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lish grammar. We have not indeed in English that structural nicety which the predominance of inflected forms gives a language. Hence there is little scope for applying laws of syntax to our mother tongue. But we have compensation in some other departments. The fact that the English language is composite opens out a very interesting and a very educating line of study in connexion with it—the study of words in their origin and in their variety and changes of meaning. Everybody knows how much literature owes to Dean Trench in connexion with this subject; he has indeed, as it seems to me, indicated a course which, rightly used, may be made fruitful of most precious results in education.
The school-boy then should, while learning his Latin grammar, which will help him to appreciate one element of his native speech, be allowed some insight into the more domestic and aboriginal element of that speech, as exhibited in its older and purely Saxon forms. He should be taught how the language has grown, and changed, and developed ; how inflections have gradually dropped out; how new words and new idioms have as gradually slipt in; how old words have gotten for them selves new meanings; and how prevailing opinions, and shifting fashions, and national temperament affect the "jus et norma loquendi.”
Again, when he comes to study an English author, he should be required to note every striking and important word and phrase ; to discriminate the exact shade of meaning proper to the word in that particular connexion ; to register such idioms as have become obsolete, or involve note-worthy grammatical peculiarities, and to make a collection of such forms and expressions as deserve to be treasured up for use in composition.
2. From the language we pass to the subject-matter, and here again there is scope for great and varied labour.
In the first place the general drift and tenor of the argument should be mastered. With this view the pupil should, after reading a certain portion of his
author, be required to make an analysis or abstract of the portion read. He must be trained, in doing this, to seize and pick out the leading thoughts, to indicate the steps in the argument, and to bring into full relief the master-truth which the author wishes to exhibit.
Further, he must be made to “get up” a clear and full explanation of all classical, historical, and other allusions, and he must patiently and faithfully disentangle all involutions of language, and all intricacies of thought.
Y et again, in order to call into play his reasoning and reflective powers, he must be required (where the opportunity presents itself) to weigh in his own mind the force and soundness of some particular argument, the truth and falsehood of some particular position, and to form and express his opinion about them.
So too, according to the character of the work studied, certain points will require special attention. If the pupil is engaged on a historian, he must be led to consider the evidence on which the historical facts are based, and the validity of the inferences drawn from them. The study of a poem or drama will afford opportunity for another sort of culture. Character must be analysed, the propriety and beauty of the imagery illustrated, poetical forms of expression and figures of speech brought under notice.
3. In the last place, such a study as I am advocating must be accompanied by frequent and varied exercises in composition. A popular and useful exercise of the kind is what is called paraphrasing, which consists in expressing the thoughts of the writer in different but equivalent terms. This approaches in some measure to the practice of written translation from a foreign language, and to a certain extent supplies its place as an instrument of education. Another and still more valuable exercise is writing from memory the substance of a portion of an author after having carefully studied it some little time before. In this case, the original and the imitation should
afterwards be carefully compared. Ori- body. We are all interested in the ginal themes and essays should also formation of the national character and be set on subjects suggested by the the culture of the national mind. The work in hand. It may be well some tendencies of education are certainly times to follow out a proposition barely just now in a purely utilitarian and sciensuggested by the writer, sometimes to tific direction. Some partial reaction is controvert one of his statements or wanted. Let the useful be duly honoured; positions, and sometimes to compose a let science occupy its own, and that a critique on his general line of argument worthy place. But open the way also and style.
for moral influences, for the assimilation To pursue this subject further would of high thoughts, and communing with be tedious. What has been said suf- great minds. Let England's immortal ficiently indicates the direction that dead speak again in the Colleges and should be taken, and, I hope, also does Schools of their country, and their something to prove what may be called voices will not fall vainly on the ears of the capabilities of English Literature as England's children. Their burning words an instrument of mental training and and breathing thoughts will stimulate discipline. In this hope I commend the and nourish our national manhood, and subject to the fair and thoughtful con- will help to maintain an exalted national sideration of all whom it may concern. character. And, in good sooth, it concerns every
CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES; THEIR SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL
BY HENRY FAWCETT.
MR. HALLAM, an historian whose ac-
In the time of the Tudors, the weekly wages of ordinary labourers would enable them to purchase twice as much wheat and meat as would the wages of a similar class of labourers at the present time. It therefore appears that improvement in the material condition of a large section of the community has not accompanied the great progress in the nation's wealth. For England's commercial progress is unparalleled ; she accumulates capital for a great portion of the civilized world ; by her aid railways are carried into the far West ; her commerce has
been developed by the greatest triumphs of mechanical genius ; her exports have advanced in a few years from 50,000,000?. to 130,000,0001., and yet no corresponding effect seems to have been produced in the material condition of her poorest classes.
Philanthropic institutions continue to unfold the same tales of dire distress. Needlewomen exhaust their strength and ruin their health for the most beggarly pittances; and labourers frequently cannot be provided with such food as the necessities of nature demand—for by many meat can now never be tasted more than once a week. It appears, therefore, quite evident that increased production does not insure a happier distribution of a nation's wealth. Yet there may be divers opinions as to how a more equable distribution is to be brought about
I may be thought hard-hearted if I seek a remedy in the lessons which
political economy teaches. The remedy, however, which I shall describe has the advantage of having been tried and proved to be effectual.
The most characteristic feature in the social condition of this country is the fact that all classes of labourers depend for their remuneration upon the capital which has been accumulated by others. As long as our social relations continue thus, the remuneration of the labourer must be regulated by the same laws as at the present time. Wages are now determined by the relative rapidity with which the population and the accumulation of capital advance. The wage-fund of a country is a component part of its capital; if this increases with greater rapidity than population, wages will rise. We may regret that a labourer should only obtain ten shillings a week ; but such wages are absolutely decreed to him by our existing social conditions, and cannot be raised by the mere desires of humane sympathy. We are thus able to discern the only effectual means by which wages can be raised, since they are determined by a ratio between population and capital ; but there is a wide-spread opinion amongst our labouring classes, which comes out prominently in the agitation of strikes, that wages are reduced by a tyrannical fiat of the capitalist. When the labourers express enmity towards capitalists, they should remember that, as long as the labourers, as a class, do not save, they render capitalists, who do not labour with their hands, absolutely necessary. Capital is that portion of past produce which has been saved to aid future production; capital, in fact, sustains the labourer until the results of his labour become available for consumption. If the la. bourer will not save, he must look for others to sustain him, and a large portion of the produce of his labour must be devoted to compensate the capitalist for his accumulation, for his risk, and for the labour of superintendence. When, therefore, labourers become a saving class, there will have been secured the most important advance not only in their social, but also in their material condi
tion, as they will then obtain from their own savings all those services for which they now have to pay the capitalist so heavy a price. This may appear an utopian expectation; and it will perhaps be objected, “What is the use of saying it is a good thing for the labourers to save ? Every one knows that; the difficulty is, how to induce them to save." I recognise the difficulty, and will meet it with a remedy, which I believe may well impress us with its practical significance. All saving involves a present sacrifice for a future advantage. A sure sign of inferior education is the absence of foresight. The poor, therefore, will not generally be provident; and, of course, saving becomes much more difficult when it cannot be made from a superfluous abundance, but involves the sacrifice of some of the necessaries of life. We will recognise to the full all these obstacles to saving, for we shall then be better able to discern the manner in which saving can be most effectually encouraged. The first thing which is of special importance is to place distinctly before the labourer the advantage which his saving will bring him. It is not surprising that there should be an absence of saving amongst the poor at the present time. Few labourers would be able to accumulate 1001. without many a severe sacrifice. When this 1001. is accumulated, the labourer will not be in a different social position; the 1001. will be placed in the savings bank, and fifty shillings a year will be the only reward of his prudence. If, however, he could use this 1001. as capital to support him while labouring, he would then cease to pay the capitalist the heavy price he now pays him. The advantage to the labourer of being his own capitalist can scarcely be overestimated. He would be advanced to a different social grade; the whole produce of his labour would be his own; and, depend upon it, prudence amongst the labouring classes would not then be so rare a virtue as it is now. But how is this to be effected ? The whole tendency of civilisation is against it; every year production is
carried on upon a larger scale; every But, it may be objected, such comyear small capitalists and small producers binations of labour for commercial purfind it difficult to compete with large poses can never succeed. The requisite commercial undertakings. Manufac- confidence will not be placed in the turing on an extensive scale is more managers; there will be divided councils; economical, and the small manufactories and it will therefore be impossible to are being entirely absorbed by those compete with the energy of the indivimarvels of commercial enterprise with dual capitalist. Such objections appear which Lancashire and Yorkshire are theoretically to be unanswerable; they studded. Large farms are gradually will, however, be completely refuted by absorbing the small holdings; in a the examples of success which I shall village there are now but three occu- adduce. piers, where, perhaps, a few years since I will now describe the extraordinary there were thirty ; and this tendency career of two Co-operative Societies at will be found to increase in every de Leeds and Rochdale ; and I would repartment of industry, in proportion as mark beforehand that I believe their the application of machinery is extended. success has been due to no exceptional It is therefore hopeless to expect that causes. Working men originated them; production will ever again be carried on every farthing of the capital has throughby uncombined labourers, such as the out belonged to working men; and, from peasant cultivators of India, or the arti- the commencement, the management has sans and artificers of bygone days. How, been entirely in the hands of working therefore, can a labourer in this country men. convert his savings into capital to sup- In 1844, the working classes of Leeds port his own labour ? This can be vir- believed that they were compelled, in tually done, and has been done, by a consequence of a combination of millers, number of labourers putting their joint to pay a high price for adulterated flower. savings into one common fund, thus They therefore determined to supply forming a capital sufficient to establish themselves with pure flour at the lowest a large commercial undertaking. Those market price. Three thousand pounds who have contributed this capital may were raised by shares of 21s. each : no act as labourers in the concern, thus person being permitted to hold more becoming their own capitalists, and than one share. As no suitable mill taking to themselves the whole of the could be rented, one was purchased for profits which are now paid to the capi- 5,0001.,— part of the purchase-money talist. If the savings of the labouring remaining on mortgage. It was resolved classes could be thus invested, it is to purchase the very best English wheat, quite evident that accumulation would and to sell no flour but that of the first be most powerfully stimulated. Fifty quality; and, after a careful calculation, shillings a year received as interest from it was resolved that as many shillings 1001. by the working man can make no per quarter as were paid for wheat, so perceptible change in his social condi- many halfpence per stone should be tion ; but if this 1001. would enable him charged for flour. Thus, if wheat was to become a working partner in a thriving 40s. per quarter, flour would be ls. 8d. joint-stock concern, he is at once ad- per stone. In Leeds, flour had always vanced into a different social grade. He been sold one penny or two-pence per is no longer a hired labourer, who toils stone above the price thus determined. on from year to year without prospect But all the millers have now, by comof advancement; but his career becomes petition, been compelled to reduce the cheered by the blessings of hope. Under price to that charged at the cooperative these benign influences he will attain mill. The members of the society and prudential habits, and all those indus- the public purchase upon the same trial virtues which so pre-eminently dis terms; but each member receives a tin tinguish the middle classes.
ticket to record the amount of each of his purchases, and at the end of the are elected by the members for a definite year the profits are thus divided :—Five period. A box is kept, in which any per cent. is paid as a uniform dividend member can lodge a written complaint, upon the shares; and the remaining which is investigated at a quarterly profits are divided amongst the members meeting ; but complaints are seldom in proportion to the amount of their re- made, for the management is as excelspective purchases, this amount being lent as at Leeds. Thus the working registered by the tin tickets.
expenses are not 21 per cent. upon the In 1850, the capital was 3,9251., returns. This is much less than half business done 26,1001., and profits 5061. the average working expenses of similar The society steadily and rapidly pro businesses. The Pioneers' Co-operative gressed in prosperity. In 1857, taking Store, at Rochdale, and the Leeds an average of the preceding five years, Co-operative Flour-mill, have, together, the business done was 55,9301., the done transactions to the extent of more capital 7,6891., and the profits 1,7861. than 1,000,0001. ; and they have not This indicates profits of 25 per cent. had to set off 101. for bad debts. ProThe management of the concern appears fessional auditors have examined the to have been admirable. No credit books of these two societies, and affirm whatever is given. The retailers of the that the manner in which the accounts flour are remunerated by commission of have been kept might serve as a model to ls. 9d. per bag ; and they are not allowed any commercial undertaking. As an offto give orders for less than 101. at a shoot of the Pioneers' Store, a Co-operatime : this arrangement diminishes the tive Cotton-mill was established at Rochcost of cartage from the mill. The eco- dale in 1855. The Pioneers' Society nomy and excellence of the management has 5,0001. invested as capital in the are proved by the fact, that the cost of undertaking. At first, a portion of a retailing is reduced 50 per cent. ; and mill was rented ; and, in 1856, 96 the expense of grinding is 40 per cent. looms were at work : the profits of the less than had before been charged in capital were 131 per cent. The labourers Leeds.
receive the wages current in the trade, At Rochdale, a Co-operative Store is and a uniform dividend of 5 per cent. conducted on the same principles, and is paid on capital. The remaining prowith equal success. It commenced in fits are divided into two equal shares ; 1844, with a capital of 281. At first, one of these is paid as an extra dividend only grocery was sold ; now, butchers' upon capital; the other share is at the meat and clothes are also retailed ; and end of each year divided amongst the within the last few years, a flour-mill, labourers. Each labourer's share is in similar to the one at Leeds, has been direct proportion to the amount of wages established. In 1856, the number of he has received throughout the year. members was 1,600, the amount of The most efficient workmen, therefore, funds, 12,9201.; the business done was not only receive, as in other employ63,1791., and the profits made, 3,9211. ments, the highest weekly wages, but In this society a member can hold any also obtain a corresponding advantage amount of shares less than 1001. The in the annual division of profits. The society also has the functions of a bank most skilled labour and the highest of deposit ; for members can add or with efforts of that skill are secured ; and the draw capital at their pleasure. Profits concern, though in its infancy, is able to are divided on the same principles as at compete successfully in a business where Leeds, with the exception that 24 per commercial enterprise has been most cent. of the profits are put aside for the particularly developed. The great sucmutual improvement of the members : an excellent reading-room and a library
i These facts have been summarised from
statements of accounts which I have obtained are thus supported. All adulteration
re thus supported. All acuerdon from Leeds and Rochdale. is most carefully avoided. The officers Much valuable information is also contained