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68 Dr. Doddridge's Account of the Moravian Brethren. children of those who are members of the mixture of ostentation, one day, receiving church are, as they were ainongst the La- the sacrament amongst them, was taken cedemonians, looked apon as the property, with convulsive pains and died in the asrather of the public, than their own pa- sembly, crying with his last breath, and rents, from whom they are taken when with the greatest horror, Spiritual Pride ! a year old, and put to a school, where the Spiritual Pride! first lessou taught them is simple obedience These people were misrepresented to and quietness.* They have several elders the late King of Poland, so that he sent whose business is to give the Bishop, or an order against them, which would proPastor, who, by the way, is a mechanic, bably have ended in extirpation ; but it the most exact information they can re- was very remarkable that a few days belating to the religious state of the whole fore it was to be executed he got that accommunity.t They suspend each other cidental hurt in his toe, which mortified from coinmunion, or withdraw themselves and proved the occasion of his death. The from it, not only from any scandalous of- present King sent a commission to inquire fence, which seldom bappens among them, after them, but received a report so much but on account of any little misdemeanor, in their favour that he secretly protected which seems contrary to the honour of the them. gospel. Count Zinzendorf was once sus- Mr. Ingham assures me that he has seen pended for being in a passion with one of amongst them such extraordinary answers his servants, and was obliged to acknow- of prayer as has thrown him into great ledge his fault, and to ask pardon publicly amazement. f Persons have been recovered before he was restored.
from dangerous and desperate illness, as it They tell one remarkable story concern- seems, by this means; and he added a liting a person who was a member with them, tle story, for the truth of which he under. but something offended at the strictness of takes to answer, upon bis own knowledge. their discipline. He did not submit to fra. One of the brethren, who is an Elder, was ternal correction, as they call it. They bathing in a river, a little above Savanna, therefore proceeded to admonish him, at when an alligator darted directly at bim. which he was greatly exasperated. Being The Moravian did not attempt to fly, but a person of eninent rank, he then set finding bimself inwardly supported, as he them at open defiance, and insulted them afterwards declared, with a full assurance in a very audacious manner. Upon which of being delivered, he swam directly 10they excommunicated bim, very solemnly. wards the alligator, and laid his hands on He was then seized with violent agonies, the head of that voracious creature, witbboth of body and mind; and when he had out the least degree of fear upon him. Upfor several weeks tried most noted physi- on which the alligator sunk down like a cians, and every method of amusement stone, to the bottom of the river, and and comfort he could think of, to no pur- made no other attempt upon him. He says pose, he at last sent for the elders, and that several of the inhabitants were at that desired them to pray for him. But they time within sight, and it was as a sort of insisted on his being brought, I think, on a standing saying among some sort of the his couch, to their public assembly, where English, that the little man had beat the he made an open confession of his sin. It alligator. is a very melancholy incident they tell of I might have added, that in dubious another of their number who having made cases their Church has often recourse to a very florid profession, not without some the determination of lots,ll and Mr. In
their duty." Le Long, Moravian Au- | Dr. Doddridge himself, as Dr. Kipthor, in Rimius, p. 10.
pis, his biographer, who kuew bim well, “ They pay an uncommon attention has observed, carried bis notions on this to the instruction of youth. There are as- subject “ somewhat farther than reason and semblies held of little children that are truth will warraut," so as to ascribe to not yet in a condition to walk. They are prayer " such an immediate infuence upon carried thither. Hymns are sung in these the Supreme Mind, and to expect from it meetings and prayers made ; even sermons such interpositions as are scarcely consis. are preached to them, suitable to the ea. tent with the regular order of Providence, pacities of these infant hearers." Rimius, and the stated course of events in the p. 9.
world.” Dr. K, considers Dr. Price and + “Every member is daily visited by Dr. Ogden as having also exceeded, on one of his class, who gives him exhorta. this point. B. Britt., v. 305. tions, and takes notice of the actual state ll This mode of determipation of his soul, whereof he makes a report to adopted on a remarkable occasion by the the Elders. The Elders have the sole Congregation-Church. In 1731, “ The right of making matches. No promise of Count having endeavoured to evince the marriage is of any validity, without their utility of a total conformity with the LuCODICAT." Rimius, pp. 8 and 11. theran Church, it was resolved that we
Character of Charles James Fox. gham passed his last voyage upon that is- fully determined to return, as soon as Pron sue. The Moravian Church was called vidence gives him an opportunity. He together upon the occasion, at least, the speaks of the four months he spent amongst elders of it, and after several hours spent the Indians, as the most delightful part in prayer, one of them threw a lot which of his life, ihough he was but beginning determined him to return to England. Ne- to understand their language, and had no vertheless the good man, in whom, I must accommodations of life about him but such say, there is as much of the Christian as they use, his English dress being exapostolic spirit as I ever saw on so little cepted. acquaintance in any person living ; is
Jan. 12, 1816. this were all, we could account for it easiTHE following character of Mr. ly; but we must listen in silent astonish. at the age of twenty-eight, may suit: sudden unexpected incident, and discuss ably follow the interesting extracts perhaps a deep intricate subject for an from his speeches, which have ap. precision, that would induce such as are
hour, with an ability, perspicuity and peared in your last volume.
unacquainted with his habits, or are ig“Mr. Fox is certainly one of the first na- norant of his talents, to be persuaded that tire orators in the House, but he is ex- he came to the House previously prepared tremely negligent. His discourses are fre- and informed, in order to deliver his opin. quently finished pieces of argumentation, ion. With these alınost unrivalled gifts abounding in the best pointed observations, which nature has bestowed, Mr. Fox is and the jusiest conclusions; and supported far from being a pleasing or persuasive by a weight of reasoning, a manly boldness orator. His utterance is rapid, disagree. and energy of expressiva, almost unequal. able, and sometimes scarcely intelligible. led; and never, within the course of our He speaks always as if he was in a passion, knowledge or experience, surpassed. His and the arguments of passionate people do extemporary speeches on facts, arguinents not come well recommended. He someand details, not immediately arising from times descends to personal attacks, to anec. por connected with the proper subject of dotes and puerilities, much beneath the debate, at least not foreseen, are truly ad. dignity of a British Senator, particularly mirable. They bear every appearance of a man of his consummate talents." the most studied and laboured harangues,
I copy this passage from P. iii. of in every thing but the delivery, which,
“Characters: containing an Impartial however rapid, is not able to keep pace Review of the Public Conduct and Abiwith the crowded conceptions of the speak- lities of the most Eminent Personages er. His ideas are inexhaustible, and are ever ready at bis command; but even if in the Parliament of Great Britain ;"
published at Dublin in 1777. Those
Prime Actors in the political Drama should resign ourselves to the entire will of their day, have all quitted the stage; of our Saviour. Therefore the two follow their love and their hatred and their ing lots (texts) were written, and with
is fervent prayer, one of them was drawn by teen in number, of whom the Duke
now perished. They were ninea child of four years old :
1. To them that are without law, fc. of Grafton was, I believe, the last 1 Cor. ix, 21.
survivor. 2. Therefore brethren, stand fast, fc.
N. L. T. 2 Thess. ii. 15.
The last was drawn. We entered from that day, into a covenant with each other,
Bath, January 3, 1818.
Sir, to remain upon this footing, and in this constitution 10 carry on the work of the
COU will give me leave to introLord, and to preach his gospel in all the
the world and among all nations, whithersoever ers one uncommon sentiment of Dr. he should be pleased to send and scatter Chauncey, which was, that the righteus abroad, and sang,
ous, in successive ages, would pass Guard thou us, in thy affair,
through many deaths, or states of With the holy watcher's care."
oblivion. As they must die in this La Trobe Hist. p. 137. present world before they can enter
Dr. Chauncey's Paraphrase on Romans v. 12. into heaven, and as they to endless what I observed in the begining of ages, are to be exalted from one state the former verse, that I may be more of glory to a greater, he presumed explicit in opening myself upon a mat. that they were destined to die again, ter of such importance; I say, not as for some short interval, on every pro- the damage through the one man that motion to still greater degrees of fe. sinned, that is, in the one instance in licity.
which he was tried, so is the gift But my present design is to give through the ove man, Jesus Christ : you his paraphrase upon Romans v. for the judicial sentence took rise 12, to the end of the chapter. This from the lapse of the one man, Adam, will exercise your ingenious corres- and proceeded to condemnation, conpondents, from whose united labours demnation subjecting mankind to morwe may hope to learn the true mean- tality, and thereupon to sin also; but ing of the original.
the gift takes rise from the many sins « For this cause or reason, we have which men commit in the course of received reconciliation by Jesus Christ, their lives, and proceeds in opposition namely, as sin entered into the world to the power and demerit of them all, by the one mar., Adam, and death so as finally to terminate in justificaby his sin in eating the forbidden tion, justification including in it their fruit, and thus by this sin of his, death deliverance from sin as well as death, bath come upon all men, whereupon, their being made righteous as well as in conseqnence of which, they have reigning in life: and it is quite reaall sinned ; and yet that death passed sonable to think thus of the matter ; upon all by means of the sin of the for if by the lapse of the one man death one man, Aday, as I observed in the in all its consequeuces reigned through foregoing verse, and would briefly this one man over all men ; much prove before I proceed to finish the more shall these all men, who are the comparison I there began, is exceeding recipients of the abounding of the evident: for all along from the time grace of God, and of the gift that of Adam's lapse to the giving the shall make them righteous, finally law by Moses, sin was in the world. reign in life through the one man But whatever sin may, in its own na- Jesus Christ. I say, therefore, to ture, be supposed to deserve, it is not return now and pursue the comparireasonable to suppose, that it should son, I began in the twelfth verse, as be universally reckoned to both, when it was by the lapse of the one man, no law is in being that makes death Adam, that the judicial act, “ dust the special penalty of transgres- thou art and unto dust shalt thou resion : and yet death reigned thus turn," came upon all men, subjectuniversally through the whole period ing them to death ; even so, by the of time between Adam and Moses, righteousness of the one man, Jesus and over those too who did not vio- Christ, the opposite advantageous late, as they might have done, a posi- gift is come upon the same all men, tive command of God, “ after the si- which delivers them from death to militude of Adam's transgression;" be- reign in life for ever; and this may tween whom and him that was to be admitted without difficulty : for come, namely, the Messiah, there is to proceed in the comparison, as by a likeness as to the damage occasion- the disobedience of the one man, ed by the one, and the gift bestowed Adam, the many, or all men, by a through the other : not that the da- divine constitution, subjecting them mage occasioned by the lapse of the to a frail mortal state, occasioned by one man, Adam, and the advantage this disobedience of his, became sin arising from the free gift through the ners; even so, by the disobedience of one' man, Jesus Christ, exactly cor. the one man, Jesus Christ, the same respond to each other; for if the ma- many, or all men, in consequence of ny, that is, all men, are subjected to an opposite constitution, grounded death, through the lapse of the one on this obedience of his, shall become man, Adam, the grace of God, and righteous persons, and as such be the gift by this grace of his, which subjectively qualified for the justifi. grace is bestowed through the one cation of life, or what means the same mau, Jesus Christ, hath more abound- thing, an eternal reign in happy life. ed, unto the same many, or all men. Now the introduction of the law among And, not as the damage, to repeat the Jews is so far from being an ob
Some Particulars respecting Mr. Francis Webb.
71 jection, as some persons may be ready Analysis of a Work by a Jewish Au. to think, against what I have been thor, Mr. Bennet, on Sacrifices. saying, in the above verses, that it Sir, perfectly coincides with the design of PRUSSIAN Jew, of ed, the law was introduced among formed, a portrait painter in Lonthe Jews, a small part of mankind, don, moved with indignation against that sin, upon supposition of its being what hecalls the Christian Doctors, and committed, might abound, be in- especially against Dr. Adam Clarke, creased, heightened in its malignity who has had the effrontery to declare or guilt, by means of the law : that there is not a Jew in the present insomuch that it may be concluded day that knows the Hebrew language and fairly said, as sin has universally and the literature of that people, has reigned by death, so shall • grace published a small pamphlet on the reign as universally and triumphantly subject of the Sacrifices of the Levitithrough righteousness unto eternal cal Law; and as this subject has much life, by Jesus Christ, our Lord.'” engaged your readers of late, you may
W. H. not be unwilling to lay an analysis of
his little work before them. I confess
there seems to me an antecedent proSIR,
bability that the Jewish people are WE sentiment of your readers co acquainted with the laws of their fore
they are very sorry that you cannot since Mr. Bennett does not affect to favour them with an exact portrait of establish his proof upon any other the late Mr. Francis Webb. If his ground than the Scriptures, it is in cousin, Dr. Jefferies, had been living, our power to ascertain whether his he could have particularly described argument is conclusive. him from his cradle to his grave.
I am, Sir, yours, Others are still existing in our world,
J. W. who can do much to this purpose. “ The great body of Christians But, I can do little more than say, maintain that all the laws which rethat he was uniformly a strenuous gard sacrifices were absolute laws, that advocate for pure liberty, and that no remission could be expected but according to his favourite maxim, by the shedding of animal blood; and “The love of money is the root of all then they conclude that, to cleanse evil,” be was never influenced by a the spiritual leper, the Lamb of God regard to pelf. Above fifty years ago must be slain, the sprinkling of his he married an amiable lady, a Miss blood must be applied : and without Milner. At this time he took a house, the shedding of his blood there can be the rent of which exceeded his income. no remission; and, if this hypothesis Some years after, he accepted the be well founded, that the House of place of deputy searcher at Graves- Israel in their present state of disper-, end, which was accompanied with sion, being without animal sacrifices, 5001. a year. Whether the occupa. and without the salvation of the great tion was injurious to his feelings or sacrifice, i. e. the Lamb of God, must not, I cannot positively say, but he remain without any salvation whatresigned this lucrative situation, after ever, and no quarter can be given to holding it seven or eight years. Be- the ancient house of Israel.” He then ing at a distance from him after this, proceeds:I cannot be his historian any further. 1. “ If we adhere to the instructions But, I presume, that he never lost of the Mosaic code, we shall find that sight of liberty. In conversation he the primitive sacrifices, either animal, was peculiarly eloquent and enter- vegetable, or libations, were not intaining. He published two volumes stituted for trespasses and remission of sermons, when he was a young of sins. In the history of the Patri. man, which made all who read them archs we meet with quite different wish for more. I conclude with hop- notions on this subject; for in all the ing that you will be able soou to fur- accounts of the patriarchal sacrifices, nish us with many more particulars. those of Cain, Abel, Noah, Abraham,
Y. Z. &c. they were neither absolute gor
72 Analysis of a Work by a Jewish Author, Mr. Bennett, on Sacrifices. for the remission of sin. They were to the fortune of the donor or the all voluntary gifts and free donations, transgressor, and were either animal as tokens of gratitude and obedience or vegetable according to ability: they to the Universal Benefactor : but in were to be offered to the Supreme process of time, when mankind be- Power alone, in Jerusalem only, and came more numerous, the practice de. by the hands of the tribe of Levi." We viated from its primitive simplicity; it are lead to believe upon reading the became an inheritance to the priests, history of Moses, that it was the ori. and the servants of the temple: and ginal design of the Lawgiver not to iu consequence they were varied and burden the Israelites with many ceremultiplied; they became moreover ab- monies ; the first institution was exsolute, and were insisted upon as of tremely simple, and it would probaindispensable obligation. *
bly have continued so, had not the “ Profane history informs us that the Jews discovered such an absolute de heathen sacrifices did not only extend termination to attach themselves to to thanksgivings and sin-offerings, but rites and ceremonies which all the that they were also augurial and sooth- other nations were fond of, that it saying-employed for inquiries re- was found necessary to load them with specting eveuts to come, and disco- burdens, in order to keep down their veries either of political and public rebellious spirits-truly does it appear, concerns or of private interest. These upon tracing onwards their history, were regulated according to the fan- that the prophet spoke truth when he cies of the augurial priests ; and a said, “My people will have it so.' most productive system it certainly “2. When we examine the order of was to them.
sacrifices as it is described in Leviti“At the exit from Egypt, when the cus, we find that the shedding of Commonwealth of Israel was formed, blood was not at all necessary for the this practice of sacrifices was so ge- remission of sins. Thus Leviticus, nerally spread that it could not alto- 1st and 2nd chapters, there is an orgether be dispensed with. The di- der for meat-offerings of flour with vine wisdom, which wrought miran oil and incense. But, still more to cles in the firmament and the ele- the purpose, in xi. xiv. • But if he ments of nature, never wrought a mi- be not able to bring two turtle doves, racle on the human character. Any then he that sinned shall bring a tenth super-natural change in the human part of an ephod of fine flour for a mind would militate against the em- sin-offering. He shall put no oil phatical charge in Deut. xxx. 19, “therein.' Nothing can be more distestify unto you this day, I have set tinctly intended here, than that the before you life and death, a blessing shedding of animal blood, according and a curse-Choose life." To change to the Mosaic dispensation, was not the manners and customs from one essential for trespasses and sin-offerextreme to another would have been ings at large ; but was purely cerea violence done to the choice of the monial and circumstantial. mind : therefore the divine Legisla- “ 3. If we examine the protor thought proper not to abolish the phetical books at large, we shall find general practice of sacrifices, but only that they all confirm wbat I have adto reduce them to a more limited sys- vanced that the whole system of satem. Generally speaking they were crifices was neither essential to salvareduced to two classes ; the one free. tion nor of absolute commandment. will offerings, thank and peace-offer- Thus in Samuel, “Hath God as great ings; the other, duty.offerings, for delight in burnt-offering and sacrifice sin and guilt. The sacrifices of both as in obeying the word of God? Be. classes were also ordained according hold to obey is preferable to offering
sacrifice, and to hearkeu is more ac* Does not this account of the tricks of ceptable than the fat of lambs.” King Priests in the most ancient times corres- David said, “Sacrifice and offering pond with what may clearly be traced out thou didst not require ; ears hast thou in the history of the Christian Church, of the revenues, obtained by priests, and the opened in me.' (Meaning that men various means they gradually brought ought to listen to absolute rational about of obtaining money from the be. commandments applicable to human liçrere?
welfare). See also syth Psalm at large