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fallen at God's feet imploring mercy. now on her eastern border, in a fold And yet, apart from its scriptural in- of the great central mountain-chain of stances, what is the passage I have Europe. quoted but a fervid appeal to the Nor would the mischief, I suspect, common humanity of every one of us, be less great materially than morally. “ Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics Despotism shuts a country more and as well as Christians of churches old more up within itself. Freedom always and new, state and free,—an appeal overbrims in blessings. The trade and grounded on the nature of Him who industry of free Switzerland have accuis the Father of all,—a cry to the mulated within her narrow limits a vast heart, in the name of Him who is the amount both of capital and of acquired Lord of the hearts of all ? Indeed, if I skill, by which her neighbours, France might characterise the “Heavenly Hori- especially, largely profit. Not only is zons” in two words, I would say that her industrial ability such, that out of the essential beauty of the book, as well cotton bought at Liverpool, charged with as its distinctive characteristic, consists all the cost of transit thence, by rail or in its passionate humanity. So much river, to the very heart of the continent, broader, thank God, is the spirit of man she is able to manufacture certain fabrics than the systems in which it seeks to which undersell our own in neighbourinclose itself, that the world is filled ing markets; but she actually supplies with such contradictions, whether in the capital to the factories of Eastern France. writings or in the lives of men. Feel Thus, it is well known that, thanks to ings perpetually overlap dogmas. The commandite, Bâle has created Mulhouse. large heart and the narrow doctrine often The same superiority exists, as we pass quaintly meet in one. A man will into the sphere of handicrafts. Districts, damn you Sunday after Sunday from his which in France would send forth only pulpit, who will treat you as the best of workers in the coarser kinds of labour, friends when he comes down from send them in Switzerland in the And so Madame de Gasparin, professing finer; a village which in France would only to address “the redeemed,” has breed stone-cutters or carpenters, trains illustrated a truth which she ignores, by in French Switzerland its watchmakers speaking to the hearts of all.

or confectioners; who, if afterwards And now I need hardly point out how they go forth throughout all the world, these books, written by the mistress of yet above all take up their sojourn in a Parisian household, are yet essentially France, and even if not, yet under their Swiss-French books,—how they illus- French names generally give France the trate, though with a fervour and a poetry credit of their success. No physical of style of which Switzerland has sup- peculiarities of the country suffice to explied no instances since Rousseau,- plain these facts; they are above all the that proud and vigorous individualism fruits of freedom; they must perish if of the Swiss race. Here again, then, that be rooted out. May Switzerland we may recognise the influence of that long retain her own! May the powers Swiss element in French thought on of Europe, true to their long-pledged which I have dwelt. Western SwitzerWestern Switzer- word, suffer no imperial ambition to in

, land is indeed essentially married to vade or paralyze it! May Switzerland France, as the mountain to the plain ; be ever more true to herself, and strong bracing her with crisp airs, feeding her in the consciousness of her rights, of streams with snows. But the marriage, her worth in the political fabric, as one to be healthy and prolific, must be one of the very corner-stones of European not of violence and slavery, but of free peace, remember always that, as the love. There could be few greater moral French proverb says, God helps those curses for France than the trampling who help themselves ! out of that nest of Protestant faith, free But helping herself, let her seek help thought, self-reliant manhood, which lies from God. Let her learn that true democracy does not consist in abuse of her the divine breadth of the Church. momiers, and needs other representatives What Switzerland needs, is to see the than a James Fazy. True it is, that the God of Israel, the God of the nation, God whom her pious men bave chiefly behind the God of the single believer. If shown to her, is not the one whom she the crisis of her independence-as many blindly gropes for. Excessive religious signs indicate-is nigh, in that Name individualism has too much obscured for only will she stand, —will she conquer,




My friend, John Penruddock, over in lay an increased balance at his banker's. Ireland, with whom I spent a month This continual, ever-victorious activity of last summer, made a deeper impression his seemed strange to me. We usually on me than I can tell. For years I had think that poets, painters, and the like, not seen such a man.

There was

are finer, more heroical than cultivators reality and honest stuff in him, which, of the ground. But does the production in living with him and watching his daily of a questionable book really surpass in goings on, revealed itself hour by hour, merit the production of a field of unquesquite new to me. The people I had tionable turnips? Perhaps, in the severe been accustomed to meet, talk with, live eyes of the gods, the production of a with, were so different. The tendency wooden porringer, watertight and fit for of each of these was towards art in one household uses, is of more account than form or other; and there was a certain the rearing of a tower of Babel, meant sadness somehow in the contemplation to reach to heaven. Alas! that so many of them. They fought and strove bravely, must work on these Babel towers ; canbut like the Old Guard at Waterloo, it not help toiling on them to the very was brave fighting on a lost field. After death, though every stone is heaved into years of toil there were irremediable its place with weariness and mortal defects in that man's picture ; fatal pain; though, when the life of the flaws in that man's book. In all their builder is wasted out on it, it is fit efforts were failure and repulse, apparent habitation for no creature, can shelter to some extent to themselves, plain no one from rain or winter snow, towerenough to me, the passionless looker-on. ing in the eyes of men a Folly (as the That resolute, hopeless climbing of hea- Scotch phrase it) after all. ven of theirs, was, according to the Penruddock had promised to take me mood, a thing to laugh at or a thing to to see the fair at Keady a fortnight weep over. With Penruddock, all was before it came off'; but was obliged on different. What he strove after he ac- the day immediately preceding that complished. He had a cheerful mastery event to leave his farm at Arran-More over circumstances. All things went on matter of important business. well with him. His horses ploughed was a wretched day of rain, and I began for him, his servants reaped for him, his to tremble for the morrow. After dinmills ground for him successfully. The ner the storm abated, and the dull dripvery winds and dews were to him helps ping afternoon set in. While a distem. and aids. Year after year his crops pered sunset flushed the west, the heavy grew, yellowed, were cut down, and carts from the fields came rolling into gathered into barns, and men fed the court-yard, the horses' fetlock deep thereupon; and year after year there in clay, and steaming like ovens. Then,



It was

at the sound of the bell, the labourers flight the shy and solitary birds native came, wet, weary, sickles hanging over to the region. Ever and anon, too, when their arms, yet with spirits merry we gained sufficient elevation, we could enough. These the capacious kitchen see the great waves of the landscape received, where they found supper spread. rolling in clear morning light away to It grew dark earlier than usual, and the horizon ; each wave crested with more silent. The mill-wheel rushed farms and belts of woodland, and here louder in the swollen stream, and lights and there wreaths of smoke rising up began to glimmer here and there in the from hollows where towns and villages dusty windows. Penruddock had not lay hid. After a while the road grew yet come. He was not due for a couple smoother, and afar the little town of of hours. The time began to hang Keady sparkled in the sun, backed by heavily ; so, slipping to my bed, I solved a range of smelting furnaces, the flames every difficulty by falling asleep. tamed by the sunlight, making a restless

The lowing of cattle, the bleating of shimmer in the air, and blotting out sheep, the barking of dogs, and the loud everything beyond. Beneath us the high voices of men in the court-yard beneath, road was covered with sheep and cows, awoke me shortly after dawn. In the and vehicles of every description, pushsilence that ensued I again fell asleep, ing forward to one point; the hill paths and was roused at last by the clangour also which led down to it were moving of the breakfast-bell. When I got up, threads of life. On the brow of the the sun was streaming gloriously through hill, just before we began to descend, the latticed window; heaven was all the John pulled up for a moment. gayer and brighter now for yesterday's a pretty sight! A few minutes' drive gloom and sulky tears, and the rooks brought us into Keady, and such a busy were cawing and flapping cheerfully in scene I had never before witnessed. the trees above. When I entered the The narrow streets and open spaces were breakfast-room, Penruddock was already crowded with stalls, cattle, and people, there, nothing the worse for his jour- and the press and confusion were so ney; and the tea-urn was bubbling on great that our passage to the inn where the table.

our machine was to be put up was matAt the close of the meal, Tim brought ter of considerable difficulty. Men, stripthe dog-cart to the door. Pen glanced ped to trousers and shirt, with red hair at his watch. “We have hit the time streaming in the wind, rushed backwards exactly, and will arrive as soon as Mick and forwards with horses, giving vent at and the cattle.” There was an encou- the same time to the wildest vociferations, raging chir-r-r, a flick of the whip, and while clumps of sporting gentlemen, in a trice we were across the bridge, with straws in their mouths, were inand pegging along the highway at a specting with critical eyes the points of great pace.

the animals. Travelling auctioneers set After proceeding about a mile, we up their little carts in the streets, and turned into a narrow path which gradu- with astonishing effrontery and power ally led us up into a wild irregular of lung harangued the crowd on the country. Corn-fields, flax-tanks, and

worth and cheapness of the articles sunny pasture lands, dotted with sheep, which they held in their hands. Begwere left behind as up hill we tugged, gars were very plentiful, disease and deand reached at last a level stretch of formity their stock-in-trade. Fragments purple moor and black peat bog. Some- of humanity crawled about upon crutches. times for a mile the ground was black Women stretched out shrunken arms. with pyramids of peat; at other times Blind men rolled sightless eyeballs, the road wriggled before us through a blessing the passenger when a copper dark olive morass, enlivened here and tinkled in their iron jugs ; cursing yet there with patches of treacherous green; more fervently when disappointed in the sound of our wheels startling into their expectation. In one place a melancholy acrobat in dirty tights and faded rustic compliment there had for reply a tinsel, was performing evolutions with a quick glance or a scarlet cheek. Another crazy chair on a bit of ragged carpet; was devoted to poultry; geese stood he threw somersaults over it, he stood about in flocks, bunches of hens were upon his head on it, he embraced it scattered on the ground, their legs tied firmly and began spinning along the together; and turkeys, inclosed in wicker ground like a wheel, in which perform- baskets, surveyed the scene with quick ance man and chair seemed to lose their eyes, their wattles all the while burning individuality and become one as it were; with indignation. On reaching the inn, and at the close of every feat he stood which displayed for ensign a swan with erect with that indescribable curve of two heads afloat on an azure stream, we the right hand which should always be ordered dinner at three o'clock, and followed by thunders of applause, the thereafter started on foot to where Penclown meanwhile rolling in ecstasies of ruddock's stock was stationed. It was admiration in the sawdust. Alas! no no easy matter to force a path; cows applause followed the exertions of the and sheep were always getting in the artist. The tights were getting more way. Now and then an escaped hen threadbare and dingy. His hollow face would come clucking and flapping among was covered with perspiration, and there our feet; and once a huge bull, with was but the sparsest sprinkling of half- horns levelled to the charge, came dashpence. I threw him half-a-crown, but ing down the street, scattering everyit rolled among the spectators' feet, and thing before him. Finally, we reached was lost in the dust. He groped about the spot where Mick and his dogs were in search of it for some little time, and keeping watch over the cows and sheep. then came back to his carpet and his " Got here all safe, Mick, I see.” crazy chair. Poor fellow! he looked as “ All safe, sir, not a quarter o' an hour if he were used to that kind of thing. ago." There were many pretty faces among the

“Well, Burdett, I have opened my girls, and scores of them were walking shop. We'll see how we get on.” about in holiday dresses. Rosy-faced By this time the dealers had gathered lasses with black hair and blue eyes

sha- about, and were closely examining the dowed by long, dark eyelashes. How they sheep, and holding whispered consultalaughed, and how sweetly the brogue tions. At length, an excited-looking man melted from their lips in reply to the came running forward; plunging his hand ardent blarney of their sweethearts ! At into his breeches pocket, he produced last we reached an open square, or cross

therefrom half-a-crown, which he slapped as it would be called in Scotland, more into Penruddock's hand, at the same crowded, if possible, than the narrow time crying out “ Ten-and-six a head.streets. Hordes of cattle bellowed here. “ Fifteen,” said John, returning the Here were sheep from the large farms coin. “Twelve shillings,” said the man, standing in clusters of fifties and hun bringing down the coin with tremendous dreds; there a clump of five or six with energy ; "an' may I niver stir if I'll the widow in her clean cap sitting be- give another farthin' for the best sheep side them. Many an hour ago she and in Keady." “ Fifteen," said John, they started from the turf hut and the flinging the half-crown on the ground; pasture beyond the hills. Heaven send “ and I don't care whether you stir again her a ready sale and good prices! In or not.” By this time a crowd had the centre of this open space great gathered about, and the chorus began. benches were erected, heaped with eggs, “ There isn't a dacenter man than Mr. butter, cheeses, the proprietors standing Penruddock in the market. I've known behind anxiously awaiting the advances him iver since he came to the counthry." of customers. One section was crowded “Shure an' he is,” began another; "he's with sweetmeat stalls, much frequented a jintleman every inch. He always by girls and their sweethearts. Many a gives to the poor man a bit o' baccy, or

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a glass. Ach, Mr. Loney, he's not the drops the sixpence. I niver saw him one to ax you too high a price. Shure, do à mane thing yet. Ach, he's the Mr. Penruddock, you'll come down a jintleman ivery inch, an' that's saying sixpence jist to make a bargain.” “Is't a dale, considerin' his size." Mr. Loney that's goin' to buy?” cried a “ Fourteen-an'-six be it then," said lame man from the opposite side, and in the dealer, bringing down the coin for the opposite interest. “There isn't sich the last time. “ An' if I take the lot a dealer in county Monaghan as Mr. you'll give me two pounds in ť myLoney. Of coorse you'll come down some- self?thing, Mr. Penruddock." “ He's a rich “Well, Loney, I don't care, although one, too, is Mr. Loney,” said the lame I do,” said Penruddock, pocketing the man, sidling up to John, and winking in coin at last. A roll of notes was proa knowing manner, “an' a power o' notes duced, the sum counted out, and the he has in his pocket-book.” Mr. Loney, bargain concluded. The next moment who had been whispering with his Loney was among the sheep, scoring group a little apart, and who had again some mark or other on their backs with made an inspection of the stock, re- a piece of red chalk. Penruddock scatturned the second time to the charge. tered what spare coppers he possessed “Twelve-an’-six,” cried he, and again among the bystanders, and away they the half-crown was slapped into Pen- went to sing the praises of the next ruddock's palm. “Twelve-an'-six, an' bargain-maker. not another farthin' to save my sowl.” Pen turned to me, laughing. “This “Fifteen,” said John, returning the is a nice occupation for a gentleman of half-crown with equal emphasis ; "you respectable birth and liberal education, know my price, and if you won't take is it not ?" it you can let it stand." The dealer “Odd. It is amusing to watch the disappeared in huge wrath, and the process by which your sheep are conchorus broke out in praises of both. By verted into bank-notes. this time Mr. Loney was again among friend, Mr. Loney, buy the animals for the sheep; it was plain his heart was himself ?set upon the purchase. Every now and “Oh, dear no. We must have middlethen he caught one, got it between his men of one kind or another in this legs, examined the markings on its face, country. Loney is commissioned to purand tested the depth and quality of its chase, and is allowed so much on the wool. He appeared for the third time, transaction.while the lame man and the leader of By this time a young handsome felthe opposing chorus seemed coming to low pushed his horse through the crowd blows, so ze us were they in the and approached us.

“Good morning," praises of their respective heroes. “Four- cried he to Penruddock. teen," said Mr. Loney, again producing ness doing ?" the half-crown, spitting into his hand “I have just sold my sheep.” at the same time, as much as to say, he “Good price ?" would do the business now.

“ Four

“ Fair. Fourteen-and-six.” teen," he cried, crushing the half-crown “Ah, not so bad. These cattle, I into Penruddock's hand, and holding it suppose, are yours? We must try if we there. “Fourteen, an' divil a rap more can't come to a bargain about them." I'll give." “Fourteen,” said John, as Dismounting, he gave his horse in keep

, if considering, then throwing back the ing to a lad, and he and John went off coin, “Fourteen-and-six, and let it be to inspect the stock. a bargain."

Business was proceeding briskly on “ Didn't I say," quoth John's chorus- all sides. There was great higgling as leader, looking round him with an air to prices, and shillings and half-crowns of triumph, “ didn't I say that Mr. PenI

were tossed in a wonderful manner from ruddock's á jintleman ? Ye see how he palm to palm. Apparently, no trans

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