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the queen absolutely trusted. The revenge of the clergy for their past humiliations, and the too natural tendency of an oppressed party to abuse suddenly recovered power, combined to originate the Marian persecution. The rebellions and massacres, the political scandals, the universal suffering throughout the country during Edward's minority, had created a general bitterness in all classes against the Reformers ; the Catholics could appeal with justice to the apparent consequences of heretical opinions; and when the Reforming preachers themselves denounced so loudly the irreligion which had attended their success, there was little wonder that the world took them at their word, and was ready to permit the use of strong suppressive measures to keep down the unruly tendencies of uncontrolled fanatics.
“But neither these nor any other feelings of English growth, could have produced the scenes which have stamped this unhappy reign with a character so frightful. The parliament which re-enacted the Lollard statutes, had refused to restore the Six Articles as being too gerere; yet under the Six Articles twenty-one persons only suffered in six years, while, perbaps, not twice as many more had been executed under the earlier acts in the century and a half in which they had stood on the Statute roll. The harshness of the law confined the action of it to men who were definitely dangerous; and when the bishops' powers were given back to them, there was little anticipation of the manner in which those powers would be misused.
* And that except from some special influences they would not have been thus misused, the local character of the prosecution may be taken to prove. The storm was violent only in London, in Essex which was in the diocese of London, and in Canterbury. It raged long after the death of Gardiner; and Gardiner, though he made the beginning, ceased after the first few months to take further part in it. The Bishop of Winchester would have had a persecution, and a keen one; but the fervour of others left his lagging zeal far behind. For the first and last time the true Ultramontane spirit was dominant in England—the genuine conviction that, as the orthodox prophets and sovereigns of Israel slew the wor shippers of Baal, so were Catholic rulers called upon, as their first duty, to extirpate heretics as the enemies of God and man.
" The language of the legate to the City of London shows the devout sincerity with which he held that opinion himself, Tbrough him, and sustained by his authority, the queen held it; and by these two the ecclesiastical govern. ment of England was conducted.
"Archbishop Parker, who knew Pole and Pole's doings well, called him Carnifex et flagellem Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, the hangman and the scourge of the Church of England. His character was irreproachable; in all the virtues of the Catholic Church he walked without spot or stain; and the system to which he had sur
rendered himself had left to him of the com. mon selfishnesses of mankind his enormous vanity alone. But that system had extinguished also in him the human instincts, the genial emotions by which theological theories stand especially in need to be corrected. He belonged to a class of persons at all times numerous, in whom enthusiasm takes the place of understanding; who are men of an 'idea ;' and unable to accept human things as they are, are passionate loyalists, passionate churchmen, passionate revolutionists, as the accidents of their age may determine. Happily for the welfare of mankind, persons so constituted rarely arrive at power; should power come to them, they use it, as Pole used it, to defeat the ends which are nearest to their hearts.
“ The teachers who finally converted the English nation to Protestantism were not the declaimers from the pulpit, nor the voluminous controversialists with the pen. These, indeed, could produce arguments which, to those who were already convinced, seemed as if they ought to produce conviction ; but conviction did not follow till the fruits of the doctrine bore witness to the spirit from which it came. The evangelical teachers, caring only to be allowed to develope their own opinions, and persecute their opponents, had walked hand in hand with men who had spared neither tomb nor altar, who had stripped the lead from the church roofs, and stolen the bells from the church towers; and between them they had so outraged such plain honest minds as remained in England, that had Mary been content with mild repression, had she left the Pope to those who loved him, and had married, instead of Philip, some English lord, the mass would have retained its place, the clergy in moderate form would have resumed their old authority, and the Reformation would have waited for a century. In an evil hour, the queen listened to the unwise advisers, who told her that moderation in religion was the sin of the Laodicæans; and while the fanatics who had brought scandal on the Reforming cause, either truckled, like Shaxton, or stole abroad to wrangle over surplices and forms of prayer, the true and the good atoned with their lives for the crimes of others, and vindicated a noble cause by nobly dying for it.
“And while among the Reformers that which was most bright and excellent shone out with preternatural lustre, so were the Catholics permitted to exhibit also the preternatural features of the creed which was ex piring.
“Although Pole and Mary could have laid their hands on earl and baron, knight and gentleman, whose heresy was notorious, although, in the queen's own guard, there were many who never listened to a mass, they durst not strike where there was danger that they would be struck in return. They went out into the highways and hedges; they
gathered up the lame, the halt, and the blind; they took the weaver from his loom, the carpenter from his workshop, the husbandman from his plough: they laid hands on maidens and boys who had never heard of any other religion than that which they were called on to abjure;' old men tottering into the grave; and children whose lips could but just lisp the articles of their creed ; and of these they made their burnt-offerings; with these they crowded their prisons, and when filth and famine killed them, they flung them out to rot. How long England would have endured the repetition of the horrid spectacles is hard to say. The persecution lasted three years, and in that time something less than 300 persons were burnt at the stake. By imprisonment,' said Lord Burleigh, 'by torment, by fatnine, by fire, almost the number of 400 were,' in their various ways, “lament. ably destroyed.'
“Yet, as I have already said, interference was impossible except by armed force. The country knew from the first that by the course of nature the period of cruelty must be a brief one; it knew that a successful rebellion is at best a calamity; and the bravest and wisest men would not injure an illustrious cause by conduct less than worthy of it, 80 long as endurance was possible. They had saved Elizabeth's life and Elizabeth's rights; and Elizabeth, when her time came, would deliver her subjects. The Catholics, therefore, were permitted to continue their cruelties till the cup of iniquity was full; till they had taught the educated laity of England to regard them with horror; and until the Romanist superstition had died, amidst the execrations of the people, of its own excess."
wonderful. Mr. Froude has earned a right to express a little over-sympathy with a Latitudinarian, by his cordial appreciation of men of an opposite type of character. But I cannot discover that the Pagets, the Halifaxes, and the trimmers of the sixteenth or the seventeenth centuries, really did anything to secure that their convictions—if convictions they are to be called-should be the inheritance of the ages that were to succeed them. They were wise for themselves. They scorned much that was worthy of scorn, but they could not make their scorn effective for the cure of
it. They despised persecutors; they did , not seriously curse persecution. When
a man was disagreeably pertinacious in his opinions, they were so tolerant of others that they found it quite justifiable to be intolerant of him. They thought it very absurd to kill for a faith, but they thought it quite as absurd to die for one. And this alone has made persecution impossible in any country or any age, this only will make it imposskinul sible in all countries and in all ages :
uniries and in all ages : that it has been established by a series of demonstrations, some of which Mr. Froude has beautifully recorded, that he who lille for a faith must be weak. he who kills for a faith must be weak, that he who dies for a faith must be strong.1
Some will say that Pole is hardly treated here and elsewhere in these volumes. If Mr. Froude's statements respecting him can be refuted, Englishmen may recover that estimate of him which they have derived from the older historians. But I cannot feel that the character is inconsistent with itself, or that Mr. Froude is wrong in giving, as he certainly does, the preference to Gardiner as being more of an English statesman, and not a worse Churchman. I should be more inclined to dispute Mr. Froude's judgment of Paget. That he should feel a real respect for a man who was not only keen-sighted, and in tho main just, but who anticipated the modern opinions respecting persecution, is not
i Do I mean to endorse the pious fraud that the persecutor always fails of his immediate object, and strengthens the cause which he desires to crush? Certainly not. The impotency of his material force in the spiritual battle is established by other evidence than that His success is his defeat. He cannot doprive his victims of their faith. Unless be is saved by becoming a sufferer, he loses his own. Unless bis country is saved by similar suffering, it ceases to believe when it is reduced into acquiescence. This is the persecutor's curse; thus the divine law is vindicated. I do not say that the remark can be applied strictly to any persecutions except those which Christiaus bave set on foot against each other and against infidels. If the Cross is not the sign and the power of conquest, there is no manifest direct contradiction in trying to conquer for à faith by inficting punishment instead of bearing it.
THE ARTISAN'S SATURDAY NIGHT.
BY PERCY GREG,
THOSE who have read the “Confessions seem hardly possible to reach the stalls of an English Opium-Eater"-and few at its further end in time to effect a of us have not—will recollect in the purchase the little shops which are earlier part of that remarkable volume making an effort at unusual display in the author's description of the manner order to attract purchasers who are not in which he was wont to spend “an likely to scrutinize very closely the texopium evening” in his youth. Under ture of that showy dress which is marked the peculiar influence exerted by that at a figure so surprisingly low, and who marvellous drug, in a frame of mind will be too hurried to notice that yonder disposed to quiet contemplation and “cheap and elegant" coat and vest are sentimental entertainment, but wholly got up to sell and not to wear ;—the averse from laborious thought or keen shopkeepers and stallkeepers who stand excitement, he was wont to seek amuse at their doors or at the side of their ment and interest in a stroll among handcarts, keeping up a continual conthe unfashionable marts of London : to fused bawl, which, if attentively anwatch the working man in his commer alysed, seems to run—“Only a penny, cial dealings, the working woman in her gentlemen, only a penny ! no better in humble round of weekly shopping; to London, marm, twopence half-penny a hear their talk and gather their thoughts pound-only twopence ha’penny-fine upon their lot in life, upon the things bacon-now then! buy! buy! buy!”— and persons that surround them, during and the eager, hurried throng of jostling the few gas-light hours in which it is purchasers, glancing at everything, covettheir practice to purchase wherewithal ing everything, buying at last that which to feed and clothe and warm themselves is most pressed upon them ; with here and their children, as best they may, and there some quiet knowing ones during the seven days that are to follow. among them, who have set their hearts And such a walk,—though it lie not on some special adornment for the wife's exactly through neighbourhoods as quiet bonnet, or some new delicacy for the and pleasant as Kensington Gardens, or husband's Sunday dinner, and are not to streets and squares as fair to look upon be tempted aside by the noisy offers as those of Belgravia and Mayfair; which beset them on all hands—all though the localities through which it these things compose a scene which is may lead us are not always clean, and worth notice, and which, at first sight, is are too often both unsightly and un- amusing and not unpleasing to behold. savoury, offending our senses in no If, however, we walk in among the trivial degree,-yet has its picturesque crowd of sellers and buyers, and look a and interesting aspect. Humanity can- little more closely than do the latter at not well fail of picturesque effect, the articles offered to their selection ; wherever it has to wage a hard and above all, if we do so not when noise earnest struggle, however ugly and ill. and business have reached their highest built the dwellings it haunts, however point, but before the thickest press has squalid the rags which are its only uni- commenced, and before, at this season, form, in the Battle of Life.
the daylight has departed from those The crowded market in a by-way, huge screens of joints of unwholesomelighted by flaring jets of gas in double looking meat which veil one shop, and rows, and crammed with purchasers so the piles of withered peas which are closely clustered together that it would heaped on the rude counter of another, we shall presently obtain a glimpse of more regular daily business than his the underside of the matter which is neighbours, who tells us that his receipts more instructive than agreeable. We during those six hours are equal to those shall then see at what disadvantage of any other three days in the week. stands the shopping which is done by And outside the baker's door is a man gaslight, amid the confusion of incessant with a small hand-cart, on which are noise and the hurry of impatient cus- piles of starved cherries, sour apples, and tomers. That beef, for instance, is not half-ripe gooseberries. He never comes such as a good housewife would think there except on Saturday night, and he of buying ; much of the bacon yonder is pays the baker four shillings a week for of a kind that Do-the-boys Hall. would leave to stand there on the little strip of be ashamed of; and the smell of the pavement which, as private property, is mackerel exposed on the fish-stall in the exempt from elearance by the police. He corner is so objectionable, that it makes can afford to pay out of six hours' profit itself felt even amid the innumerable on his wretched stock a rent of four odours of this unsavoury place, and com- shillings for the square yard of ground pels us to form a decided opinion as to he stands on. There are plenty of lads the fitness of the fishmonger's wares for and lasses released to-night from their human food. Those shoes, too, look week's toil with a few shillings in their very much as if they were the unsale- pockets and a taste for fruit rather comable refuse of some more fashionable prehensive than choice, who will amply locality-especially those dedicated to remunerate him for his outlay. Next to the “ladies.” Of those which seem fit his stands the barrow of a woman who for working men, the more serviceable sells penny bottles of something which were possibly bought from some govern- she calls ginger-beer, but to which I ment establishment as “old stores," at a should hesitate to assign a name. She fourth of the price that will to-night be stands there every day ; but she, too, asked for them. And so on throughout. would have a poor living of it were it not Everything—except, of course, the for Saturday night, when the man who prices—is third-rate at best, and often has seventeen or twenty shillings in his merely worthless. The customers must pocket thinks less of a penny than he go home ill-shod, ill-fed, unfitly clothed, will do by Thursday or Friday next. and must dine 'to-morrow on meat deci. And those immense heaps of peas which dedly “high,” and fish unmistakeably on a summer Saturday night are piled odorous; and all this not because they over half the green-grocer's disposable cannot afford to pay for proper food and space, would hardly find purchasers on clothing, but because all their purchases any other evening. One evening of are made at once, by gaslight, in a crowd business-at high profits pays the dealer and in a hurry ; because they are in the in the poor man's market for a week of hands of itinerant stallkeepers, and shop- slack trade and scanty gains. From six keepers of scarcely higher character; hours' profits does he get his living, and and because too many of them come to those profits must come from the scanty their purchases not from home, but from resources of families in which the breadthe public-house, with heads not of the winner earns from fifteen to thirty-five clearest, and with pockets a little less shillings a week. heavy than they were three or four · Very different is the case of the westhours ago...
end ; very striking the contrast between To many of the small dealers in such Saturday night in western shops and in localities Saturday night is worth as Whitechapel markets, between the Saturmuch as the rest of the week altogether; day of the rich and the Saturday of the many of them take more between six poor. Aend . . . ". and twelve on Saturday night-than be- Were this only one of the manifold tween Monday morning and Saturday instances in which by mere force o afternoon. Here is a baker doing à neighbourhood the distinctions of rank and fortune are so painfully illustrated haste to pay the little account which has in all great cities, it would hardly be been standing over for three days beworth while to notice it. It is a profit cause they had not money to pay it till less task to cite instances of the luxury their week's income should have been of the affluent here brought so very received. They are not obliged to postclose to the destitution of the indigent; pone their shopping till late in the eve-. it is invidious to remind the wealthy of ning because their husbands could not the near proximity of want and hunger ; get paid as early as usual. They are not it is much worse than useless to hold up in a hurry to make their purchases and before the eyes of the pauper the envied get rid of their cash lest their lords, enjoyments of the millionaire. These having an idle day to-morrow, should things are part of an order of society squander the week's income at the club which I leave it to casuists to defend, or at Greenwich. All days are alike to and to utopists to dream of abolishing. them; and but for the impending serBut when the differences we discern are vices of the morrow they would have not the necessary consequences of exist- nothing to remind them that this is the ing social conditions, where the poor seventh day of the week and not the man suffers under disadvantages not second. This is not so with the poor essential but incidental ; under evils busy women, with haggard faces, and not inherent in poverty, but the fruit anxious hurried steps, who crowd around of bad arrangements, where the evils of the stalls in the New Cut, lighted by his lot are aggravated, not by the law of flaring jets of gas, about the hour at nature, but by the mismanagement of which the West-End remembers that it men ; above all, where the interests of is time to dress for dinner. That eager the working man are sacrificed not to the dame must needs make her purchases pride or profit of others, but to the to-night to keep her family in food and tyranny of a custom which, if once out of rags for a week; knowing full natural or reasonable, is now simply well, poor soul, that if she postpone her mischievous; or when he suffers under marketings she has small chance of the effects of his own vice, or weakness, keeping her money by her till the hour orim providence it is possible that some when she actually needs it-so many and thing may be done towards a remedy by pressing are the demands on the poor merely calling attention to the existence man's purse, so completely does he live of an evil, and to the sources from which from hand to mouth. So she must buy it springs.
by gaslight, and take her chance of the The shop of the silversmith, or the quality of the articles, half-spoiled meat perfumer, or the fashionable milliner, is and stale vegetables, leaky shoes, prints no more crowded on the last day of the that will not wash, and stockings that week than on any other. There are no will not wear. The uncertain light-it more carriages in Regent-street, no addi- is in these places that one learns how tional crowd on its pavements ; Bond- bad a light is that of gas-gives her no street is not fuller than on the Monday. chance of detecting flaws; the long You could not tell by the appearance of train waiting to be served compels her to Oxford-street that it was not Tuesday take what she can get, and be thankful. or Thursday. Swan and Edgar's pre Every one is short of time ; every one is sents no scene of extraordinary bustle; in that degree of haste which proverbially Savory and Moore are no busier than makes no good speed. So she must take usual ; nor are Fortnum and Mason com- her goods, such as they are, and pass on, pelled to keep open till midnight. having paid for them at the rate of There is a day's work to be done, not a wholesome beef, sound leather, and firstweek's. The lady customers have not rate calico- perhaps even more. People come to lay in provisions for a week, as do say that these markets have a Saturif they were about to stand a siege. day price; that, owing to the immense They do not come down in anxious pressure of business crowded into this