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On the late F. III, Sc.- Mr. Scargill on American Peace Society. 331 the light of the world, and though for board should be regularly paid hira, a short tiine we may be reviled and he chose to make a species of boxes persecuted and our names cast out and which he learned to execute when trodden under foot by ignorant and at Birmingham. This being what his slanderous men, we shall in no case employers much approved, at the end "fail of our reward. I am, Sir, of every week he received what he Your obedient Scrvant, thought a considerable sumn.

B. T. ceeded in this way until the time of

his imprisonment expired. Being SIR,

Bath, June, 1816. then told that he was at liberty to go I

WISH that you could furnish us where he pleased, he requested that

with more particulars concerning he might be allowed to continue in the late Francis Webb, Esq. I wish the Rasp-house until he should earn therefore that Miss Milner, of Isling, a sufficiency to support liimself elseton, would grant you her assistance. where. His petition was acceded 10, I was glad to sec' the mistake cor- and after remaining there some years, Tected, that he was secretary to an he found himself in possession of embassy sent to the prince of Hesse money enough to live without labour. to hire troops to fight against the He returned to Birminghain and took Americans. I know that to be an a neat house in its neighbourhood, unfounded assertion, as he was 'al- and, being found a thoroughly reformways a most strenuous advocate for ed and intelligent man, some gentlethe cause of American resistance. men became acquainted with him, The history of his defence against the and frequently dined at his table. To attempt to rob him was not worth them he generally related his whole recording Let your correspondents history, and the circumstances which furnish us with matters of niore mo- contributed to implant in his breast ment.

honesty and integrity and generosity; - Your correspondent who wishes to and he always concluded the feast "know where I learned Dr. Chauncey's with toasting the master of the Raspparticular doctrine concerning the suc- house. cessive states of oblivion of the righteous If we would only study how to in their passing to higher degrees of glory employ the licentious and profligate in a future world, must be informed that in some such way, and to impress I learned it in a long private conver- them at the same títne with the prinsation with himself, which he began ciples of true religion, we should soon by saying, I must pass through many see purity reign in all our island. We siceps. The Dr. thought highly of should no longer be shocked with acmy liberality, and was perhaps more counts of murders, 'executions, &c. open in his communications with At present when we go to Morocco, me than with any person except his we express our horror at the sight of son Charles. Though we did not heads of human beings in the enalways agree, I always greatly esteem- trances to their palaces, but forget ed and loved him.

what was seen at Temple Bar some Lord Stanhope's speech is rery years ago, and what is still seen in interesting. To make us a truly some places in the country. glorious nation, very many of our The memorialist of Mr. Calamy in laws must be abolished. I have been your last number, was very defective

informed of a gentleinan who lived in not mentioning his age, his relaabout seventy years ago at Birming- tionship to the great Calamy, his wife, ham, who in the younger part of his and what children survive him. Many life was guilty of some transgressions other particulars would be satisfactory which led hiin to Ay 'into folland: to your readers. not being yet cured of his follies, he

W. H. committed some acts for which lie was committed to the Rasp-house, Bury St. Edmunds, 3d June, 1816. where he must either work or bé SIR, drowned: the rasping not suiting HE friends of peace in this counmight pursue any trade for which he exertions are making in America for was fitted, and that all his earnings the diffusion of pacific principles. On beyond a weekly allowance for his Saturday the first of June, I received

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Mr. Scargill on American Peace Society. a packet. frorn Boston, containing has devoted six months to careful and some pamphlets on the subject, and a almost incessant inquiries in relation leuer from the Rev. W. E. Channing. to the dreadful custoin, its origin and (A copy of which I herewith transmit popularity among Christians, its to you.) The pamphlets, five in causes, principles and means of supnumber, consist of “A Solemn Re- port; its tremendous havoc and miseview of the Custom of War," a ries, its opposition to Christianity, its work which has been already reprint- moral influence on nations and indicd in this country. Numbers i, ?, viduals, and the means by which it and 3, of a work published quarterly, may be abolished. The more he has called, “ The Friend of Peace.” And cxamined the more he has been astoNumber 34, of a periodical publica- nished that a custom so horrible has tion, called, “The Christian Dis- been so long popular among Chrisciple.” There also accompanied these tians. For he has been more and pamphlets a printed statement of more convinced, that it is in its na** The Constitution of the Massachu- ture perfectly hostile to the principles, setts Peace Society." (A written copy the precepts and the spirit of the of which I also send you.) Number 1, Christian religion. Ile is also confi. of “The Friend of Peace," contain- dent that such light may be offered ing 42 pages, consists of “A Special on the subject as will bring reflecting Interview between the President of Christians of every sect to this alterthe United States and Omar, an Ofi- native, either tó renounce Christicer dismissed for Duelling;" “Six anity as a vile imposture inconsistent Letters froni Omar to the President, with the best interests of mankind, with a View of the Power assumed by or to renounce the custom of war Rulers over the Laws of God and the as indefensible and anti-Christian." Lives of Men in making War, and From The Christian Disciple," I Omar's Solitary Reflections. The transcribe“ Facts relating to the Maswhole reported by Philo Pacificus, sachusetts Peace Society." “ In conAuthor of a Solemn Review, &c." sequence of an arrangement made by Number 2, contains “ A Review of four individuals, who are now memthe Arguments of Lord Kaimes in bers of the Massachusetts Peace SoFavour of War." Number 3, “The ciety, a meeting of seventeen perHorrors of Napoleon's Campaign in sons took place in Boston on the Russia." This article is formed of eighteenth of December last, to conextracts from Porter and Labaume; sult on the subject of forming a with some remarks by the Editor : it Peace Society. It was the wish of is followed by." An Estimate of Hu- the projectors of the plan to form a man Sacrifices in the Russian Cam- society on such principles as would paign." A Paper, “On Estimating embrace the real friends of society, the Characters of Men who have been without any regard to difference of concerned in Sanguinary Customs." opinion on other subjects whether “ A Solemn Appeal to the Cod- religious or political. But it was not sciences of Professed Christians." And known how extensively the sentiA memorable and affecting Con- ments in farour of such a society had trast between the peaceable Con- been embraced, and of course but a duct of William Penn, and the oppo- few persons were requested to attend. site Behaviour of some other Set- At the first meeting a committee was tlers." In each of these, is much that chosen to form a constitution, and the is truly valuable and interesting: and meeting was adjourned to the twenty: I do hope that some steps may be eighth of the same month to be held taken for reprinting and circulating in Chauncey place, immediately after them in this country. In America, the Thursday Lecture; at which time the “Solemn Review" has gone the comınittee reported a constitution, through three large editions in differ- This was read, discussed, adopted, and ent states. One in Connecticut, one subscribed by a considerable number in New York, and another in Phila- of persons. The choice of officers delphia--the latter amounting to was postponed to January 11, 1816, twelve thousand copies, for gratuitous in thc hope that the number of subdistribution. From Number 1, of scribers would be increased. The "The Friend of Peace," I quote the number of subscribers has indeed been Apthor's own words. "The writes increasing, and some of the officers

Mr. Scargill on American Peace Society.

333 have been chosen, but the list is not with a number of the “ Christian Discicompleted. We shall therefore defer ple," a work devoted to peace. These giving the naines of the officers to a publications are chiefly from the pen of the future number. But we have the Rev. Noah Worcester, a gentleman of pleasure of stating that in the list of great respectabity of character and distinsubscribers may be seen the names of guished by bis benignaut, amiable and the governor of Massachusetts, the philanthropic spirit. He is, as you will chief justice of the supreme court, the Peace Society, and will be happy to

perceive, the corresponding Secretary of the president and several of the pro- open a correspondence with you or with fessors of Harvard University, twenty any gentleman or societies who have esministers of the gospel and a consider- poused the cause of peace. able number of respectable laymen. In this country many of us have a

I have not now time nor room for strong confidence that a favourable imfurther extracts from these very inte- pression can be made on the public mind. resting publications, and I sincerely We regard the abolition of the slave trade regret that I have it not in my power as a practical proof, that great and long to give greater publicity to them by established abuses may be resisted and exreprinting : should, however, any per- tirpated by persevering and disinterested sous feel disposed to give their assiste exertion ; and whilst we feel that war has ance towards the object, I shall be

a strong and deep foundation in some of happy to hear from ihem, and to de- that there are other priuciples, which

the principles of human nature, we believe vote my attention to superintending when invigorated and directed by the light the press. Your's very respectfully,

of the gospel, may and will avail to its

gradual subversion. The incredulity of W. PITT SCARGILL. men as to the practicability of happy and

important changes in the condition of Sir, Boston, Feb. 12, 1816. society is certainly diminished. The idea

Your letter dated June 1, 1815, which of a more improved state of the world is you did me the honour to address to me, no longer dismissed with a smile or a was received some time ago, together sneer as the dream of enthusiasm. It with the pamphlet which you had publish- seems to be one of the characteristics of ed on the subject of War. I have de- this age, that men cherish more generous ferred writing you, in the bope that I hopes in regard to the human race. should be able to communicate to you gard this as a most happy onen, and when some gratifying information in regard to combined with the predictions of revelathe diffusion of pacific principles in this tion, and with the benevolent administracountry. Before your letter reached me, tion of God, it ought to awaken an unthe subject of W'ar had begun to draw conquerable zeal in the friends of human the attention of Christians. Some in- nity. teresting pamphlets had been extensively

Very respectfully, circulated for the purpose of awakening

Your obedient Servant, public sensibility to the guilt and calami

W. E. CHANNING ties of that barbarous custom; and a pros

II". Piti Scargill. position had been distinctly made that « Peace Societies" should be established Constitution of the Massachusetts Peace to give uniforinity and energy to the exer

Society. tions of the friends of peace. The pro- In forming a society, which it is hoped spect which your letter afforded of the may have an extensive influence, we, the formation of similar institutions in Europe, subscribers, deen it proper to make a congave new animation to the author of these cise declaration of our mctives and objects. pamphlets, and to those who adopted his We have been strongly impressed, by views; and the subject of a “ Peace So- considering the manifold crimes and treciety" continued to be agitated, until in mendous calanities of public war, and the the course of last inouth the desirable ob- melanchol; insensibility which has been ject was effected. Several gentlemen of induced by education and babit, in regard Boston and its vicinity assembled to cousi- to this post barirous, destructive, and allder the expediency of combining their cbristicu custiu. Our carpest wist is, efforts for the diffusion of pacific sen'i- that nen may be brought to view war in ments. A degree of zeal, which the best a just light, to see clearly its bålsful infriends of the cause tad not anticipated,' Huence on the political, moral, and relia was expressed, and the society was formed gious conaition of communities, and it's and organized. I enclose you the consti- opposition to the design and spirit of the tution, and several pamphlets which have gospel. Mest carnestly do we desire that been distributed on the subject, together bien may be brought to feel that a spirit

VOL. XI.

I re334

Mr. Scargill on Anterican Peace Society. of conquest is among the most atrocious in the gospel of his beloved Son. We of crimes; that the thirst for military there behold him as “the God of peace," glory is inhuman, and ruinous; and that and we have a cheering hope that he will the true dignity and happiness of a people own and prosper a society of peace-makers. result from impartial justice towards all It is well kuown that a diversity of sennations, and the spirit and virtues of peace. timent has existed among Christians on

Various facts and considerations have the question, whether war be not in all conspired in exciting a hope, that a change cases prohibited by the gospel. But we may be effected in public sentiment, and a intend that this society shall be established more happy state of society introduced. on principles so broad, as to erbrace the It is evidently the design and teadency of friends of peace who differ on this as well the gospel, to subdne the lusts and passions as ou other subjects. We wish to promote from which wars and fightings originate; the cause of peace by methods which all and encouragement is given that a time Christians must approve-by exhibiting will come when the natious will leart war with all clearness and distinctness the no more. We believe that a great majo- pacific nature of the gospel, and by turnrity of the people in every civilized country, ing the attention of the community to the when free frow the delusions of party pas- nature, spirit, causes and effects of war. sions and prejndices, have such an aver. We hope that by the concurrence of the sion to public hostilities, that they would friends of peace in all nations, and by the rejoice if any plau could be devised which gradual illumination of the Christinn would both secure their rights and absolve world, a pacific spirit may be comnunithem from the burdens and sufferings of cated to governments, and that, in this war. A late treaty of peace has suggested way, the occasions of war, and the belief the practicability of such a plan, and given of its necessity, will be corfstantly dimi. us an admirable lesson on the subject. nishing, till it shall be regarded by all

We now see, that when two governments Christians with the same horror with are inclined to peace, they can make some which we now look back on the exploded friendly power the umpire and last resort, and barbarous customs of former ages. for settling poiuts of controversy. For On these principles and with these hopes this ray of pacific light we are grateful, we adopt the following and we hope that it will be like “ the

ARTICLES. shining light which shineth more and 1. The name of this society shall be more unto the perfect day." This hope The Massachusetts Peace Society. is strengthened by reflecting on the anima- II. The government of this society shall ting fact, that the horrid custom of private consist of a president, a vice-president, a wars, which for ages desolated Europe, was treasurer, a recording secretary, a correfinally aholished by a similar project. sponding secretary, and six trustecs, who

Besides, it is clear that erery popular shall be annually.chosen, three of wliom custom must depend on public opinion; shall constitute a quoruin. and we also know, from history, that many III. The funds of the society shall be customs and usages, which were formerly under the direction of the trustees, to be considered as honourable, useful and even employed for the diffusion of light on the necessary, have since been abolished as subject of war, and in cultivating the prininhuman and barbarous, and are now re- ciples and spirit of peace. The trustees garded with detestation and horror. shall have power to appoint an executive

To the list of encouraging facts we may conmittee, and counsellers to advise with add, that by their late dreadful sufferings, the corresponding secretary, and to make the attention of the European nations is regulations for the dispatch of business, unusually excited to the guilt and miserics IV. Each subscriber of one dollar anof war; and with joy we have learned that nually shall be a member. "Peace Societies bave been proposed, if not V. Each subscriber of twenty-five dollars already established, on the other side of shall be a member for life. the Atlantic. These things not only en- VI. All donations to the society shall be courage our hearts and strengthen ons recorded; and every donor of Sšty dollars hands, but preclude the objection which or upwards, shall be an honorary member might arise, that it is dangerous to culo of the society and of the board of mustees. tivate the spirit of peace in one nation, VII. Each member of the society shall whilst others retain the spirit of war. reecive one half his annual subscription in A co-operation in different countries is such books or tracts as the trustoes shall joyfully anticipated in this great work approve, and at the lowest prices of tbe soof promoting peace on earth and good ciety. will among men.

VIII. The annual meding of the society But above all other sources of encourage- shall be on the last Thursday in every ment, we contemplate the benerolent cha- year; at which time reports shall be made racter of our heavenly Father, as displayed by the trustees and treasurer.

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Remarks on a Passage in the Olituary of Dr. Powell, 335 IX. This society will encourage the would imagine, that this truth is too obforming of similar societies in this country vious to be overlooked and too imporand in foreign countries, by the dispersion tant to be neglected, and that if it was of tracts, by correspondence, and by other duly attended to by reforiners as well suitable weans. They will encourage mu- as anti-reformers, it would suggest a tual aid and co-operation among all the salutary lesson of moderation to both. friends of peace of every denomination. X. Should any person become a member It seems to be the plan of Providence

to restrain and check one class of of this society whose residence is remote from Boston, it shall be regarded as ho- crimes and delinquents !y the counnourable for him to encourage the esta

teraction of another. The Ovidian blishment of a similar society in his own hemistich, ponderibus librata suis, is not vicinity.

more applicable to the system of the XI. No change in the objects of the universe, and to the British constitusociety shall ever be inade; but the articles tion, than it is to the general frame of may be amended, and new articles may society, composed (as is the majority be added as occasion shall require; pro- of it) of short-sighted, wilful and selvided that no alteration be made except at fish human beings." the annual meeting, and by the consent of Now I think, Sir, there cannot be two thirds of the members who may then a stronger argument for reform, than be present.

the fact, that “there are not in the

world wise and virtuous people enough SIR,

June 8, 1816. to keep the foolish and vicious in orNOUGII your Repository is not der :" it shews how diligently we

intended to contain much politi- should strive to keep our constitution cal discussion, yet there are some points so adapted that the senate may contain so intimately connected with the well- the greatest possible number of wise being of mankind, that I think some and virtuous persons; and it appears of your pages may be very usefully to ine a “truth too obvious to be occupied with the subject.

orerlooked and too important to be I have been much pleased with neglected," that it is impossible such your correspondent, T. S.'s account of should be the case so long as seats in the late Dr. Powell; but there is one parliament are bought and sold like paragraph in the Obituary, p. 299, Stalls in a fair, which must necessarily where, after speaking of Dr. P.'s love lead to a great deal of corruption, and of liberty and popular claims, he men- have a tendency to fill the senate with tions some of his own political senti- men who are more anxious to fill their ments, on which I should be much own coflers, than to promote the gegratified by his giving some farther ex- neral benefit and good order of society. planation. Your correspondent says: I think the last twenty-five years

“While at Edinburgh, Dr. P. was which have passed under our own eyes, the spectator of a very storiay, scene have clearly shewn how very impoliof political contention, and if he was tic it is to neglect the people's voice not an actor in it, this arose from no till too late, when the whole fabric of want of zeal in favour of the party society may be destroyed in attempting which, in his opinion, comprehended to bring about a reform, which, if the friends of " liberty and popular attended to as the times demanded, claims. Through life he retained the would have had a gradual and very säine partiality, regulated, however, salutary operation. All history shews, and repressed by the good sense and and more particularly the last two sound judgment which he applied to years, how very unfit kings and their ali subjects. Still it may be doubted, ministers are to have the management whether he was sufficiently aware of of affairs entirely at their disposal, witha fact, the belief of which must be out the beneficial influence of the peoimpressed on every calm and unpre- ple, expressed through a constitutional judiced mind by even a superficial representation; which is, I believe, knowledge of history, and by a slight the best method that can be devised view of what, during the last five and of collecting together “ wise and virtutwenty years, has passed under our ous people enough to keep the foolish own eyes. The fact alluded to is, that and vicious in order :" för I suppose there are not in the world wise and

no person will contend, at this time of virtuous people enough, to keep the day, that courts or congresses are less foolish and vicious in order. One liable to be infected with vice and

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