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Gleanings. York, baptism is held as an essential: No. CCLXXXVHI. pre-requisite, to communion. If so, Matt. Henry's Continuators. I think this ought fairly to have been It is well known that Matt. Henry stated. It is no part of my present was taken away by death in the mids object to inquire how far such a term of his great work, the Commentary. of church communion is Scriptural or. He had proceeded no further than the not. I believe it is rejected by a very Acts of the Apostles. The following great majority of the Unitarian body, is a list of his Continuators: and it is for ihe members of that body Rer. John Evans, Rom. to determine how far they are called

Sinon Browne, 1 Cor. upon to assist in purchasing a place of Daniel Mayo, 2 Cor. and 1 meeting for a church, which what

and 2 Thess. ever opinions it may hold in common Joshua Bayes, Gal. with that body, maintains a principle

Samuel Rosewell, Ephes. which is one of exclusion to all Uni

William Harris, Philipp. tarians who have not submitted to

and Col. adult baptism. I shall be glad to find

Benjamin Andrew Aikin that I have been misinformed in this

son, 1 and 2 Tim. particular; and if so, will send you

Jeremiah Smith, Tit. and a donation for the baptists at York.

Philem. I am, Sir,

William Tong. Heb. and A, F.

Rer,

Samuel Wright, James. GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS AND

Zechariah Merrill, 1 Pet. REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSL

Joseph Hill, 2 Pet. OF GENERAL READING,

John Reynolds, 1, 2, and 3

Joha.
No. CCLXXXVII.

John Billingsley, Jude.
Unitarian Martyr.
Francis I. King of France, had a

No. CCLXXXIX. bastard son by Madame Cureau, of A Singular Orthodor Preacher.. Orleans, who was brought up and Acosta the Spanish author, who was sent to college by the name of Stephen born about the year 1539 and died in Dolet. He published Commentarii 1600, published a celebrated work, Linguæ Latina, in two volumes folio, highly praised by Dr. Robertson, De which were beautifully printed at Natura Novi Orbis. In this work he Lyons in 1536. He also wrote De acknowledges the cruelties of the Re Navali, and a poem on his father's Spaniards in their conquest of Amer gests. Unfortunately he got acquaint- rica ; but represents them as the agenta ed at Lyons with the celebrated Ser- of heaven in the conversion of the veto, became a zealous propagandist natives, supported in their mission by of his opinions, sent heretical books various miraculous attestations. He to Paris, incurred first an imprison- says, however, that a curious orthodos ment, and after relapsing, the con- preacher had preceded them : his demnation to be burnt alive. This words are, “ That which is difficult horrible sentence was executed at in our law to believe, has been made Paris in 1546, and was the model and easy among the Indians; because the precursor of that which Calvin in- Devil had made them comprehend ees Hicted on Serveto at Geneva.

the self-same things, which he had stolen Calvin mentions Dolet in the same from our Evangelical law, as, their phrase with Agrippa and Serveto, of manner of confession, their ecoratius Vilanova, as follows :- Agrippam, of three in one, and such like; the Villanovanum, Dolelum, et similes vulgo which against the will of the enemy, notum est tanquam Cyclopas quospiam have holpen for the easy receiving of evangelium scmper fastuose sprevisse. the truth." This is a singular figure of vituperative This extract is taken from the oratory, to represent the Unitarians as English Translation of the History, one-eyed and to call them Cyclops. published at London, in 4to. ia tko

Monthly Mag. year 1604.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

Mr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices. his trespass offering. And he shall SIR,

bring his trespass offering unto' the I

HOPE it was proved in my Lord, a ram without blemish out of

first letter on sin offerings, [Vol. the flock, with thy estimation, for a X. p. 646), that the patriarchs offered trespass offering unto the priest:' and such sacrifices to God, and that the the priest shall make an atonement real design of them was pointed out for him before the Lord : and it shall I shall now endeavour to shevy what be forgiven him, for any thing of all *is said on the same subject in the Le- that he hath done in trespassing vitical law.

therein. Also Numb. v. 5-8. 1. It appears that a sin offering was From hence it appears that atoneoffered to God, and atonement made ment was made for the wilful sins of with its blood for Aaron and his sons lying, fraud, theft, dishonest traffic, when they were consecrated, or set attended with perjury; which are apart, to the priest's office. _Levit, viii. breaches of several of the laws con14-17. For the altar, Exod. xxix. ' tained in the decalogue. 36. For the sarctuary and tabernacle, Hallet says, “ it is certain that there Levit. vii. For the Levites, Numb. were sacrifices under the law appointed viii. 11, 12, and 21. For Aaron and to make atonement for moral evil, and his sons, and all the people of Israel, for moral guilt; particularly for lying, when the whole congregation of Israel theft, fraud, extortion, perjury, as it was at one and the same time, set is written, Lev. vi. 1, 2, &c." Notes apart for God, Levit. ix. 1-11. And and Dis. Vol. II. p. 277, 278. for a woman who had been in child. It is said, Levit. xix. 20-23, Whobed, Levit. xii. 8. For a leper, Levit. soever lieth carnally with a woman xiv. 20–24. For a Nazarite, Numb. that is a bondmaid betrothed to an vi. 13, 14.

husband, and not at all redeemed, II. Sin offerings were offered for all nor freedom given her; she (LXX. sins of ignorance, though sometimes they shall be scourged: they shall there must have been a considerable not be put to death, because she was degree of guilt attached to them. not free. And he shall bring his tresLevit. iv. 2. 23. 26. v. 1~~15. Heb. ix. pass offering unto the Lord, unto thę 22. Acts vii. 1-3.comp. 1 Tim.i. 13. door of the tabernacle of the congre

III. A sin offering was offered to gation, even a ram for a trespass God, and atonement made with its offering. And the priest shall make blood for certain wilful transgressions. an atonement for him with the ram of

It is said, Levit. vi. 1-7, And the the trespass offering before the Lord, Lord spake unto Moses, saying, if a for his sin which he hath done : and • soul sin, and commit a trespass against the sin which he hath done shall be

the Lord, and lie unto his neighbour forgiven him. Comp. Deut. xxii. 24. in that which was delivered him to Here is another wilful crime of no keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing small magnitude, for which atonetaken away by violence, or hath de- ment was appointed to be made. It ceived his neighbour; or have found is also evident that some of these that which was lost, and lieth con- crimes would often be committed, and cerning it, and sweareth falsely; in therefore atonement not unfrequently any of all these that a man doeth, be made for them. sinning therein: then it shall be, be- IV. AU the males of the children cause he hath sinned and is guilty, of Israel, who were of a proper age, that he shall restore that wbich he were required to appear before God took violently away, or the thing at the city of Jerusalem every year, at which he hath deceitfully gotten, or the three great feasts ; at other seasons that which was delivered him to keep, they probably might go or not as they or the lost thing which he found, or pleased. : Exod. xxiii. 14-16. xii. all that about which he hath sworn 17. xxxiv. 23. Deut. xvi. 6. At each falsely; be shall even restore it in the of these feasts a sin offering was apprincipal, and shall add the fifth part pointed to be offered to God for the more thereto, and give it unto him to sins of the congregation in general. whom it appertaineth, in the day of 1. The feast of the passover and VOL. XI.

4,2

718

Mr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices.

the feast of unleavened bread werd of the Lord. See Nurnb. xvi. 46–48, both kept on the first month of the where we are informed that Aaron year; one began on the fourteenth and made atonement by incense, to rethe other on the fifteenth day of the move the anger of God for the murmur. month. Levit. xxiii. 5, 6. Exod. xii. ing of the people, and the plague was 1, &c. Numb. xxvii. 15, 22, Add stayed. David also offered burot one goat for a sin offering, to inake au offerings and peace offerings to God atopement for you.

for his sin in numbering the people. 2. The feast of pentecošt was kept 2 Sam. xxiv. 25. And on another fifty days after the passover. Exod. occasion, when he thought that God xxiii. 16. Levit. xxii: 10—21. Numb. might possibly be displeased with him, xxvii. 26–32. At ver. 30; it is said, he said, let hiin accept an offeringand one kid of the goats to make an 1 Sam. xxvi. 19. And when many of 'atonement for you.

the Israelites had broken the law by 3. The day of expiation and the marrying strange wives, they offered a feast of tabernacles were both as one, ram for their trespass. Exod x. 19. as they were only four days apart. 1 Esdras ix. 13-20. In 2 Maccab. Lerit. xvi. 23. 26-34. Numb. xxix. iii. 32, 33, there is an account of a 22, &c. Ezek. xlv. 19, 20. On this sacrifice offered for the health of a sick annual day of expiation, Aaron first person, and atonement is said to have made atonement with the blood of a been made. They probably thought bullock for himself and his family; his affliction was the fruit of his sins. and then with the blood of a goat for See also 2 Maccab. xii. 29–45. Ezek. all the congregation of the children xlv. 19, 20. of Israel. Levit. xvi. 3. A bullock for VI. It also appears that in some a sin offering, &c. ver. 6.9. 11–13. cases in which the offences were eviThen shall he kill the goat of the sin dently wilful, not to say presumptuous, ottering, that is for the people. These but cither were not expressly sleclared atonements were made by sprinkling by the law to be capital, or were atthe blood before the Lord in the most tended with some circumstances which holy place, ver. 14, 15. In relation pleaded in favour of the criminals, that to which things, and his confessing they did not immediately put them to their sins over the head of the scapegoat, death, but kept them in ward until they it is said, ver. 21, and confess over had consulted the oracle of God: so is him all the iniquities of the children was in the case of the youth who blase of Israel, and all their transgressions phemed God, Exod. xxxii. 30, and in all their sins, ver. 30, to cleanse also of the man who gathered sticks on you, that ye may be clear from all the Sabbath day, Numb. xv. 32–36. your sins, before the Lord. Ver. 33, So far were they from considering he shall make an atonement for the every breach of the law as capital.so priest and all the people of the con- enlarged were their views of making gregation, ver. 34, for all their sins atonement for sin. once a year.

VII. It is however acknowledged 4. It also appears from Numb. that the law of Moses says, “but the xxviii. 11-15, that a sin offering was soul that doeth aught presumptuously, offered at the beginning of every &c. the same reproacheth the Lord; month for the congregation.

and that soul shall be cut off from By these various appointments, pro- among his people.” Numb. xv. 30. vision was made for the expiation of Deut.

xvii. 12. the generality of these sins which the Human language is imperfect. children of Israel were exposed to, Every presumptuous sin must be wil. which are not declared, by the law, ful; but probably it will appear that to be capital

every wilful offence is not, in the eye V. It appears that whenever any of the law, presumptuous. person committed a really wilful 1. This is in part evident from the offence, which was not notoriously many instances that have been adpresumptuous, nor expressly declared duced of atonement being made for by the law to be capital, that they did wilful transgressions of the law. not put the person to death, but 2. To make a wilful offence pre offered a sin offering to cleanse him sumptuous, there must, it seems, be from the guilt of it, which also ap. some aggravating additional circumpears to have been right, as their offer. stance or circumstances attending it, ings on such occasions were accepted such as a deliberate, determinate, in

Mr. Jcrans on the Levitical Sacrifices.

719 solent and daring opposition to the It therefore appears that every wilful will of God. Esther vii. 5.

offence is not, in the eye of the law, a The neglect of Moses in circumci- presumptnous one, at least not that sing his son was a wilfuloffence, but pro- high presumption which is threatened bably not presumptuous, as Zipporah with death. Therefore it still remains perhaps had opposed the doing of it. true that wilsal sins are, in general, Exod. iv. 24, 25. So the captive Jews atoneable by the law of Moses, i. e. marrying strange wives at Babylon was where the law has not expressly dea wilful oftence, but probably not a termined it otherwise. presumptuous transgression, as there VIII. No sin offering was appointed might be a scarcity of Jewish females for idolatry, murder, blasphemy, adulthere. Exod. x. 2.

tery, witchcraft, lying with a beast, But when Moses and Aaron com- &c. or for any capital offence. See manded the Israelites to go up against Exod. xxii. 18—20. Levit. xxiv. 11the Canaanites, and they would not, 16. Namb. xxv. 3. Deut. xiv. 6. xxii. but murinured, and talked of making 29-24. i Kings xxi. 10. Thesc a captain and returning to Egypt, and are all presumptuous offences, and even proposed to stone them with therefore po atonement was to be stones, their offence was highly pre- made for them. When therefore sumptuous. Namb. xiii. 17-35, and David was guilty of murder and adulxiv. 1-10. Therefore they were tery, he said to Go:l, thou desirest not very severely pimished for it, vår. sacrifice, else would I give it thee. Ps. 23.

And afterwards, when they saw li. 16. And when Cain slew his their folly, and would go against their brother Abel, no sacrifice was acenemies, though neither Moses nor the cepted, but he was banished from ark of God was with them, their be- the presence of the Lord. Gen. iv. haviour was especially criminal, and 11-16. they were made to suffer for it, ver. 42 It

may be proper to add here, that if. -45. Therefore Moses, many years a person knew himself to be ceremo. after, said unto them, in reference to nially polluted, or guilty of a breach of this circumstance, so I spake unto the law, and nevertheless presented you, and ye would not hear, but re- himself before God at the tabernacle belled against the commandment of or temple service, his crime was prethe Lord, and went presumptuously sumptuous, and he became liable to be. up into the bill. Deut. i. 48. xviii. cut off for it. Levit. xv. 31. Numb. 20—22. Accordingly it is said in xix. 13. Acts xxiv. 6, 18. Deut. xvii. 12, and the man that will Sometimes atonement was made do presumptuously, and will not with money, Exod. xxx. 12-16, with hearken the priest, &c. or prayer and incense, Numb. xvi. 46, 47. unto the judge, even that inan shall And if a guilty person was so poor die.

that he could not procure two young The character of such persons is pigeons for a sin offering, he was redescribed by the prophet Jeremiah, quired to present the tenth part of an chap. xviii. 12, who said to him, ephah of fine flour, part of which was when he brought a message fron, God burnt on the altar. Levit. v. 7-13. to them, there is no hope, we will But the standing rule was to do it with walk after our own devices, and we blood. will every one do after the imagination If it should be said that atonement of his own evil heart.

was made by the scapegoat without 3. The Hebrew words found in the blood, Levit. xvi. it may be replied, that above

passages signify acting with a there were two goats provided for the high hand, or doing a thing proudly, business of that day, and that these or arrogantly: as Numb. xv. 30, excelsa two goats were considered so much as manu, Deut. xvii. 12, And the man one, and the service one, that they that will do presumptucusly, superlia cast lots which of them should be So Deut. i. 43, and Exod. xxi. 14, and offered a sacrifice to God, and which Ps. xix. 13, derived from superbivit, should be the scapegoat. That one superbè, arroganter egit. See Buxtorf's of them was put to death, and atoncLex. And Nehemiah speaking of the ment made with his blood, for toe very proud, haughty, daring conduct very sins which were afterwards con of Pharoah, uses the same term. See fessed by the high-priest, over the head Nehem. ix. 10.

of the scapegoat; and therefore the

unto

720

Mr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices. manner in which the scapegoat was guilty, offerer was not really penitent, disposed of probably was designed to would he nevertheless be forgiven? teach the Israelites that their sins and To this it may be replied, that no uncleannesses were as certainly taken such supposition shonld be made.away from them by ineans of the The Almighty God commanded him atonement which was made before to repent; he presented the appointed with the blood of the sacrificed goat, sacrifice to the priest at the door of as if they had all been actually heaped the tabernacle, laid his hand in a upon the head of the scapegoat for solemn manner on the head of the him to carry away with him into the victim, and confessed his sin ; and on wilderness, from which he was never the annual day of expiation for sin, to return. We have a very similar fasted, and humbled himself before ceremony in Levit. xiv. 4-1, which the Lord for his iniquities, and thererelates to the cleansing of a leper. fore it was taken for granted that he

Upon the whole it appears that was really so; and in many cases it atonement was made for all the sins of would most certainly be so, the sin the children of Israel except for pre- offering therefore became a medium of sumptuous transgressions, which the forgiveness to the offerer, Levit i. 4. law declared to be capital, and many xvi. 29. 2 Sam. xxiv. 22–25. Job i. of which offences it actually names. 4, 5. xlij. 749.

If it had not been so, a far greater What if a similar supposition was number of Israelitez must have been raised against the real penitence of a put to death than we have any reason wicked heathen, who presented him. to believe were; or else there must self as a penitent believer in Jesus have been a great body of out-casts Christ, and who is promised, on his from among them, a thing which we being baptized into Christ, that his never hear or read of; for no guilty or past sins shall be forgiven –There is polluted person was permitted to ap- no end of such nice queries, which ill pear before God at the tabernacle or accord with the spirit of revelation, and temple service, on pain of death. especially with the liberal spirit of the IX. How far did the efficacy or the gospel

. The language of Scripture is, sin offering extend ?

it shall be forgiven him."--That is 1. They cleansed the offerer from enough, and ought to suffice us. certain bodily pollutions. It is said in X. If it should be asked, but why Levit. xii. 8, of a female who had been was such a method of purifying the in child-bed, and the priest shall make unclean, and pardoning the guilty, atonement for her and she shall be adopted? Perhaps some persons clean. And of the leper, and the would consider it as a bold question, priest shall make atonement for him, and say, who knoweth the mind of and he shall be clean. Levit. xiv. 20. the Lord? His understanding is in. See also Levit. xv.

finite, and his judgment a mighty 2. They procured the offerer the deep. However, as the government forgiveness of such real sins as they of God is evidently formed to promote were offered up for, or for which our moral improvement, it seems atonement was made with their blood; probable that it was adopted, for of such a person it is said, and the 1. Because it is so well adapted to priest shall make atonement for him teach us the purity or holiness of God. before the Lord, and it shall be for. As these sin offerings are said to given for any thing of all that he hath cleanse and sanctify the tabernacle done in trespassing therein. Levit. vi. and temple, the utensils of them, and 1-8. v. 1-14. xix. 20.

the priests, &c. (Exod. xxix. 33. 36, The primary sense of the Hebrew 37. viii. 34, Heb. ix. 22,) and as an word which is translated atopement, unclean person was said to pollute it, signifies to cover over, as Noah's ark and it was death for any person wil. was covered, or smeared over with fully to commit this offence, (Nomb. pitch, to preserve it from sinking in xix. 13, Levit. xii. 4, 5), therefore the food of waters. Gen. vi. 14. So these things would necessarily suggest sin atoned is covered over, that is, to the Israelites that God is indeed a forgiven. Ps. xxxii. 1, Blessed is the most pure and holy Being. Thus man whose iniquity is forgiven, whose ceremonial purity would lead their sin is covered.

thoughts to moral purity, and shew 3. If it be said, but supposing the them that they must be holy, for Jeho

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