young students. of his ambition, became the patron We cannot deny that our holy of literature and the arts ; and, after scriptures are at present almost as una long and prosperous administration, known to our young students as the left his country in the enjoyment of Coran or the mysterious books of

Tseller's catalogue in Paris may



Hypotheses of the Resurrection.

25 Hindoo priests. This extract from P.S. It


be observed that our them is formed in such a manner that Saviour does not speak of the soul as two verses only learned every day du- the successive principle of man ; or as ring a course of classical studies will the man in his second state, but seems afford at least that general knowledge to refer to both soul and body as cowhich every man, however slightly existing. educated, should think himself bound to acquire.

W. F.
Oct 6, 1815.


physiological correspondence beI . ,

WAS much gratified by remark- gun in the year 1813, in the Monthly a revival of the interesting inquiry signs his name Cantabrigiensis, and already discussed in some former vo- which letter was answered at p. 734, lumes of the Monthly Repository (the under the signature of T. P. In hopes sixth in particular) relative to "the of reviving a controversy which may state of the human being after death.” make more clear the doctrine of the

After a serious and dispassionate resurrection, I have taken the liberty perusal of much that has been stated to lay before you the substance of the in support of the various hypotheses Jetter and reply, and my reasons for to which the subject has given birth, being dissatisfied with both. I could wish to learn from any can Cantabrigiensis laments that scripdid advocate of the opinion which ture evidence is in favour of that syssupposes the human being wholly dis- tem which holds man to be one and solved at death, in what sense we are indivisible, and wholly mortal, an hyto understand our Saviour's awful pothesis with which natural appeare caution in Matt. x. 28, if man pos- ances agree, because, owing to this, sess no principle that survives his dis- should there be a resurrection, not solution; or, what object we can in only will a large portion of time and such a case conceive he could have consciousness be lost in the

grave, in making any distinction between a but also mortal destructible being, and an im 1. If man wholly dies, a resurrecmortal imperishable one co-existing tion does not appear to be within the in the human organization ?

bounds of probability. The late Dr. Doddridge considered 2. A new creation cannot rightly this passage as affording a “certain be called a resurrection ; if it is alargument in proof of the existence of lowed that there may be a new creaa soul in a separate state, and of its tion of an individual myself from the perception of that existence ; else (he former being, it must also be allowed added) the soul would be as properly that there may be created from the killed as the body.” Family Expos. same being an indefinite number of V. i. S. 75. N. h. How far such a beings, all of them myself, if it is the separate principle of the human orga- will and power of the Creator which nization may exist in a state of per- alonc constitutes individuality and ception after death appears to me a identity. very distinct questior. Nor am I in 3. That the resurrection of Jesus is the number of those who consider Dot a case ip point. Never was his that question as of any material im- body corrupted, broken up and disportance to the Christian's hope and sipated į miraculous power was not comfort. To him, surely, it is the required to re-create it, but only to same when he enters into a state of enable it to re-act. If a total dissohappiness : whether directly on his lution and separation takes place, it dissolution, or after a long interval of is not then a resurrection which was suspended consciousness. In either the apostolic doctrine, but a re-crecase the prospect itself of future joy ation. remains the same; the promises of 4. The hypothesis of Dr. 'Watts the gospel remain unaltered in each (Logic, P. 1. c. 6. $6.) is but a supview of the subject ; and are in the position to avoid a difficulty. one case as much as in the other, I own bodies must rise at the last day trust, equally the object of his hope, for us to receive rewards and punishhis affection and pursuit.

ments in them ; there may be, perV. M. H. haps, some original fibres of each hu

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Hypotheses of the Resurrection. man body, some stamina vita or pri- tiplication of persons exactly similar, maval seeds of life, which may remain confusion would ensue, and such an through all the stages of life, death idea arises from supposing matter and and the grave; these may become mind to have such an independent exthe springs and principles of a resur- istence, that certain portions of each rection, and sufficient to denominate may constitute the same being. Such it the same body. But, if there be a view arises from mistaken notions any such constant and vital atoms they of the Creator and the created. He are known to God only.To this is one and independent; all existence principle, Dr. Priestley and some of must be either Deity himself or the his disciples appear willing to refer result of his operations; our future for the principle of individuation. existence therefore must be the exer

In consequence of these difficulties cise of his power, and not from the this writer asks, “ If the immortality ordinary operation of what is called a of the soul wants support from scrip- second cause. ture, and the restoration of the same The scripture compares death with body involve in it a physical contra- sleep; he slept with his fathers is their diction, how is the preservation of iu. language for death Jesus awakened dividual consciousness and the resur- Lazarus out of sleep after he had been rection of the same man to be ex- dead four days, and his body become plained, understood or believed ?

putrid; and this he did by the interTo this letter T. P. replied. vention alone of that power which

1. That the resurrection of the same first formed man from the dust, the body, if there be but one absolute same power which increased the wi. and eternal cause, is within the bounds dow's cruse of oil, and at another time of probability. For the existence of fed five thousand from five loaves and every being, being only the result of a few small fishes. the will and peculiar operation of this 3. The resurrection of Jesus is in cause, the restoration of any beiug, point to prove our resurrection, for and all its parts, however long its though it was the same body raised, existence has been suspended, has yet that body was raised changed to not in it any thing impossible or im- a spiritual body, as was evidenced by probable : the same creative cause its becoming at will invisible, and by still possessing the same power. If its ascending the heavens. Yet though the originally created being be re- spiritual its capability of being hannewed in the same manner, the same died, its ability to eat and drink as created effect must be the result of also to converse, prove its identity, the operation ; and not any reason and were to his apostles sufficient eviappears why the same exact operation dence that he who could produce this cannot be renewed, as well as it was varied effect of visibility and invisioriginally excited, continued and sus. bility, materiality and apparent impended by the lufinite Operator. materiality with conscious identity

That this reasoning is confirmed could in like manner raise their dead by the historic evidence of the human bodies and can do the same also by mind. By' night, the perception for all who are in their graves. useful and practical purposes is sus- If I have correctly stated the argupended; but this, instead of destroy- ments of both these gentlemen, and ing, strengthens and restores percep, I have so done to the best of my pow. tion and consciousness. In trances and er, I am free to confess, Mr. Editor, suspended animation, the existence of that T. P. has not done justice to the life is only known by its preserving objections of Cantabrigiensis; he apthe body from putrefaction. Why pears to me instead of giving a philothen cannot Deity by immediate in- sophical answer as expected so as to tervention suspend existence, disor. have the subject intelligibly explained ganise the mechavism, and again with that it might be believed with the such alterations as new relatious and understanding, to have rather begged circumstances may require to re-or- the question, resting the whole of his ganise it?

answer on the mighty power of God. 2. The mind is a representation of 1. C. asserts that if a man wholly external things, therefore a unity of dies the resurrection of that man is person must be essentially connected not within the bounds of probability. with conscious identity. By' a mul. T.P. instead of shewing that it is pro

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