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Owensboro and Henderson, Ky., in favor of Evansville, Ind., to points north
of Ohio. Railroad Commission of Kentucky v. L. & N. R. R. Co. et al. 300.

Pecos, Tex., compared with El Paso; class rates from northern points.
Pecos Mercantile Co. v. A., T. & S. F. Řy. Co. et al. 173.

Points west of Mississippi compared with east, on bananas, from southern
ports. Topeka Banana Dealers' Asso. et al. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co. et al. 62).

Rhinelander, Wis., rates on paper, etc., compared with Fox River district.
Rhinelander Paper Co. v. Nor. Pac. Řy. Co. et al. 633.

Wichita in favor of Kansas City; cotton goods. Johnston & Larimer Dry
Goods Co. et al. v. A., T. & S. F. Ry, Co. et al. 388.

DISTANCE.
As affecting rates.

Traffic Bureau, etc., of St. L. v. Mo. Pac. Ry. Co. et al. 11.
Hollis Stedman & Sons v. C. & N. W. Ry. Co. et al. 167.
Raven Red Ash Coal Co, et al. v. N. & W. Ry, Co. 230.
Lincoln Commercial Club v. C., R. I. & P. Ry. Co. et al. 319.
Baer Bros. Mercantile Co. 0. Mo. Pac. Ry. Co. et al. 329.
Johnston & Larimer Dry Goods Co. et al. v. A., T. & S. F. Ry, Co. et al. 388.
Cattle Raisers' Asso. of Texas v. M., K. & T. Ry. Co, et al. 418.
Anthony Wholesale Grocery Co. v. A., T. & S. F. Ry. Co. et al. 605.
Topeka Banana Dealers' Asso: v. St. L. & S. F. R. R, Co. et al. 620.
Payne-Gardner Co. v. L. & N. R. R. Oo. 638.

DIVERSION.

Allowed at Duluth or Superior without charge. Commercial Club of Du-
luth v. Nor. Pac. Ry. Co. et al. 288.

Bananas in transit. Topeka Banana Dealers' Asso. et al. v. St. L. & S. F.
R. R. Co. et al. 620.

DIVISIONS OF RATES.

Defendants were unable to agree upon satisfactory divisions of the rates
so established, and on that account as well as because of threatened reduction
of rates from competitive points, increased the rates from complainant's fac-
tory one year after they were established. New Albany Furniture Co. v. M. J.
& K. C. R. R. Co. et al. 594.

Gentry v. A., T. & S. F. Ry. Co. et al. 171.
Merchants' Traffic Asso, V. N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co. et al. 225.
Johnston & Larimer Dry Goods Co. v. A., T. & S. F. Ry. Co. et al. 388.
Cattle Raisers' Asso. of Texas 1. M., K. & T. Ry. Co. et al. 418.
Randolph Lumber Co. v. S. A. L. Ry, et al, 601.
Topeka Banana Dealers' Asso. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co. et al. 620.

DOCK FACILITIES.

Commercial Club of Duluth . Nor. Pac. Ry. Có. et al. 288.
Benton Transit Co. v. B. H.-St. J. Ry. & L. Co. 542.
Thompson Lumber Co. et al. v. Ill. Cent. R. Ř. Co. et al. 657.

DOUBLE-DECK CARS.

Rates on. Frye & Bruhn et al. v. N. Pac. Ry. Co. et al. 501.

DRAYAGE.

On fruit. Benton Transit Co. v. B. H.-St. J. Ry. & L. Co. 542.

DYNAMITE.

Masurite, which is a high explosive, but not dangerous to handle, should be accorded a lower rate than dynamite, the handling of which is attended with great danger. Masurite Explosive Co. v. P. & L. E. R. R. Co. et al. 405.

EARNINGS.

Basis for fixing rates. Railroad Commission of Kentucky v. L. & N. R. R. Co. et al. 300.

Cattle Raisers' Asso. of Texas v. M., K. & T. Ry. Co. et al. 418.
Kindel v. Adams Express Co. et al. 475.

Diminished as reason for extension. In re Extension of Hours of Service Law, 140.

Ratio of operating expenses and taxes of defendant. Raven Red Ash Coal Co. v. N. & W. Ry. Co. 230.

Uintah Railway Co. American Asphalt Asso. v. Uintah Ry. Co. 196. ELECTRIC ROAD.

The act makes no distinction between railroads that are operated by electricity and those that use steam locomotives; both are subject to the act when engaged in interstate transportation and are entitled to equal consideration in any controversy before the Commission. Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R. Co. v. I. C. R. R. Co. et al. 20.

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry. & L. Co. v. C. & N. W. Ry. Co. et al. 250.
Leonard v. K. C. Ry. Co. et al. 573.

ELEVATORS.

Traffic Bureau, Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis v. Mo. Pac. Ry. Co, et al. 11, Re Allowances to Elevators by the U. P. R. R. Co. 498.

EMERGENCY RATES.

Coal from Missouri River to West, to relieve famine, 1906–7. Nebraska State Railway Commission v. U. P. R. R. Co. 349.

EMPTY CARS.

As a reason for a higher rate. Topeka Banana Dealers' Asso. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co, et al. 620.

Burgess et al. v. Transcontinental Freight Bureau et al. 668.

As a reason for low rate, Pittsburg Plate Glass Co. v. P., C., C. & St. L. Ry. Co. et al. 87.

EMPTY PACKAGES.

Defendant's rate on cream of $3.90 per 10 gallons from Columbia, Tenn., to Jacksonville, Fla., held to be unreasonable, and a reasonable and just rate therefor not exceeding $2.75 for the movement of the cream and the return movement of the empties prescribed. Reynolds v. Southern Express Co. 536.

ENAMELED BRICK.

Defendant's rate of 48 cents per 100 pounds for the transportation of enameled brick from Cheltenham, Mo., to New Iberia, La., is under the circumstances unjust and unreasonable and should not exceed 30 cents per 100 pounds for the future. Reparation awarded. Hydraulic Press Brick Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co. et al. 342.

ENGLISH POST.

The fact that under the postal regulations of England a package can be sent from London to Denver for 50 cents is no reason for pronouncing an express

rate of 70ʻcents upon a package of the same size from Denver to London unrea-
sonable. Kindel v. Adams Express Co. et al. 475.

EQUIPMENT.

A carrier's first and paramount duty to the shipping public is to make its
entire equipment do its utmost in serving the shippers along its own line; a
carrier serving and dependent upon a new and undeveloped territory, and unable
to earn any profit for its owners, may charge higher rates than would be reason-
able under different conditions, and if carrier that forms part of a through
route proposes to require the transfer of freight from one car to another at any
junction point it must specify in the tariff the point at which transfer will be
made and the charge therefor. Memphis Freight Bureau v. Ft. S. & W. R. R.
Co. et al. 1.

Cars worn-out fitted up by shippers for hay. Ruttle et al. v. P, M, R. R.
Co. 179.

Detroit & Mackinac Ry. Co. Wagner, Zagelmeyer & Co. v. Det. & Mac. Ry.
Co. et al. 160.

Electric road. Chicago & Milwaukee Elec. R. R. Co. r. I. C. R. R. Co. et al. 20.
Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry. & L. Co. v. C. & N. W. Ry. Co. 250.

Right of carrier to use for fuel in period of car shortage. Traer v. C. & A.
R. R. Co. et al. 451.

Shortage. England & Co. v. B. & 0. R. R. Co. 614.
Uintah Ry. Co. American Asphalt Assn. v. Uintah Ry. Co. 196.

Unless carriers furnish, shippers must. In re Demurrage on Privately Owned
Tank Cars 378.

ESTIMATED WEIGHT.

Georgia Rough & Cut Stone Co. v. Ga. R. R. Co, et al. 401.
Hydraulic Press Brick Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co. et al. 342.
Romona Oolitic Stone Co. v. C. I. & L. Ry. Co. 569.
Romona Oolitic Stone Co. v. Vandalia R. R, Co. 115.

ESTOPPEL.

Protection of carrier against frauds and misrepresentations of shippers. In
re Released Rates 550.

EVIDENCE.

The difference in the character of testimony required to test the reasonable-
ness of an entire schedule of rates covering the whole traffic of a particular
carrier and that required to test the reasonableness of a rate on a particular
commodity between two definite points considered and discussed. Frye &
Bruhn et al. v. N. Pac. Ry, Co. et al. 501.

EXCURSION RATES.

Koch Secret Service 1. L. & N. R. R. Co. 523.

EX LAKE GRAIN.

Banner Milling Co. v. N. Y. C. & H. R. R. Co. 31.
England & Co. v. B. & O. R. R. Co. 614.

EX LAKE RATES.

No order will be made in this case pending leave granted the defendant to
put in a proportional rate on ex-lake grain, which would correct the dis-
crimination. Banner Milling Co. v. N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. Co. 31.

Thornton & Chester Milling Co. v. D. L. & W. R. R, Co, et al. 37.

Washburn-Crosby Co. v. Erie R. R. Co. et al. 38.
Washburn-Crosby Co. v. L. V. R. R. Co. 39.
Washburn-Crosby Co. v. Pa. R. R. Co. 40.

EXPLOSIVES.

Rates on. Masurite Explosive Co. v. P. & L. E. R. R. Co. et al. 405.

EXPORT.

Lumber. Miller Walnut Co. v. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co. et al. 43.
Thompson Lumber Co. et al. v. I. C. R. R. Co. et al. 657.

EXPRESS RATES.

The main object of an express service is expedition, and express rates should
not be so low as to attract business which might properly go by freight and
thereby congest and interfere with the service by express. Kindel v. Adams
Express Co. et al. 475.

The law requires that the several classes of common carriers subject to its
provisions shall fix just and reasonable charges for transportation services, and
the authority of the Commission to prescribe a reasonable rate when invoked
in a proper case is not restricted by the terms of any agreement between an
express company and a railroad company. Reynolds v. Southern Express Co.
536.

The law places the same obligation upon the shipper as upon the carrier to
observe its legal tariff provisions. Bannon v. Southern Express Co. 516.

Milk and cream. Merchants' Traffic Asso. v. Pacific Express Co. 131.

EXTENSION OF HOURS OF SERVICE LAW.

Petitioners ask extension of time within which to comply with an act of Con-
gress approved March 4, 1907, at a number of stations covered by the thirteen-
hour provision and at nearly two-thirds, in the aggregate, of the stations on
their lines to which the nine-hour provision relates, alleging in some cases in-
ability to secure the additional force required and in most cases the financial
hardship which compliance imposes. Held:

That to grant such wholesa le orders of extension would in effect interfere
with the policy of this legislation in its fundamental aspects and amount to an
amendment of the law by the official body charged with its administration.
In re Extension of Hours of Service Law. 140.

FACILITIES OF TRAFFIC.

Act assures all shippers equal facilities and services; use of private cars in
car distribution. Ruttle et al. v, P. M. R. R. Co, et al, 179,

Commission does not recognize right to refuse facilities or to contract with
shipper for their use so as to permit discrimination. In re Demurrage on Pri-
vately Owned Tank Cars, 378.

Discontinuance of station at Fanshawe, Okla. Lewis et al. v. C., R. I. & P.
Ry. Co. 138.

Duty of railroad companies to provide. Powhatan Coal & Coke Co. v. N. & W.
Ry. Co. et al. 69.

Shipment of fruit from Michigan to Chicago. Benton Transit Co. v. B. H.-
St. J. Ry. & L. Co. 542.

Sidings and trains for the shipment of cabbage. Chicago & Milwaukee Elec-
tric R. R. Co. v. I. C. R. R. Co, et al. 20.

Unreasonable for defendant to require shippers to go so far for through bill-
ing and joint rates, when competing line offers them nearby. Cedar Rapids &
Iowa City Ry, & L. Co. v. C. & N. W. Ry. Co. 250.

FARM MACHINERY.

From Dallas to Kansas. Minneapolis Threshing Machine Co. v. C., R. I. &
P. Ry. Co. 128.

FAST SERVICE.

Tonnage capacity much less to the engine for fast trains than to slow ones.
Nebraska State Railway Commission v. U. P. R. R. Co. 349.

Statutes of some States require State business moved a minimum distance
per day. Topeka Banana Dealers' Assn. et al. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co. et al.
620.

FERTILIZER.

Nitrate of soda, when for fertilizer, at a lower rate than for manufacture.
Ft. Smith Traffic Bureau v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co. et al. 651.

Stable manure from Washington, D. C., to Glendale, Md. White Water Farms
Co. v. P., B. & W. R. R. Co. 526.

FINDINGS OF FACT.

Commission no longer requred to state. Cattle Raisers' Asso. of Texas v.
M., K. & T. Ry, Co. et al. 418.

.

FISH.

Express rates on. Barnon v. Southern Express Co. 516.
FLOUR

Complainant is engaged in grinding spring wheat flour at Buffalo in competi-
tion with mills located at Minneapolis. On May 1, 1907, rate from Buffalo to
New York on flour was advanced from 10 cents to 11 cents per 100 pounds, while
no similar advance was made from Minneapolis; Held, that this 11-cent rate
and one of 13 cents to New England points were unjust and unreasonable and
should not exceed 10 cents to New York and 12 cents to New England points.
Banner Milling Co. v. N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. Co. 31.
FOREIGN COMMERCE.

If through billing determines jurisdiction, then all earriers participating be-
come subject to regulation, but as to foreign business the rail carrier, so far as
this law is concerned, has a purely contractural or proprietary relation, not a
relation regulated by this act. Cosmopolitan Shipping Co. v. Hamburg-Ameri-
can Packet Co, et al. 266.

The jurisdiction of this Commission is not to be determined by anything other
than the language of section 1 of the act, and in this section is found a clear
distinction drawn between interstate commerce and foreign commerce to a
country not adjacent to the United States; and this distinction sa ves such
foreign commerce from the effect of that provision of the section as to con-
tinuous carriage beyond the American seaboard. Cosmopolitan Shipping Co. v.
Hamburg-American Packet Co. et al. 266.

FOREIGN COUNTRY,

As modified by the word “adjacent." Lykes S. S. Line v. Commercial Union
et al. 310.

FREE STORAGE.

At Duluth in transit until opening of navigation. Commercial Club of Duluth
v. N. Pac. Ry. Co. et al. 288.

FUEL.

Defendants claim that the necessity for fuel with which to operate their lives
gives them the right to make private contracts therefor, and that the failure to

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