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2,100 to 2,700 marks, with an increase of salary for extra services. All salaries are paid out of the university chest, and no fees are collected from the students in any faculty. The total income of the university for 1870, was 1,162,153 marks; derived as follows: direct from the government, 407,890 marks; income from property of the university, 166,241 m; other sources, (including custom dues, about 400,000), 588,022 m.

The university of Helsingfors is well supplied with buildings, and their appropriate equipments. 1. The University-house, in which are the lecture rooms, halls, and offices, fronts on the Senate-place, opposite to the Senate-house. 2. The Library, in which there are 120,000 vol

3. Chemical Laboratory, erected in 1870, with all the modern improvements. 4. Anatomical Museum. 5. Astronomical Observatory. 6. Meteorological and Magnetic Observatory. 7. Botanic Garden and Conservatory. 8. Gymnastic Halls. 9. Students'-house, in which, besides the accommodation for the meetings of the Nations, and Faculties, there is a library of 15,000 volumes. In the University-house is the Russian Library, devoted exclusively to Russian and Polish literature. In addition to the collection and facilities of illustration indicated by the buildings in which they are placed, there are the Mineralogical and Geological Cabinets, the Zoological Collection, the Ethnographical and Historical Museum, Collections of Coins and Medals, Physico-apparatus, &c.



1. The education and professional training of teachers, and their improvement, are provided for as follows:

(1.) The law of 1866 provides for three Seminaries for the Popular School teachers, of which two are now (1872) in operation; one at Jyväskylä, with two departments, one for males and the other for fcmales; and the other at Ekenäs for female teachers only. The course extends through four years, the last being devoted to practice in the model schools and kindergarten attached. Candidates must have completed their eighteenth year, and on the successful completion of the course, the graduates have the preference to the first vacancies to be filled. In 1872 there were 154 pupils at Jyväskylä, and 30 at Ekenäs. Besides the regular pupils, practical teachers can attend to particular subjects in which they are deficient, and witness and take part in the instruction of the Model Schools. Tuition is free, and a stipendium or allowance is made by the State towards the expenses of board, books, &c.

(2.) In 1864 a Lyceum was established at Helsingfors for the double purpose of a model in organization and methods for this class of in. stitutions, and to serve as a normal school for candidates for teachers in the same, and placed under the charge of the Professor of Pedagogy in the University (Z. Cleve). To this institution resort teacher-candidates after having made their examination at the University, and spend one year in pedagogical study and practice under the direction of the Professor and the Chief-teacher (öfverlärare) in the subjects of religion, history, mathematics, and languages. During the year they receive a small allowance (honorarium).

2. The Polyteknicum at Helsingfors, which has been in existence since 1847, but organized on its present basis in 1872, provides special courses of instruction for . (1.) Civil Engineers, in reference to the practical requirements of railroads and canals.

(2.) Mechanical Engineers, and Builders.
(3.) Architects.
(4.) Practical Chemists and Mining Engineers.

The pupils must be at least 14 years of age, and have gone through a Real School, aith each course occupies from 4 to 6 years, including the time spent in the Preparatory Course. The present corps of instruction includes 16 teachers, with an attendance of 81 pupils, besides 25 who attend certain classes, but belong to the university.

3. Technical Real Schools (at Abo, and Nikolaistad or Wasa), provides special instruction for pupils over 12 years of age, who are destined for the mechanical trades. The course in each occupies 4 years.

4. Agricultural Institutesmone at Mustiala, established in 1837, with 12 teachers in 1871; and 9 smaller schools established at different periods since 1858.

5. Navigation Schools—six, one in each of the principal sea-portsthree of which were established in 1812, and all are kept from the middle of October to the end of April, during the suspension of navigation.

6. Military School--at Fredrikshams, first established in 1780, with a three years' course, besides a preparatory course of three years in the ordinary elementary studies. This school belongs to the Cauet Corps of the Russian system of Military Schools, and the graduates pass into a higher school of special service.

7. Deaf mutes—there are now four schools (of which the first was established in 1858), at Abo, Kuopio, Pedersöre, Borgo, with 107 pupils under 10 teachers. These schools are established and aided by the government, and payments are made by parents, if able, and if not, by the


8. Blind-there are two schools (one at Helsingfors, established in 1866, and the other at Kuopio, opened in 1870), and supported by the government. The number of pupils does not exceed forty.

9. Sunday Schools--these are not conducted on the American plan for religious instruction to children of all classes, but are for ordinary school instruction for adults whose early education has been neglected. In 1870 there were 32 (one in each city) schools, with 2,352 pupils, and entirely supported by the cities.

10. Evening Schools, Drawing Schools, &c.—There are special schools for instruction in technical drawing, but we have no information as to their location, number or character.

11. Orphan children are not gathered into asylums, but are distributed in families, to which they are assigned, too often on a competitive economical scale of the cost of their maintenance.

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1. A Teachers' Association was organized in 1863, in

vote at a general meeting of the teachers in the elementary schools held
that year at Tavastehus. This association has its central department at
Helsingfors, and branches in several other cities. All teachers, parents,
and other interested persons, males and females, may be members of it
by paying an annual fee of 6m. Meetings are held once a month, and
reports of the discussions are printed in the monthly journal of that
association (Tidskrift for Pedagogiska Föreningen i Finland).

The teachers of the popular schools meet, in convention, on the call
of the supervisor of the common schools in the State Board of Educa-
tion, who is ex officio chairman, every three years, for discussion of ed-
ucational matters, lectures, and addr.sses. The teachers of the ele-
mentary schools have a fund for the aid of families of deceased members.

2. Finish Literature Society (Finska litteratur sällskapet), organized 1831, has had great influence on the development of Finish literature, and on investigations in the Finish language, history, and antiquities. It has three committees, of history, literature, and language; and of its Journal (Suomi) 29 large volumes have appeared, besides 67 volumes of other publications. It had in 1872 a fund of 130,191mk., not including its stock of books, valued at 99,883mk., library, and collections.

3. Finish Society of Science (Finska Vetenskapssocieteten), organized 1838, consists of 31 members, most of them professors at the university, and has three divisions, mathemat-physical (7), natural sciences (10), and historico philological (14). The publications embrace 37 volumes, and it has literary connection with 96 foreign societies; among these are nine in America. It is aided by government.

4. Zoological and Botanical Society, founded in 1821 ; Medical Society, founded in 1835, and its published Journal numbers 33 volumes; Juridical Society, founded in 1862. Each society has a special library.

5. Society of Fine Arts, founded in 1846, and aided by government grants; Antiquarian Society, founded in 1870. Both have collections.

6. Bible Society, founded in 1812 ; Missionary Society, in 1859; Prison Association to reform criminals, and aid discharged prisoners.

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progressive development of instruction, and all national interests in Finland is provided for : (1.) By the annual and tri-annual reports of the State Board of Education, already noticed. (2,) By the labors, collections, and publications of the Bureau of Statistics established by the government in 1865, to collect and disseminate information respecting the movements of population, and all departments of industry, as well as educational and scientific institutions, and to keep up a correspondence and interchange of documents with similar bureaus in other countries. (3.) By special reports from University graduates, and emi. nent workmen in different industries, who receive stipendiums to enable them to visit other countries to study their schools, and workshops.

From a catalogue of officers, teachers, and students of the Imperial Alexander University of Finland for the spring term of 1873; and a specification of lectures and exercises for the academical year from Sept. 1, 1872, to May 31, 1873, we gather the following particulars: It was established at Abo, Sweden, in 1640 by Chancellor Oxenstierna dur. ing the minority of Queen Christina, and removed to Helsingfors in 1828, by order of Alexander I., who came into possession of Finland by treaty of Fredriksham in 1809.

His Imperial Highness, the Grand Duke ALEXANDER ALEXANDROWITSCH,
High University Chancellor.

The Earl ALEXANDER ARMFELT, Assistant Chancellor.
The Baron KASIMER VON Koruen, Vice Chancellor.
Professor A. MOBERG, Rector.
Professor Z. TOPELICS, Assistant Rector,


1. FACULTY OF THEOLOGY. A. F. GRANFELT, Prof. of Dogmatics and Morals : from 1 to 2 on Mondays and Tuesdays, on Christian Dogmatics; and on Thursdays and Fridays, on Christian Morals.

A. W. INGMAN, Prof. of Biblical Exegesis: from 12 to 1 on Mondays and Tuesdays, on Paul's Pastoral Letters; on Thursdays and Fridays, on Ezekiel

. C. G. von Essen, Prof. of Pastoral Duties: from 11 to 12 on Tuesdays and Fridays, on Pastoral Duties ; 9 to 11 on Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, Exercises-Catechetical and Homiletics.

H. RABERGH, Prof. of Church History: from 5 to 6 p. m. on Mondays and Tuesdays, on History of the Church in Second Century; on Thursdays and Fridays, Religious Movements in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Reviews on Saturday.

IL FACULTY OF JURISPRUDENCE. A. W. LILJENSTRAND, Prof. of Public Economy: Absent on scientific inquiries.

K. G. EHRSTRÖM, Prof. of Criminal Law and History of Law: every day, 12 to 1. R. A. MONTGOMERY, Prof. of Civil and Roman Law : every day, 1 to 2.

Prof. of Cameralistics : vacant. J. O. FORSMAN, Prof. Ectraordinary: Thursdays and Fridays, 6 to 7, Con. version of Swedish Law Terms into Finish, &c.

III. FACULTY OF MEDICINE. F. J. VON BECKER, Prof. of Physiological Chemistry and Pharmacology: every day, 12 to 1.

K. F. von WILLEBRAND, Prof. of General Pathology and Clinic: Tuesdays and Fridays, 9 to 10, and Mondays and Thursdays, 8 to 10, in the hospital.

0. E. A. HJELT, Prof. of Pathological Anatomy : Tuesdays & Fridays, 12 to 2.

J. A. ESTLANDER, Prof. of Chirurgic Clinic: Mondays and Tuesdays, 10 to il, Thursday and Fridays, 10 to 12, in the hospital.

J. A. J. PIPPINGSKÜLD, Prof. of Midwifery and Children's Diseases : Mondays and Tuesdays, 12 to 2.

Prof. of Physiology: vacant.

Eye Diseases : temporarily filled by Prof. von Becker. G. A. ASP, Special Dissector.

Docents. Private instruction ard hospital treatment, with explanations, are given by S. 0. Wasastjerna, K. G. Hällsten, L. A. Krohn, J. A. Florin, M. G. ). Stenbäck, and F. Saltzmam, all eminent physicians in special diseases.


(a.) Historico-Philological Section. J. J. W. Lagus, Prof. of Greek: from 12 to 1 every day, Plato's Phaedo, Pindar's Oy npian, and Demosthenes' Olynthian, Euripides Iphigeniu in Tauris.

2. J. Cleve, Prof. of Pedagoyy and Didactics : from 1 to 2 every day, on School Management.

G. Z. Forssan, Prof. of Universal Tistory: from 5 to 6 on Mon. and Tues., History of 18th Century; and Thurs. and Fri., The Federal System.

2. TOPELIUS, Prof. of Finish, Russian, and Scandinavian History: from 6 to 7, History of Finland after 1157.

A. E. Ahlqvist, Prof. of Finish Language and Literature. A. F. NORDQVIST, Prof. of Russian : from 5 to 6, Hiswry of Literature and Grammar.

K. G. ESTLANDER, Prof. of Esthetics and Modern Literature: from 5 to 6 on Mon. and Tues., History of Swedish Literature; and Thurg. and Fri., Esthetics. K. G. T. Rein, Prof. of Philosophy : from 6 to 7 every day, Psychology.

Prof. of Oriental Literature : vacant.

Prof. of Latin : vacant. A. W. Bolin, Prof. Extraordinary of Philosophy: from 5 to 6 on Wed. and Sat., the Attic Philosophy.

E. A. STRANDMAN, Prof. Extraordinary of Oriental Languages : from 9 to 10 every day.

F. J. PETERSEN, Prof. Extraordinary of Latin : from 11 to 12 every day, on Tibullus and Livius; Wed. and Sat., from 4 to 7, exercises.

Docents. J. L. F. Krohn, Finish; A. 0. Freudenthal, Old-Scandinavian language; E. Böök, Pedagogy; O. Donner, Sanscrit and Comparative Linguistics; K. A. R. Tötterman, Semitic languages; J. J. F. Perander, Philosophy.

(6.) Physico-Mathematical Section. A. MOBERG, Prof. of Physics. Rector of the University.

L. L. LINDELÖF, Prof. of Mathematics : from 1 to 2, Higher Algebra and Analytic Geometry.

K. N. A, KRUEGER, Prof. of Astronomy from 10 to 11 on Wed. and Sat., Spheric Astronomy: exercises in observations.

S.O. LINDBERG, Prof. of Botany : from 9 to 11 on Mon. and Tues., Morphol. ogy, and the Masses in the North.

F. W. MAKLIN, Prof. of Zoology: from 11 to 12 every day.

J. J. CHYDENIUS, Prof. of Chemistry: from 5 to 6f Mon. and Thurs., practical work in laboratory.

· Prof. of Geology and Mineralogy: vacant. A. J. MALMGREN, Prof. Extraordinary of Zoology: from 11 to 12 on Wed. and Sat., Vertebrates of the North.

Docents. F. J. Wiik, Geology and Mineralogy ; H. A. Wahlforss, Chemistry; K. S. Lemström, Physics; A. F. Sundell, Physics ; J. P. Norrlin, Botany; J. R. Sahlberg, Zoology.

V. UNIVERSITY LECTURERS. K. A. Gottlund, Finish Language and Literature; B. F. Godenhjelm, German; F. L. Martinson, Russian; Earl G. J. P. Armfelt, French; K. G. Borg, Finish; H. Paul, German ; S. P. Dahlbeck, Mercantile Science; E. W. Palander, Russian; P. T. Stolpe, English.

VI. SPECIAL INSTRUCTORS. F. W. Bergholm, Gymnastics and Fencing; A. von Becker, Drawing ; F. R. Faltin, Music.

Nole.--All of the Professors have at least the degree of Doctor in their respective faculties, and most of them have received evidence of distinction in other departments of science, none of which are appended to their names, as republished in the above list.

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