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CLASSIFICATION OF WHEAT Following the classifications of Carleton,' of Haeckel," and of Kornicke and Werner, and perfecting them by adding new data, by extending to smaller subdivisions, by giving world distribution, and, for the sake of unity and completeness, by giving the essential characteristics of each division, there is given below a descriptive and distributive outline of the division Hordeæ given on Page 2.
1.1 Hordez (Sub-tribe).
1.2 Agropyrum (Genus) (Quack. G
Europe to Turkestan in Asia. Twelve species in all are recognized. 2.3 Sitopyrus. 1.4 Triticum monococcum. 1.5 Name: None in English. German Einkorn preferred. French
Engrain. 2.5 Characteristics: Spikelets three flowered but one grained; hardy;
non-shattering: short, thin narrow-leaved plant seldom over 3 feet high. Very constant in fertility; does not give fertile cross with common wheat; only species in which paleæ fall in two parts at
maturity; spikelets awned; spike compact. 3.5
Distribution: Found from Achaia in Greece to Mesopotamia. Present in Swiss Lake dwellings of stone age. Cultivated to a limited extent in Spain, France, Germany Switzerland and Italy. Unknown in
America except to experimenters. 4.5 Varieties: Einkorn; Engrain double (two grains). 5.5 Use: Rarely for bread; usually for mush and "cracked wheat," and
native in Mediterranean region.
large; macaroni gluten; drought and rust resistant; resembles rye.
stan: Brazil: Northwestern United States.
5.5 Use: Principally for macaroni.
emmer preferred. 1 U. 8. Dept. Agr., Div. Veg. Phys. and Path., Bul. 24, p. 6. 2 Minn. Bul. 62, p. 392
2.5 Characteristics: Probably derived from Einkorn: leaves usually
velvety hairy, plants pithy or hollow; heads very compact and flat almost always bearded; threshing does not remove chaff; spikelets two-grained; non-shattering; some varieties drought and rust
resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Extensively in Russia and Servia; Germany; Spain;
Abyssinia; Switzerland; to some extent in France, and Italy, also perhaps in northern India Thibet, and in portions of China; in
the United States; cultivated in prehistoric times. 4.5 Varieties: Red chaff; white chaff, etc. 5.5 Use: Ouite extensively for human food in portions of Russia, Ger
many, Switzerland and Italy as "kaska," a sort of porridge from
crushed emmer; grist; "pot barley;" bread; also used for feed. 4.4 Triticum sat. spelta.
1.5 Name: English, spelt; German, spels or dinkel; French cpeautre. 2.5 Characteristics: Grows fully as tall as wheat; heads loose, narrow,
rather long, bearded or bald; very brittle rachis; spikelets two to five-grained: far apart in head; hardy; non-shattering; constancy
in fertility; retains chaff in threshing. 3.5 Distribution: The oldest grain cultivated in ancient Egypt, Greece
and the Roman Empire. With emmer is the principal bread grain of southwest German Empire: raised widely in Russia, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain. In Canada and the United States
it is known only to experimenters. 4.5 Varieties: Winter and spring varieties white-bearded; black-bearded;
red; smooth; white. 5.5 Use: Flour is placed in same rank as common wheat flour; fed to
stock. 5.4 Triticum sat, compactum. 1.5 Name: Club or square head wheats; also "hedgehog wheat,"
"dwarf wheat." 2.5 Characteristics: Little more than two feet high, being a dwarf; heads
very short, often squarely formed; commonly white, at times re; bearded or bald; spikelts very close, three or four-grained; grain short and small, red or white; great yielding power; stiff straw;
non-shattering; eary maturity; drought resistant 3.5 Distribution: Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the
United States; Chile; Turkestan; Abyssinia; to slight extent in
Switzerland, Russia, and a few other districts of Europe. 4.5 Varieties: Generally known as “club" or "square hcad"; dwarf;
hedgehog. 5.5 Use: Yield the flour desired in certain localities; crackers; breakfast
foods. 6.4 Triticum sat. turgidum. 1.5 Name: Poulard or pollard wheats; English (a misnomer), rivet;
German, bauchiger Weizen; French, ble petaniclle; also known as
English wheat; Egyptian wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Rather tall; broad velvety leaves: stems thick and
stiff; heads long, often square; bearded; spikelets compact, two to four-grained; grains hard and light color; resistant to rust and
drought. 3.5 Distribution: France, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Southern Rus
sia, other Mediterranean and Black Sea districts, and experimentally
in the United States. 4.5 Varieties: Poulard; composite wheats (T. compositum), known as
Miracle, Egyptian or Mummy wheats, having branched or compound
heads whose grains develop unequally. 5.5 Use: Macaroni and other pastes: bread, mixed with bread wheats
to produce flour desired by certain French markets. 7.4 Triticum sat. durum.
1.5 Name: Durum, macaroni, or flint wheats. 2.5 Characteristics: Hardest grain and longest beard known among wheats:
plants tall; leaves smooth with hard cuticle; heads slender, compact, at times very short; always bearded; grains glassy, sometimes rather transparent, yellowish, long; very sensitive to changes of environment: high gluten content; drought and rust resistant: spikelets two to four-grained.
3.5 Distribution: Practically the only wheat of Algeria, Spain, Greece,
Mexico, and Central America, extensively raised in south and east
Varieties: 1.6 Gharnovka, Velvet Don, and Arnautka (Azov Sea region, Russia)
United States. 2.6 Kubanka (east of Volga river, Russia), United States. 3.6 Saragolla (southeast Italy). 4.6 Goose wheat (Canada. Dakota). 5.6 Trigo candeal and Anchuelo (Argentina). 6.6 Nicaragua (Central America, Texas). 7.6 There are perhaps several dozen other varieties.
s: Macaroni: semolina: noodles: all kinds of pastries: bread: it is coming to be used for all purposes, in some regions, as ordinary
wheat flour. 8.4 Triticum vulgare.
1.5 Name: This is the common bread wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Well known; heads rather loosely formed; bearded
or bald; chaff usually smooth but may be velvety; spikelets generally three-grained, but may be two, and rarely four; stem usually
hollow; all the characteristics vary widely (see varieties). 3.5 Distribution: Practically over the whole globe, within the limits
already given (see varieties). 4.5 Varieties: (Carleton's division, based not on botanical but on environ
mild climate of even temperature; found in eastern United States,
India, Australia, and Argentina. 2.6 Hard winter wheats: Usually red-grained; usually bearded: rela
tively high gluten content; grown on black soils in climate characterized by extremes of temperature and moisture. Found chiefly in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United States (the wheat of Crimean origin known as “Turkey red"), in Argentina (the Italian wheat, Barletta), in Hungary and Roumania, in southern and southwestern Russia, and to some extent in
Canada, northern India, Asiatic Turkey, and Persia. 3.6 Hard spring wheats: What has been said of the hard winter wheats
also applies to this group, the difference being that the growing season is shorter, and the winter too severe for winter varieties. They are found in central and western Canada, the north central states of the United States (these are the file and blue-stem whcats),
east Russia and western and southern Siberia. 4.6 White wheats: Soft and very starchy; grains harder and much
drier than those of the soft winter wheats; fall or spring sown, even in same locality; grown chiefly in the Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the United States, in Australia, in Chile, in
Turkestan, and the Caucasus. 5.6 Early wheats: Grain soft or semi-hard, amber to red; main charac
teristic is that they ripen early. Found in Australia and India, have a slight representation in California, and include some of the
dwarf wheats of Japan.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 143 bushels.
5.8 Jones' Winter Fife.
6.8 Red Wonder. 3.8 Early Red Clawson.
7.8 Gold Coin. 4.8 Longberry.
8.8 Blue Stem.
1,8 Harder-grained, more glutinous varieties.
2.6 Semi-hard winter wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14 bushels.
6.8 Nigger. 3.8 Rudy.
7.8 Dawson's Golden Chaff 4.8 Mediterranean.
8.8 Early Red Clawson. 3.7 Needs of the grower.
1.8 Hardness of grain.
3.8 Hardy winter varieties. 3.6 Southern wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 94 bushels.
8.8 Purple Straw.
1.8 Rust resistance.
Resistance to late spring frosts.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 13 bushels.
1.8 Saskatchewan Fife.
7.8 Minnesota 163.
1.8 Early maturity.
4.8 Hardy winter varieties. 5.6 Hard winter wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 12} bushels.
3.8 Big Frame.
1.8 Drouth resistance.
3.8 Early maturity. 6.6 Durum wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, 111 bushels.
1.8 Durum varieties.
4.8 Early maturity. 7.6 Irrigated wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 21 bushels. 2.7 Chief varieties.
1.8 Increase of gluten content.
2.8 Early maturity.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 144 bushels.
9.8 Little Club.
1.8 Early maturity.
3.8 Hardy winter varieties in the colder portions. The distribution of these wheats in the United States in 1900 is shown in Map on page 9.