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I feel—I own it—but withal I now

Find myself in so damaged a condition,
The very ground seems to give way below

If I attempt one step on self-volition;
Long subject to false guides, both great and small,
I've lost the faculty to move at all.

My greatest grievance, though, to priests is owing

A sect malignant, void of all discretion ;
And certain poets, race degenerate, growing

Mere hypocrites, who flatter by profession.
Say what you please, the Canon-laws prohibit
That priests in mundane boots their legs exhibit.
And here I am, meanwhile, thread bare, despised,

Tattered on every side, all mud and mire ;
Still for some kind limb's advent, well advised

To shake me out and smooth me, I aspire :
No French or German leg, you understand ;
I want one grown upon my native land.
A certain worthy's once I took on trial ;

Alas! my hero would a-wandering go,
Or might have boasted his, without denial,

The stoutest boot in the whole world's dépôt; Ah ! crooked courses ! down the snowdrift came, Freezing his limbs, ere half played out the game. Patched up again after the ancient style,

And once more carried to the skinning place, 1, of prodigious worth and weight erewhile,

Scarce my original leather now can trace : Look you, to piece these various holes of mine There's something wanting more than tacks and twine. Both toil and cost it needs, nor too much haste;

Each separate shred must be resewn together;
The mud cleaned off, the stout old nails replaced,

Smoothed into shape both calf and upper leather :
Let this be done, I'll thank you from my heart;
But, oh! take care who plays the workman's part !
Look at me, also, on this side I'm blue,

There red and white, and up here black and yellow ;A very harlequin of chequered hue ;

To make my tone harmonious and mellow,
Remodel me discreetly (may I hint ?)
All in one piece, and one prevailing tint.

Search diligently if the world supplies

A man,–I care not what, so not a coward ;-
And, when in me his foot securely lies,

If any prig peer in with schemes untoward
Of practising once more the usual quacking,
We'll pay him off with kicks, and send him packing.

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE.

AUGUST, 1860.

THE NAVIES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND.

The scene is a gently heaving purple sermon. Every Englishman knows the sea, and the time is the morning of a rest of that chapter; but we wish to calm autumn day. The porpoises are call your attention to one fact in consplashing in the sun, and the flying-fish nexion with that victory-namely, that are whirring from wave to wave like 8,000 British in 27 ships beat 12,000 silver dragon-flies, and the white sea Spanish and French in 33 ships, and birds rise and fall and float on snowy that of these last only 13 got back wings. Far to the south-east a blue into port. And then we wish to put Cape looms through the haze with one this question, “Could we do the same long white building half way up. All thing again ?” these things may be seen any day, but Just think of the conditions under there is a sight to be seen this morning, which such a victory became possible, the like of which a man has never seen and the quiet, patient, practical efforts before.

by which such successes must be preOn the sparkling morning waters ceded. Maritime

supremacy,

like

everythere lies in single line a mighty fleet, thing else that is worth having, can thirty-eight sail of the line, besides only be obtained by proportionate effort ; frigates; while upon them, coming down and though we are the countrymen of before the wind, advances another fleet, Jervis, Collingwood, and Nelson, the inferior to them in numbers, but evi- maritime supremacy which their splendently far superior in audacity. Of this did victories secured to this country will last flotilla we count fourteen in one assuredly slip through our fingers if we line and thirteen in the other; we see imagine that it can be retained on any the foremost ship of the fourteen out- other terms than those by which it was strip the others and engage three of the acquired that is, by maintaining at all enemy at once; then in twenty minutes costs adequate armaments. At the outthe whole brave show is wrapt in smoke, break of the French Revolutionary War and fire, and destruction, and the wind there were three powers of considerable is laid with the concussion. When that maritime pretensions-France, Spain, smoke clears away a deed will have been and Holland ; and it was against the done which will make the ears of him coalesced forces of the three that we that heareth it to tingle ; for this is the had then, to contend. Of these the 21st of October, 1805, and that faint Navy of France has alone recovered from blue promontory away to the south-east the blows that we then struck; and, is called Cape Trafalgar.

in the event of hostilities breaking out, Shall I go on? I think not. We France is now the only power that can be have given out our text; now for our looked upon as in any degree our rival. No. 10.-VOL. II.

8

one.

Indeed, so far has her Navy and that of of course to fluctuations, England never this country outstripped those of the ceased to preserve a decided naval supeother nations of Europe that, perhaps, riority over her neighbour. During the with the exception of Russia, there is earlier of those years the proportions now no country whose steam navy could, may be roughly stated as somewhere even if they were inclined to join in about three to one, while in the later the strife, give any material assistance ones it had dwindled down to two to to either party. Russia, it is true, pos

Wonderful as have been the sesses somewhere about ten screw line-of- changes effected by the introduction battle ships and eleven frigates; which, of steam in all that relates to our if they are good ships, presents an im- manufactures and social economy, they posing appearance ; but from the fact certainly have not surpassed, if they that they are to a great extent manned can be fairly said to have equalled, those by agricultural labourers, they can hardly that it has occasioned in all that relates come up to the French or English to the navy. Ten years ago, and for all standard of excellence—so that in practical purposes, not one of the ships spite of their numbers we may dismiss which are now alone thought worth them cavalierly. Whatever be their taking account of existed, while those worth, however, the probabilities are which then were the pride of the country that they would go to reinforce France and the guardians of our shores are in case of a quarrel ; and so, by simply now, unless capable of conversion, looked considering the navy of France, we shall upon as comparatively little better than get pretty nearly at the strength of pos- lumber. sible combinations against us-minus In 1818 our steam mercantile tonnago Russia and her ten liners. It would was 1,633 tons, but in 1859, 416,132. be a great error to imagine that a dimi- This called our Government's attention nution in the number of our antagonists to the fact of the success of steam, has at all altered the conditions of a and they took it up. The history of possible struggle in favour of this coun- the steam navy since then may be given try, and we are much mistaken if we in a few lines. In 1811 they made an cannot prove that, quality as well as abortive attempt to build paddle cornumbers being taken into consideration, vettes. In 1840 they tried it again the present navy of France, single- with some success in the Vesuvius and handed, promises to be quite as much Gorgon, which were at Acre); but, the of a match for England of the present Rattler, 800 tons, the first screw corvette, day, as the united navies of the three which was built the same year, seeming powers were for England of the Revo

to possess none of the disadvantages of lutionary war. The mere fact that at the paddle frigates (we all know what the outbreak of that war the number they are), others on her model were of our line-of-battle ships was 148, and constructed, and the foundation of our those of France only 77, while at the present navy was laid, and the system beginning of last year both nations pos- of naval tactics altered. This we have sessed an equal number, is sufficient heard too often already. Let us turn to show the probable accuracy of our for a moment to another alteration in estimate.

ship-fighting, more interesting because At the close of the war this dispro- more recent. portion between the two navies had The old British and French ships considerably increased-England then of war do not present a greater conpossessing 218 ships of the line and trast to the Duke of Wellington and La 309 frigates, while France had only 69 Bretagne, than does an old 32-pounder ships of the line and 38 frigates. Until to the new rifled ordnance. Some the time when sailing vessels ceased to idea

may be formed of this difference, be the force with which a naval contest and of the superior range and acwas to be determined, though subject curacy of the new gun, when we state

were

ARMSTRONG

GUN.

SERVICE

GUN.

.

grooves.

0.8 yds.

that at a high angle Sir W. Armstrong's that he has produced a cannon which, guno throws its projectile 9,000 yards, while it exceeds Sir W. Armstrong's in and that the results of an extended range, promises to rival it in accuracy. series of experiments at 1,000 yards The principles on which he has proceeded against an ordinary 9-pounder field-piece in his manufacture are original. The

Armstrong barrel is made of rods of wrought iron, welded into a tube, the

pitch of whose rifling is one turn in 10 For mean difference in range

23-1 yds. 147-2 yds. feet, and the rifling itself 38 sharp For mean lateral devia

Instead of the rolled bar-iron, tion:

9.1 yds.

of which Sir W. Armstrong's guns are

made, Mr. Whitworth's gun is bored And Sir W. Armstrong declares himself

from a solid cylinder of homogeneous confident, that with one of his guns

at

iron. The barrel is of hexagonal shape, the distance of 600 yards an object no making one complete turn, which varies larger than the muzzle of an enemy's as the diameter of the

gun.

This congun may be struck at almost every shot, stitutes the only rifling, and it extends while at a distance of 3,000 yards a tar

from one end of the barrel to the other. get of nine feet square, which at that The projectile, which is of a longitudistance looks a mere speck, has, on a dinal shape, tapering towards both ends, calm day, been struck five times out of is cut at the middle so as to fit with ten shots: a ship, therefore, which offers accuracy the sides of the barrel. In the a much larger surface, would be hit at very important item of weight, the much greater distances, and towns might superiority in the larger kinds of ordbe shelled by ships five miles off. There nance still remains with Sir William. is every reason to believe that so far But we shall be much mistaken if Mr. the French have not been behind in Whitworth's scheme of reducing the the race, and that their artillery is at diameter of the projectile, and conseleast equal to that of Sir W. Armstrong quently the bore--which enables the The process, however, by which they same relative strength of metal to be manufacture it, and the results that have obtained in lighter guns—will not result been obtained with it, have been so

in the production of heavy ordnances, effectually kept secret, that it is difficult whose weight, for their size, will be less to speak with any accuracy on this very

than any that have yet been produced. interesting subject. The best informed, In the lighter kinds, Mr. Whitworth however, affirm that these cannon are even now can well bear comparison with calculated, with the same charge of his rival, as his 3-pounder, of which powder, to project a missile twice the we have heard so much, can be easily weight of an ordinary ball thrice the manæuvred and served with 2 horses distance, and that, unlike our own, it is and 2 men. This gun, at one elevation, not intended to fire solid shot from in the course of 10 shots, showed a them, but shells, which explodeon mean range of 1,579 yards, with a lonstriking an object. These latter are

gitudinal deviation of 12 yards, and a said to be made with leaden bands lateral one of :52, whilst, at an elevation round them. This, if true, favours the of 35 degrees, it showed on an average idea that the principle on which they

of 5 shots a mean range of 9,580 yards, are rifled is the same as that adopted with a longitudinal deviation of 81 by Sir W. Armstrong. Great as is the yards, and a lateral one of 19:33. improvement which this ordnance shows This superiority in point of range must when compared with that which it has in a great degree be attributed to the supplanted, it seems destined that even fact we have before noticed, that the it is to be distanced by a more formidable chamber for the shot which exists in competitor. The experiments of Mr. the Armstrong gun is dispensed with, Whitworth at Southport have shown thus enabling the rifling to extend from

one end of the barrel to the other. The successful. Where two or more shots advantages of this arrangement are not struck, the plating was considerably confined to range alone. The chamber damaged; and it very nearly succeeded in the Armstrong gun is an effectual in forcing the conical-shaped shot fired limit to the length of the shot that can from it through the plating; but, though be used in it, while that of Whitworth very near, it never succeeded in quite can be used indifferently for shot of any penetrating the metal. The gun selected length : the distance to which it can be by Mr. Whitworth for his experiment projected diminishing, of course, as the was an 80-pounder. The distance at weight of the shot is increased; thus en- which it was placed was two hundred abling an almost infinite variety of results yards. The first shot was fired with a to be obtained from the same gun. Whit- 121b. charge of powder. It struck on worth's gun can be loaded from the the edge of two plates, and, having gone muzzle, should anything go wrong ;

clean through the metal work and Armstrong's cannot be. In the forth- eleven inches of the oak boarding, it coming trial this ought to weigh consi- glanced against an iron bolt, the effect derably in the balance.

of which was that it was driven upThe enormous cost of building the wards, burying itself between the plates new ships, combined with the fact that and the inside of the ship. An increase the fire to which they will be subjected of two pounds of powder was tried on from the new ordnance is likely to be of firing the second shot. This time the so much more destructive a nature, has shot struck the vessel in the centre of suggested the possibility of making an armour-plate, and penetrated to the ships shot-proof. The idea first oc- main-deck, leaving as clean a hole curred to our ingenious neighbours through wood-work and metal-plating across the water, and they accordingly as a pistol-bullet would do if discharged set to work to build some frigates of against an ordinary pane of glass. enormous scantling, and plate them We have already observed that a with metal-work of the thickness of great, and at present an unknown, revo41 inches.

Ships of this nature, if lution in all that relates to naval warsuccessful, promise such extraordinary fare has been effected by these means; advantages, that there was nothing left but there is another change which has for this country but to follow the exam- likewise taken place, and that by no ple of France and build some too. This means one slow in making itself felt. has been accordingly done, and a series We refer to the enormous increase of of experiments have been made for the expense occasioned by the introduction purpose of ascertaining how far the of these inventions. Our navy estimates metal casing has effected its object. No have this

year

reached the almost alarmtrial of the effect of Mr. Whitworth’s ing figure of 12,800,0001., being by a ordnance was made till the latter part great deal the largest that this country of last May, when its fire was directed has ever seen in time of peace. The against a new iron-cased floating bat- increase of expense incident on the emtery. The result of some previous trials ployment of the new machinery presses on the same vessel with Sir William

upon us on every side. Not only is Armstrong's gun and one of the smooth- there the original cost of construction bore ordinary 68-pounders had been of the ship itself, double that of a sailsomewhat indecisive. At the distance of ing ship of the same rate, but the daily 200 yards the battery appears to have expenses show a proportionate increase. been impervious to the heaviest shot. There is the item of coal, for instance, When close to it a single shot from which in a first-rate ship of the line in the 68-pounder indented the armour- commission cannot be estimated at much plate to a depth varying from one to less than 1001. per diem. There are also two inches. Sir William Armstrong's the sums paid for the employment of the gun was, as was to be expected, more skilled labour of engineers and stokers;

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