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tation, or prompted to it by interest, it must be derived from his native constitution; and is a remarkable confirmation of what revelation fo frequently inculcatesthat he brings into the world with him an original depravity, the effects of a fallen and degenerate state ; in proof of which we need only observe, that the nearer he approaches to a state of nature, the more predomi. nant this disposition appears, and the more violently it operates. We see children laughing at the miseries which they inflict on every unfortunate animal which comes within their power; all savages are ingenious in contriving, and happy in executing, the most exquisite tortures; and the common people of all countries a delighted with nothing so much as bull-baitings, prizefightings, executions, and all spectacles of cruelty and horror. Though civilization may in fome degree abate this native ferocity, it can never quite 'extirpate it; the most polished are not ashamed to be pleased with scenes of little less barbarity, and, to the disgrace of human nature, to dignify them with the name of sports! They arm cocks with artificial weapons, which nature had kindly denied to their malevolence, and, with shouts of applause and triumph, see them plunge them into each other's hearts : They view with delight the trembling deer and defenceless hare, flying for hours in the ute most agonies of terror and despair, and at last sinking under fatigue, devoured by their merciless pursuers ! They fee with joy the beautiful pheasant and harmless partridge drop from their flight, weltering in their blood, or perhaps perishing with wounds and hunger, under the cover of some friendly thicket, to which they have in vain retreated for safety! They triumph over the unsuspecting fish, whom they have decoyed by an infidious pretence of feeding, and drag him from his native element by a hook fixed to and tearing out his entrails! And, to add to all this, they fpare neither labour nor expence to preserve and propagate these innocent animals, for no other end but to multiply the objects of their persecution !
What name should we bestow on a superior being, whose whole endeavours were employed, and whole pleasure consisted, in terrifying, ensnaring, tormenting, and destroying mankind ? Whose superior faculties were exerted in fomenting animosities amongst them, in contriving engines of destruction, and inciting them to use them in maiming and murdering each other? Whose power over them was employed in assisting the rapacious, deceiving the simple, and oppressing the innocent? Who, without provocation or advantage, should continue from day to day, void of all pity and remorse, thus to torment mankind for diversion, and at the same time endeavour with his utmost care to preserve their lives, and to propagate their species, in order to increase the number of victims devoted to his malevolence, and be delighted in proportion to the miseries he occafioned? I say, what name detestable enough could we find for such a being ? Yet, if we impartially consider the case, and our intermediate situation, we must acknowledge, that, with regard to inferior animals, just such a being is a sportsman.
The Trvo Bees.
N a fine morning in May, two bees set forward
quest of honey, the one wise and temperate, the other careless and extravagant. They foon arrived at a garden enriched with aromatic herbs, the most fragrant flowers, and the most delicious fruits. They regaled themselves for a time on the various dainties that were spread before them: The one loading his thigh at intervals with provisions for the hive against the distant winter; the other revelling in fweets, without regard to any thing but his present gratification. At length they found a wide-mouthed phial, that hung beneath the bough of a peach-tree, filled with honey ready tempered, and exposed to their taste in the most alluring manner. The thoughtless epicure, spite of all his friend's remonstrances, plunged headlong into the veffel, resolving to indulge himself in all the pleasures of sensuality. The philosopher, on the other hand, fipped a little with caution ; but being suspicious of danger, flew off to fruits and flowers; where, by the moderation of his meals, he improved his relish for the true enjoyment of them. In the evening, however, he called upon his friend, to enquire whether he would return to the hive; but found him surfeited in sweets, which he was as unable to leave as to enjoy. Clogged in his wings, enfeebled in his feet, and his whole frame totally enervated, he was but just able to bid his friend adieu, and to lament with his latest breath, that, though a taste of pleafure might quicken the relish of life, an unrestrained indulgence is inevitable destruction,
kind, and endeavour to trace out the principles of action in every individual, it will, I think, seem highly probable, that ambition runs through the whole species, and that every man, in proportion to the vigour of his complexion, is more or less actuated by it. It is indeed no uncommon thing to meet with men, who, by the mutual bent of their inclinations, and without the discipline of philosophy, afpire not to the heights of power and grandeur; who never fet their hearts upon a numerous train of clients and dependencies, nor other gay appendages of greatness; who are contented with a competency, and will not moleft their tranquillity to gain an abundance : But it is not therefore to be concluded, that such a man is not ambitious : His desires may cut out another channel, and determine him to other purfuits; the motive may be, however, ftill the fame; and in thofe cases, likewise, the man may be equally pufhed on with the delire of distinction.
Though the pure cansciousness of worthy actions, abstracted from the views of popular applause, be to a generous mind an ample reward, yet the defire of diftinction was doubtless implanted in our natures as an additional incentive to exert ourselves in virtuous, excellence.
Ambition, therefore, is not to be confined only to one paffion or pursuit; for as the same humours in conftitu, tions otherwise differently affect the body after different manners, so the fame aspiring principle within us fometimes breaks forth upon one object, fometimes upon another.
It cannot be doubted but that there is as great a defire of glory in a ring of wrestlers or cudgel-players, as in any other more refined competition for superiority.
It is a known story of Domitian, that after he had possessed himself of the Roman empire, his desires turned upon catching flies. Active and mafculine spirits, in the vigour of youth, neither can nor ought to remain at rest: If they debar themselves from aiming at a noble object, their defires will move downwards, and they will feel themselves actuated by some low and abject passion. Thus if you cut off the top branches of a tree, and will not suffer it to grow higher, it will not therefore cease to grow, but will quickly shoot out at the bottom. The man indeed who goes into the world only with the narrow views of felf-interest, who catches at the applause of an idle multitude, as he can find no solid contentment at the end of his journey, so he deferves to meet with disappointments in his way: But he who is actuated by a noble principle, whose mind is so far enlarged as to take in the prospect of his country's good, who is enamoured with that praife which is one of the fair attendants of virtue, and values not thofe acclamations which are not seconded by the impartial testimony of his own mind; who repines not at the low station which Providence has at present allotted him, but yet would willingly advance himself by juftifiable means to a more rifing and advantageous ground; such a man is warmed with a generous emulation ; it is a virtuous movement in him to wish, and to endeavour, that his power of doing good may be equal to his will. The man who is fitted out by nature, and fent into the world with great abilities, is capable of doing great good or mischief in it. It ought therefore to be the care of education, to infuse into the untainted youth early notions of justice and honour, that so the possible advantages of good parts may not take a bad turn, nor be perverted to base and unworthy purposes. It is the business of religion and philosophy not so much to extinguish our passions, as to regulate and direct them to valuable, well-chosen objects. When these have pointed out to us which course we may lawfully