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themselves, the fighting English demi- sarcasm, shall receive a noble rouse for gods ! So, should it be the hap of our the service of the collective need. nation to find itself ere long in the Meanwhile, in these yet clear heavens, probation of some such enterprise of all and ere the hurricane comes that shall its strength, some such contest of life huddle us together, it is for any one and death, as many foresee for it, little here and there that, having escaped doubt that then, in the general shaking the general taint of cynicism, has which shall ensue, fallacies shall fall dared to propose to himself some from it like withered leaves, and meaner positive intellectual labour of the old habits with them, and that then many enthusiastic sort, to secure the necesa mind to which at present the sole sary equanimity by pre-arranged and competent use of pen or of voice seems persevering solitude. to be in a splenetic service of small
ANNALS OF AN INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL.
BY THE DEAN OF ELY.
This is the age of Reformatories. Judges have declared against the cruelty of awarding punishment, pure and simple, to those whose chief fault is utter neglect on the part of parents to teach them what is right, or diligence in teaching them what is wrong; clergymen have preached about it; Parliaments have voted upon it; public meetings have declared against it; and, what is still better, Mettray, Redhill, and hundreds of other similar asylums for young offenders have been established, and have proved the possibility, and therefore the duty, of reforming wicked boys, instead of severely whipping them, or confining them, or hanging them. So undeniable has the reformatory success been, that we have almost ceased to hear the plausible argument that bad boys are taken care of, and honest boys left to shift for themselves. The Christian instinct of warm-hearted people long ago burst through the bonds which this argument would lay upon them, and we now see clearly enough that the argument was only a sophism, and that the real answer to it is this, that wickedness is like a loathsome infectious disease, and that to remove a bad case to a hospital is not more a kindness to the patient than an act of mercy to the
neighbourhood. In fact, the reformatory work done by the removal of a clever ringleader in wickedness is by no means to be measured by the benefit conferred upon the individual, or even by the advantage to society of having one knave transformed into an honest member; the reformation of your one knave probably breaks up a gang, and leaves many lads, who would soon have joined the same, to the more wholesome influence of their pastors and masters. Within my own knowledge, the establishment of a reformatory for a small number of boys, in the neighbourhood of a large city, almost immediately produced a marked effect upon the number of juvenile offenders brought before the magistrates.
Nevertheless, every one feels that a poor lad who has never been committed for stealing, but who is quite willing to steal if occasion offer, a young thief in posse, if not in esse, can make out something of a case against reformatories, if they shut their doors upon him as not being one of the brotherhood. Have you ever been in gaol ? No. Are you a thief ? Not by profession; and my doings in that way have been so small, that I scarcely deserve the name. I am afraid, my boy, you will not do for us.
But I have no objection to steal, says concerning the organization and princithe boy; only try me, and you shall see ples of the school in question. I will that there is no bar to my becoming a speak of it with as much fairness as it thief to-morrow. Well, then, become is possible to speak of a child which a thief, and, when you are one, we will you have nursed from the cradle, and take you in hand and reform you. watched through its teething and other
There is enough of truth in this cari. infantine infirmities; and I would say, cature to make us glad that there are once for all, that whatever good may such things as Industrial Schools and have come from the school, is due (under Boys' Homes, to which the passport is God) not so much to its organization as not juvenile crime, but rather juvenile to the superlative qualifications for the misery and misfortune. In every large work possessed by the master whom town there are many boys, (and girls the managers were fortunate enough to too, but I am just now speaking of boys engage. I can easily conceive that an only,) who are not actually criminal, but Industrial School might be established, who are very likely to become so in apparently upon the same principles as times of idleness, and under the influ- that at Cambridge, and might fail ; I ence of temptation; boys of careless have no doubt there are fit men to be parents, or bad parents ; neglected had ; only it must be remembered that orphans ; boys brought up to no trade; the qualifications are such as can hardly boys who have never been educated, be gained by training. With regard to and who have forgotten even the smat some of them, at least, the Industrial tering of knowledge they picked up at . Master nascitur, non fit. the National School; boys who play at The Cambridge Industrial School was pitch-farthing at street-corners, or hang intended for about fifty boys; and someabout railway stations, or sweep cross- times there have been more than that ings, or beg for coppers, or do anything number in attendance-generally less. else but work for an honest livelihood The boys may or may not be criminal ; and prepare themselves to become honest inquiry is of course made as to their men and good citizens. What is to be history, but no objection is made on the done for these boys? The true phi- score of not possessing a certificate of losophy of healing involves a careful roguery. The school has about six or diagnosis of the disease. In this case seven acres of land in spade cultivation, the disease is, fundamentally, idleness; and the working of this land is the the cure is industry. The idleness is in staple occupation of the boys. The land a certain sense artificial; the industry is a cold, heavy clay, and was terrible must be artificial too.
work for the boys at first, but it has It was with such views as these that, given way to the general reformatory some years ago, a school was established influences of the place, and is now very in Cambridge under the name of the manageable and docile. . Besides the Cambridge Industrial School. The field or garden work, there is a workschool is still flourishing, and virtually shop, in which the boys pursue the usedoing a great deal of reformatory work. ful occupations of tailoring and shoeMany boys who have been in the school making, becoming snips or snobs accordare now well-conducted, useful men; ing to fancy-only with this reservation, not a few owe to the training which that a boy who has once declared for they received in it all that they are, and breeches must not go to boots, nor vice all that they hope to be; and some of versd. Further industrial employment the cases are so striking, that I think is afforded by a greenhouse ; and there many of the readers of this magazine is a tolerably extensive piggery, the inwill thank me for putting before them mates of which may indeed be regarded the simple annals of several poor lads, as liberal subscribers to the institution, which they will find a little further on and amongst its most energetic sup
First, however, let me say a few words porters.
In addition to the workshop there Majesty in the army, fourteen in the are two rooms, one for the feeding of navy, and for about fifty of the number the mind, the other for that of the body. good situations have been obtained A certain portion of each day is passed through the agency of the school. I in the former occupation, under the cannot pretend to weigh exactly the direction of the head master, who also successes against the failures. I know superintends the outdoor exercises : this that there have been some of the latter; is an essential part of the plan-the I am equally sure that there have been field and the school act and react upon many of the former; and even in cases each other : the former is the place for which have seemed to the Committee exercising the virtues instilled in the and the master of the school quite latter, and any faults which appear in hopeless, a seed may have been sown the field can be discussed and corrected which should spring up afterwards. afterwards in school. The feeding is This was, in fact, demonstrated to be confined to one meal a day. I do not possible in a recent case. A boy, regarded mean that the boys eat no more ; but as nearly the worst whom the school only one meal is provided by the school ever received, and who left the school funds ; whatever else is necessary to without giving the master a ray of hope, support life the boys are obliged to find has lately written a letter from India, in for themselves. Hence there is small a new strain, announcing that he is temptation to enter the school on false acting as Scripiure Reader in the regipretences; the maxim of little to eat ment to which he belongs. and plenty to do, serves to keep away I ought to add that, during the ten all those who are not proper subjects years of the school's existence, the for the school's reformatory operations. head master has been the same, the
The admission is entirely free. In shoemaking-master the same, and the the first instance a small payment was tailoring-master was the same till about demanded,--twopence per week; and I two years ago, when he obtained preferremember the case of a sturdy boy who ment in one of the Colleges. used to work hard at the school all day, So much for the machinery of the and then go round with a basket calling school, which I have compressed into “Trotters !” through the streets of Cam- as short a space as possible, for fear of bridge all the evening in order to pay his wearying my readers, and in order that school fee and find himself breakfast. I may carry them forward as quickly as But it was found, after some experience, possible to that part of my paper upon that the payment of twopence per week which I chiefly depend for any interest excluded many whom it was desirable, which may attach to it. Indeed I should above all others, to take in, and the hardly have ventured to draw the still rule was consequently abrogated. life picture of the school, if I had not
The school has been open for exactly been able to add some sketches of the ten years. During this period nearly inmates, which can hardly fail to be 400 boys have passed through it. These deemed striking: some portions of the have remained for longer or shorter sketches will have the additional interest times, as the case might be : some of being drawn by the industrial boys attending regularly for several years; themselves. others coming for a time, then getting I proceed, then, to give an account of work, then returning when work is not some of the boys, and extracts from letters to be had-a practice encouraged by the received from them : there are obvious managers, and which has kept many a reasons why, in some cases, the names poor lad out of mischief ; others again ought not to be given, and, as they coming for a short time, and then, on cannot be given in some, I shall withfinding steady work and cleanliness too hold them in all, designating the boys much for them, returning to idleness by their numbers on the school register. and dirt. Thirty-four are serving her No. 1 was the first boy admitted
into the school. He was an intelligent and orderly folks. A country girl, who lad, and as such had been employed as lived as servant with the master, threata monitor and assistant in a national ened to give notice if No. 16 continued school; he was tempted by his love of in the school; she said he was "such a books to steal a considerable number terrible swearer, she could not bear it.” belonging to the school library, and was This was when he first came to the ejected in consequence. Having thus school. After being in the school some lost his character, he was picked up by months, he and another boy (now a the Industrial School, where he re- well-conducted married man) had a mained for about two years, when he pitched battle. The master threatened was recommended, in consequence of expulsion, and they both begged parhis good conduct, to a tradesman in don, and promised to do so no more. Cambridge. He remained in his place Better days now dawned ; No. 16 imfor some time, but told his master from proved rapidly ; in less than two years the first that he longed to be a soldier, from his admission he was made assistand intended to enlist when a favour ant to the master, and proved most able opportunity offered. At length valuable. His great strength and dethe opportunity came ; he enlisted into termined character were now turned to a cavalry regiment, and served in the good account; the roughest boys found Crimea. From the Crimea he wrote their master; and when they told him the most affectionate letters to the that they could not leave off this or school, with many inquiries about his that bad habit, he was able to tell them, former companions. At the close of from his own experience, that he knew the war he was selected as the best- it could be done. He now became a behaved private of his regiment, and Sunday-school teacher. This was too sent by Government for two years' much for his old companions; they training at Maidstone. He went out ridiculed him in the streets and pelted to India, after training, as corporal, and him. He told the master in distress, last Christmas was promoted to be a that he must turn upon them some day sergeant. I have several letters from and give them a thrashing or get one him before me; in the last dated himself. The master told him all his Bangalore, he says, “I suppose the work would be undone if he did so, and “ school has a very smart appearance No. 16 restrained himself. Any one « by this time ; and I do hope I shall who knew the fire of his eye and the “ not be very long before I am able to strength of his arms would understand “ give you a call.” In the midst of how much this forbearance cost him. the terrible Crimean winter campaign, One day a Colonial Bishop saw him he found time to use his pencil, with superintend a large gang of boys at which he was very clever, in drawing a field-work, was struck by his skill and picture of himself in his sentry-box, power of managing his gang, and carwhich he sent to the school with many ried him off as a catechist to his distant inquiries concerning his old companions. diocese, where he is doing honour to
No. 16 is a very remarkable case. his Christian profession, and justifying My first acquaintance with this boy the Bishop's choice. I have abundance was made, after evening service, in a of this young man's letters before me church in which I had been officiating. as I write. They are in every way well He was brought before me as a culprit written; they are full of affection to who had been disturbing the congrega his old master; they breathe a genuine tion, and was admonished and dis- missionary spirit; and, as I read them, I charged. He was then quite a small say to myself, Is it possible that the boy. Growing in time to be a big one, writer can be that wild, fierce lad, he became a very rough and turbulent whom I remember ten years ago in the fellow; was known as the bully of the Industrial School ? parish, and was the terror of all quiet No. 24, a fatherless lad, came to the
school a cripple, with crutch and stick. flourishing as assistant in a large store, He was set upon his legs by the manage and seems likely to become a substantial ment of a medical gentleman, who Yankee. This boy frequently writes to chanced to call at the school and per- the schoolmaster in the most affectionate ceived his crippled condition ; and the terms. same operation was performed for him I give one extract. Referring to a morally by the school : for, having domestic affliction in the master's family, earned a good character, he was ap- he writes :—“Gladly would I, if I was prenticed to a shoemaker, by help of near you, do all I could for you; for I friends whom he had gained while at feel as if I could not do enough to pay school, and on easy terms in conse- for the kindness you always showed quence of the knowledge of the trade towards me : but I hope that I shall which he had already acquired. He is have the privilege, some time, to do you now a good workman, subscribes annu- a kindness in some way or other. I was ally to the funds of the Industrial very glad indeed to hear such an account School, and helps to support a widowed of — I know it must cheer your mother.
heart to hear such accounts of the boys No. 57 was a boy the complete treat that have been with you, and that you ment of whose case was beyond the can see that your labour was not in vain. appliances of the school. He had a bad I know that, had you cast me off, I should father and an infamous stepmother, who have been a ruined man.” taught him to steal. He came to the No. 60 is the son of a shoemaker in school as young as he could be according Cambridge, a first-rate workman, who to the rules, but had already been in had an unfortunate dislike to maintain prison several times, and was in prison his wife and family, and positively went several times afterwards. Altogether, to prison, and afterwards to the Union the magistrates had him before them workhouse, rather than support them. fifteen times ! Notwithstanding this The boy was very ill-behaved at times, tendency to steal, the master of the intensely fond of smoking, and much school spoke well of him, and, indeed, addicted to bad language. However, he said that anything might be done with improved very considerably; and at him, if he had only a fair chance; and length, through the efforts of the Comwhen I went to see him in gaol, the mittee, was apprenticed in Her Majesty's governor gave the same account of him. navy. He writes to the master with the The Industrial School had not the means same warm affection that characterises of taking him entirely away from tempta- other letters of which I have spoken; tion for a time, and the good resolutions and in one of his letters, from Plymouth, of the day were destroyed by the bad he says, “I should very much like to home influences of evening. After he come to Cambridge for two days, but I had been liberated from gaol for the last shall not have money enough, as I am time, a lady who supports a private very happy to tell you that I have done reformatory, and whose name may be what I know I am right to do; that is, guessed by those versed in reformatory to assist my mother, which I have felt matters, but shall not be revealed by a great deal since I have been at sea; me, offered, in the kindest manner pos- and I feel just as well as if I had the sible, to receive a boy from the school if money myself, for I should only spend there chanced to be one to whom an it in waste, and be no better for it. I absolute removal to a reformatory would have left £l every month for this last be beneficial. No. 57 was precisely the twelvemonth, and that is ever since I case and accordingly No. 57 was sent to have been able to do so.” the reformatory, in which he realized No. 68 was a very bad boy before the best hopes that had been formed of coming to the school. The master frehim, and was eventually sent to America quently received petitions that he would by his kind patroness, where he is punish him for misdemeanours in the
No. 7.-VOL. II.