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reigns brightly, even in the lustre of a are in the front to be a little positive sunset. The sun has gone down behind in blue, we say so under the correction the trees on the margin of the open of so cunning a renderer of nature as country, and casts a soft crimson radi- the artist. This picture is styled, from ance upon the fleecy clouds that swim the figure it contains, “ The Hedger." above; the air cool and bright and clear; Unquestionably this figure is thin in the vegetation dark red with autumn execution, and does not come out so tints, harmonising with the tawny brown solidly as it should. of the stiff clay land, and orange of a Mr. A. Solomon's “Drowned, Drowned," gravel road over which passes a team is a large picture, showing the arrival of and waggon. We commend to the ob- a party of rakes from a masquerade, in server's study the sky in all its delicate costume, at the foot of Waterloo Bridge, and beautiful colouring.

just as a waterman has rescued from the Mr. Dobson's picture of the Nativity, river the body of a girl, an unfortunate, styled “Bethlehem,” needs our atten- who has cast herself away in despair. tion. It shows some fine points of We are to suppose that the foremost of design, especially that of a kneeling these men has been the cause of the shepherd ; the infant Christ himself wretched girl's ruin; and now, coming is charmingly treated, lying back suddenly upon her corpse, thus dragged, playing with his fingers as infants foul and dripping, from the river, he will. In Mr. Simeon Solomon's stands aghast and horrified at the spec“ Moses," the mother of the deliverer tacle, checks instinctively the advance of Israel is taking farewell of him be- of a female companion, who, clinging to fore he is deposited among the bul- his arm, comes gaily along, heedless of rushes. The sister of Moses waits be- her own fate. Behind is another man side holding the basket, and, standing similarly accompanied, his companion upright, peers over her mother's arm at coquetting with him. A policeman kneels the child. Their faces, although, it before the dead girl, casting the light of appears to us, a little too dark, are full of his lanthorn on her face, so that it expression and characteristic tenderness. is clearly seen. The waterman points The colour throughout this picture is out to a bystander the place he brought extremely good, the varying textures of the body out from, and is dilating upon the dresses excellently rendered, and the the event and his own share in it accessories all displaying thought and especially. A girl with a basket of originality. “ Early Morning in the violets upon her head stands behind, Wilderness of Shurr," by Mr. F. Good looking commiseratingly upon the lost all, is a large work, representing an There is a fine perception of chaArab sheikh addressing his tribe before racter shown in the treatment of this they break up an encampment at the last figure. She is one of those hard hills of Moses, on the eastern shore of women, whom misfortune has made the Red Sea. This is solidly and power- undemonstrative, to say the least, if not fully painted, has much variety of cha- cold-hearted ; so she only stands by, and racter in it, and appears to have been seems to give but a general look of executed, either on the spot, direct from sympathy to the spectacle before her. nature, or from faithful sketches of If the artist had treated this subject nature. Mr. John Brett's elaborate and with more complete fidelity,—that is, delicate study from the margin of a actually painted the background on plantation, where a hedger is mending the spot it represents, and heedfully a wattled fence, does him infinite honour rendered the locality, and, above all, for the care and fidelity with which he the effect of cold early dawn rising has rendered all the herbage and wild- over the city, the awful stillness of flowers about. Some fine roses are de- which would have given a solemnity to licious in colour and freshness; and, the event,—we should have had a far although believing the hyacinths that more moving picture than the present,


which has undeniably been executed in the havoc made by photography amongst the studio, and therefore does not render the professors of the agreeable little art. the subtler qualities of nature, which, The Octagon Room contains only prints. rightly rendered, would have been an Among the sculptures, Baron Maroimmense help to the motive of the chetti's “ Portrait marble statuette" whole. As it is, the picture is grimy of a child, although not particularly rather than forceful, and heavy rather original in design, has a manly breadth than clear. This prosaic method of of treatment about it that is agreeable. working has, in short, injured the Mr. Thomas Woolner's bust of Sir poetry of the subject.

William Hooker is a noble specimen of The omission of the two upper rows artistic skill in the very highest order of pictures from this gallery is really a of art—faithful, finished, naturalistic, great improvement, and gives a notable yet delicate and vigorous to an appearance of size to the rooms. Pic- equalled degree. The same artist's three tures placed on those rows of yore could medallion portraits of Messrs. Norman, never be seen, and were ever the misery Crawford, and A. A. Knox, are fine of their painters, who, naturally enough, examples of sound treatment. Mr. A. complained bitterly of the result of their Munro has several portraits in marble, confidence in the justice of the hangers. displaying his usual pleasing and graceThe very small number of miniatures ful style of execution. also is a novelty, which we fear tells of




A GRAVE event has befallen India- bill mischievous and fatal as respects the gravest, I believe, in its conse- the Presidency over which he was Goquences, whether for good or evil, that vernor, not only remonstrated against it, has happened since the rebellion. A and drew up a scheme on wholly oppoGovernor, who promised to show him- site principles, which he embodied in a self the best that has ruled in that minute, and which obtained the assent country since the days of Lord William of his colleagues, members of the Madras Bentinck, whose trusted subordinate he Council, but, without consulting them, was once, has been, through his own without previous sanction from his offi. indiscretion, suddenly recalled, and is cial superiors, on his sole responsibility, believed to have anticipated that recall sent that minute to the public press. by resignation.

Nor is it possible to deny that in the Through his own indiscretion. There tone of the minute, as well as in the is no blinking the fact. As Governor of fact of its publication, there is much Madras, Sir Charles Trevelyan was sub- that is inconsistent with the requireordinate to the Council of the Governor- ments of public duty. General of India, sitting at Calcutta. But there is a discretion which may A financial scheme for all India had lose a country. There is an indiscretion been put forth publicly, in a speech which may save it. I believe that Sir of great power, by a gentleman sent Charles Trevelyan's indiscretion was out from this country for the express such. I need not say I am sure, had he purpose of taking charge of Indian not believed this, he never would have finance, and a bill founded on that committed it. scheme had been introduced, with the Let us look the fact in the face. It sanction of the Governor-General, into is proposed to impose at once three abthe Legislative Council. Sir Charles solutely new taxes upon from 150 to Trevelyan, deeming that scheme and 180 millions of people. It is admitted by the proposer that there are “abso- is opened up as to every one of these "lutely no data upon which any reliable taxes, and the application of every one, " calculation can be made of their result." and the figure of every one.

A tax I say that the history of mankind may be admirable as respects ten millions affords no instance of such an experi- of people, detestable as respects the ten ment, carried out on such a scale. I say next millions, their neighbours. Admit that it is perfectly impossible for me to if you like—and I sincerely trust it is conceive of its succeeding under such so--that Mr. Wilson's taxes are perconditions. I say that the deepest fectly adapted for Northern India, which gratitude is owing to the first man who he has seen, what possible ground can comes forward and shows under what there be for supposing that they are conditions, within what limits, it cannot equally adapted to Central and Southern succeed, and therefore should not be tried. India, which he has not seen?

Now I do not wish to be misunder- Let us test this by a comparison. In stood. Mr. Wilson left this country, the year 2060, North American connot perhaps amid such a chorus of uni- querors have established their dominion versal good opinion as the applause of over the whole of Europe, minus part of farewell meetings and dinners might lead Russia, a few small European states reone to think, but still with the reputation maining here and there as their tribuof a very able, very hard-working, and taries, but all the present distinctions of very experienced financier. I think his race, language, habits, religion, remainscheme a very able one.

I wish to see

ing the same, and the relation between it tried, on a safe and limited scale. I conquerors and conquered being comhope it may succeed, so as eventually to plicated by the fact that the former are be applicable on a larger one. Even Mormonites, whose creed is abhorrent to were it to fail, I believe him to be European notions. They have not shown entitled to our very great gratitude for themselves able financiers ; the surplus devising it. Anything more absurd,

revenues of every most flourishing state anything more wicked than our financial have mostly vanished upon its annexaadministration of India hitherto, it is tion; yearly deficits have been, for a impossible to conceive. We have so length of time, the rule. After a danruled a land of the utmost fertility, gerous rebellion, a shrewd Yankee is capable of producing everything under sent from Connecticut to set the finances heaven, with a practical monopoly of of America's European empire straight. growth as respects several articles in He takes a rapid run vid Southampton great demand, teeming with a docile and and London, through Belgium and North industrious population, as to have a Germany, returns to Hamburg, the capital deficit in thirty-three years out of the of the empire, and three months after last forty-six (1814–1860), a surplus arrival, puts forth a new budget, imonly in thirteen, the net total deficit posing three spick and span new taxes amounting to nearly sixty-four millions.

on the whole population, from the North Mr. Wilson comes, and {says: This Cape to Gibraltar, averring beforehand shall be no longer. All thanks to him that he cannot calculate what they will for so doing. He says : I will do no bring in. Whereupon, a subordinate further towards sapping the productive official, of very great European as well powers of the country at their very root as American experience, who only rules by adding to the weight of the land-tax. over France, Spain, and Portugal, gets up I will tax production in its fruits, and

« Your scheme won't do in consumption in its enjoyments. Right any way for the countries under my again, most right. But when he comes charge ; I undertake for them to restore to the specific measures for applying the balance between income and expenthese principles—a tax on incomes, a diture without new taxes, by merely licence-duty for trades, a duty on tobacco reducing expenditure.” Now, judging ot —then the whole question of specificmerit the twenty-first century by the lights of the nineteenth, should not we hold of life, thought, and feeling, to be that both might be quite right within governed by 100,000 men of another the sphere of their own experience; but race, colour, and religion, and of strikthe shrewd Yankee most probably quite ingly different customs, modes of thought wrong in attempting to tax France, and feeling, from all the rest?- I suppose Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the very last solution which would occur Hungary, half Germany, half the British to any one would be this: You shall Isles, not to speak of the Scandinavian establish a legislative and administrative countries, from his three months' expe- body at one extremity of the country, rience of Southern England, Belgium, which shall have supreme control over and half Germany? Why do we not the whole, so that there shall be, as far see that what would be folly in the as possible, one law, one police, one twenty-first century is folly in the nine- system of government taxation, affecting teenth ?

and says:

the whole of these 180 millions of men, I believe, for my own part, Sir Charles and reducing them, as far as the domiTrevelyan had thoroughly calculated the nant 100,000 can succeed in doing so, cost of his own indiscretion. I believe to unity and nationality. Now this is he thought, and thought rightly, that precisely the task which England has the only appeal against the monstrous set before herself in governing India. folly of Calcutta centralization which One might have thought that the late could save the country committed to his rebellion would have roused her to a charge, lay to public opinion. I believe sense of the mischiefs attending its fulthat, to make that appeal, he voluntarily filment; since that rebellion was only sacrificed, not place and power alone, put down by means of such remnants which he could well afford, but reputa- of local autonomy as still subsist in our tion. I believe that the true answer to military organization, whereby the native that appeal on the part of his ultimate armies of Bombay and Madras were superiors in this country would have rendered available to subdue the rebelbeen—not to recall him, as they have lious native army of Bengal ; or by done ; not to send him to Calcutta, as means of such temporary autonomy as Mr. Danby Seymour foolishly advised was allowed to Sir John Lawrence in but to have hurried a bill through both the Punjab, and was exercised on houses, declaring the Madras Presidency, smaller scale, in fact, in a hundred for a twelvemonth at first, exempt from separate localities, by every individual the jurisdiction of the Council in India, English official who was not carried and to have cast upon Sir Charles the away by the flood. Yet the lesson seems full responsibility of making good his, to have been utterly thrown away, and own pledges; or, better still, to have our whole empire is to be staked on the at once authorized him by despatch to act cast of a die, since Mr. Wilson himself upon

those principles, and then to have practically admits that his three new come before Parliament with a bill of taxes amount to no more. indemnity for themselves and for him. It is not indeed four independent

For, if we will look into the heart of governments which India wants, but the matter, which Mr. Bright alone has twenty or thirty—to be entirely selfdone hitherto, the fault of all this lies in ruled within, with power to federate the insane concentration of power in for economical purposes, but with no the Calcutta Council.

other subordination except direct to the If any one were to put before us mother-country. Possibly, the power of the problem : How are 180 millions of making peace and war might be vested people, speaking twenty or thirty dif- in a supreme governor-general; but ferent languages, following four different since India is no farther from us now religions (themselves split up into in- in point of time than were the West numerable sects), varying almost ad Indies thirty years ago, it seems diffiinfinitum in race, colour, customs, modes cult to believe that even this can be


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strictly necessary ; indeed half our In- am far from approving of many of his dian wars ere this, I suspect, would acts since his assumption of the governhave been saved by the absence of ment of Madras ; his conduct towards such a power.

I believe it is impos- one great Indian family in particularsible to calculate the wondrous de- to judge from a recent pamphlet by velopment of local activity and life Mr. J. B. Norton-painfully recalls old which such a decentralization would call Leadenhall-street officialism. But out; the vigour of root which Euro- bound to say that, as respects this finanpean intellect might then show forth, cial scheme, even in matters of detail, striking deep into a soil which it now there is strong reason to think that Sir only languidly trails over, in the con- Charles Trevelyan is, for Madras, right stant expectation of being transplanted altogether. A landowner in his own from high to low, from bleak to sunny, Presidency writes thus (15th March), from clay to sand.; the improved pro- knowing as yet only Mr. Wilson's cesses of government which emulation scheme, and not Sir Charles's opposition would then realize. I believe that Sir to it :Charles Trevelyan's self-sacrifice will “ You will have read Wilson's great bear its fruits; that Indian centraliza- speech. ... Its delivery will mark an tion will reel and crumble beneath the “ Indian epoch; but his scheme of very weight of his fall; that men will ~ native taxation is another affair. I no longer be satisfied with a mock uni- hope that will not also mark an formity of rule, which requires, for the "epoch. I go thoroughly along with success of its experiments, that such “the principles, adopt every one of a man should be driven from his post. “ them where practicable ; but how can The autonomy of the Presidencies is the they be practicable in Madras, where least result which I expect from his “ the European collectors and assistants indiscretion. God grant that it may are the sole reliable instruments in not have to realize itself through the “ each province for assessing the licence preliminary process of a rebellion, in " and income tax? Trust the duty to precisely that portion of India which “the amlahs, and see if the natives passed almost scatheless through the “ will pay. In Madras, the artizans and last !

"small shopkeepers are, as a rule, too This is not the time to discuss, in “poor to pay. Wilson has planned an their application to India, the three " admirable machine, and has to learn great methods of equalizing income and “ that he is without the power of setting expenditure-reduction of expenditure ; “it in motion." increased taxation; or increased expen- Again, as to Sir Charles's undertaking diture for reproductive purposes. I to meet expenditure by retrenchment, have confined myself hitherto simply to I can only add that an Indian officer of one point-the utter absurdity of sup- great experience in military administraposing that an entirely new system of tion in Bombay, and as free from rashtaxation can be enforced all at once ness by temperament as he is by age, throughout all India. I do not wish has expressed to me the confident belief to complicate with details that simple that the thing is perfectly feasible—not point, self-evident when once perceived, in Madras, about which he knows little, only not perceived, I'venture to think, and Sir Charles may be fairly supposed through that political short sight which to know much—but in Bombay, which, renders some men actually incapable of it has been publicly stated, has never perceiving things on account of their yet paid its own expenses. very evidence-just as, I take it, the If it be asked, Why should Mr. limited vision of the mole renders it Wilson's taxes be good for Northern incapable of realizing the bulk of the India, bad for Southern ? the answer elephant. With the highest admiration should be quite sufficient, For the same for Sir Charles Trevelyan's character, I reason that taxes or charges which

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