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Dr. Ullmann, so well known throughout sia, the Minister of Worship, notwiththe theological world as the able editor | standing the opposition of the retrograde of the Studien und Kritiken, the best party, continues to establish parochial theological quarterly of Germany, has councils, which will give to the laity an been at the head of the Suprerae Eccle- active participation in the affairs of the siastical Council, the reins of Church Church. The organization and convo. government have been taken out the cation of a General Synod of the Prushands of the Evangelical party and sian Church is expected soon to take placed in those of Rationalists. In the place. Even in the kingdom of Saxony adjoining Palatinate, a province of Bava- a new Church constitution has been proria, the Rationalists are likewise look- posed by the government and discussed ing up, as the government has granted by the legislature, which, while re-enseveral of their petitions, and even en- forcing again the belief in all the stand. couraged them to put themselves in ards of old Lutheranism, yet provides open opposition to the clergy, the great for the regular meeting of a General majority of whom are tirmly attached to Synod, with enlarged powers. Nearly evangelical principles. These two suc- all the important German states will cesses of the Rationalistic party have now soon be in possession of a repregreatly strengthened their hopes in the sentative constitution, a change which other German states. They regard their greatly strengthens the hope for a brilprospects as the more bright, since it is liant future of the German Evangelical a well-known fact that most of the lead. | Churches. ers of the liberal political parties through. out Germany sympathize with, and favor

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. and promote the movement.

The attachment of the Roman CatholIt is, however, highly probable that

ics of Germany to their Church shows the temporary victory of the Rationalists

itself in some districts stronger and more will eventually lead to many good con

general than in most other countries. sequences. It cannot be denied that in

The regular collection of the Peter's Germany the Rationalists have, on

pence (one penny a week) is organized the whole, been more favorable to the

throughout the land, and several incause of religious liberty than the Lu

stances are recorded of congregations theran and the Evangelical parties. In

where every adult member is enrolled fact, they have been looked upon by the

as a member of the association. Nopeople at large as the only defenders of

where does the society make a greater the principle, although they are by far

show than in the archdiocese of Cologne, less liberal than the evangelical free

where the Mayors of Cologne, Bonn, Churches, (Methodists and Baptists,)

Pusts,) | Aix-la-Chapelle, and Dusseldorf, have which, during the last years, have

| accepted a place in the Provincial Comsprung up under the influence of En

mittee of the Association. glish and American views. The struggle in Baden was even nominally more fought on the ground of reforms in the

FRANCE. Church constitution than on doctrinal THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES.—The ground, and had therefore the sympathy great contest in the Reformed State of many divines, as, for example, Dr. Church, between the Orthodox and the Schenkel, who are not supposed to sym

Rationalistic parties, has been carried pathize with the doctrines of the party. on during the past three months with The same decree, which inaugurates the more than usual vigor. The lines of new regime in 'Baden. gives to the distinction become more marked, and Church a greater independence of the the opinion is gaining ground that there State, and limits within the Church the will not much longer be room in the hitherto prevailing hierarchical and ab | same Church for parties so divergent solutistic principle of administration by in their tendencies. A warm discussion important democratic innovations.

has, in particular, been called forth by But although the Rationalists are gen- / the publication of two letters of Mr. Pouerally believed to have taken the lead in lain, formerly a "Liberal," and pastor this movement for the reconstruction of at Havre. now pastor

usanne, the Protestant State Church, the other | Switzerland, who protests against the parties are at least making some ad stay in the Church of men "who yield vanoos in the same direction. In Prus. l no more authority to the Bible than to

the writings of Plato and Aristotle." | tendencies, there was found one conforOther impressive declarations on the ring on him the Patriarchate of Franco Orthodox side have been made by the in case of a separation with Rome. The newly appointed Professor Bois, at the Diocesan Cbapter of Troyes, however, Theological School of Montauban, who declared this rumor to be a vile calumny, undertook the defense of miracles against and the Moniteur emphatically denied the neologists, and the editor of the Es- / any sympathy on the part of the empepérance, the chief organ of the Evangeli- | ror with the schemes of the abovecal party, who demands the re-establish- named pamphlet. Nevertheless, the ment of the presbytorian system, with hostility of the clergy and the “Church" its local Synods and its General Assem- | party in France against the emperor bly, in order to watch over the enforce- seems not to have abated, and even tho ment of Church discipline, and the purity extraordinary service recently rendered of doctrine. The Rationalists, on the by French diplomacy to the Roman other hand, are even widening the Catholic Church in China and in Turkey, breach, us some of the most talented have not been able to produce a better among their writers, especially among feeling. the younger clergy, are abandoning the

ITALY. standard of old-fashioned Rationalism for openly avowed Pantheism. This THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES.-The portion of the party has found powerful progress of Protestantism in all parts of allies in some of the leading periodicals Italy continues to be satisfactory. The of France, which openly reject the papal former kingdom of Naples, in particular, system, proclaim the superiority of the distinguishes itself before other provinces Protestant form of Christianity, aud ac- by the willingness with which it re. knowledge the great influence of the Bi ceives the Bible. While in Tuscany and ble on the progress of civilization, while Piedmont the demand for Bibles, on the they, on the other hand, view the mod part of the native booksellers, has beon ern German systems of speculative phi very small, those of the city of Naples losophy as the truest and highest expo have bought up whole cases at a time, sition of the essence of Christianity. and they employ agents with barrows Even that most important of all French to hawk them through the streets. In periodicals, the Revue des deux Mondes, the villages round the city the colporhas opened its columns to Mr. Ernest teurs have also met with great success. Renan, the distinguished French orient- In Umbria, formerly a part of the papal alist, for the advocacy of these doctrines. territory, the sale of Bibles has been tol. It is worthy of note, however, that not erably good, though the colporteurs did only the Rationalistic literature, but not escape abuse, and were interrupted also the chief works of orthodox French in some places by the police. Besides Protestantism, are favorably reviewed the Bible, a number of able Protestant by not a few of the best literary pa- works have bad a good sale. The pampers, an indisputable sign that the liter- phlets of Dr. De Sanctis, in particular, ary classes of France intend to remain are eagerly read, and so are the worke emancipated from the rule of Rome. of several other Italian converts, and it

is greatly regretted that the native ProtTHE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.-1 estant literature is not yet more copious. The indignation of the Roman Catholic Among the translations from the English press against the emperor is intense- and other languages, M'Crie's History of strouger than even against Victor Eman- | the Reformation in Italy has, in particular, uel. He is commonly spoken of as a awakened a great interest, and found & traitor, and is charged with the intention large circulation. The number of misof following the example of Henry VIII., sionaries and colporteurs, natives and and severing all connection of the French foreigners, is steadily increasing. Among Church with Rome, in order to make other associations, the British Society himself her head. A pamphlet, advoca- 1 for the Propagatiou of the Gospel among ting such views, was maintained to the Jews will take an active part in the have received its inspiration from the Tuil- work of evangelization, and arrangeeries, and a rumor even obtained wide ments for immediate missionary work currency through ultramontane journals have been made in Legborn, Ancona, that among the papers of the late Bishop Bologna, and other places. Thus the Coeur, of Troyes, of known Gallican | prospects of Protestantism may be said

FOURTH SERIES, VOL. XIII.—21

[graphic]

to be bright indeed, especially as no soon as the oppressive weight was re. fear need be entertained that the relig-moved. Protestant associations were ious liberty now enjoyed by Protestants known to have been organized in differthroughout the peninsula will be curtail ent parts of the country, and to be in ed. The two greatest Italian statesmen, secret correspondence with each other, Cavour and Garibaldi, rival with each though no details could be published, as other in the decided advocacy of the they would have exposed the converts principle of religious liberty, and Gari. to the rigor of the Spanish law, which haldi has even denounced in a public does not authorize the profession of speech the papacy itself as antichristian, Protestantism. Toward the end of and such a declaration from the most August, 1860, the flight of a young stupopular man of the country cannot fail dent from the clerical seminary in Grato prove a heavy blow to the Roman nada led to the arrest of Mr. Alhama, a Church.

hatmaker of Granada, who has been for

several years presiding over the ProtestTHE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.-It ant society in that city. A search in his is difficult to obtain reliable information house led to the discovery of the names on the position of the Roman Catholic and addresses of nearly all the Spanish priesthood with regard to the extraordi Protestants in Granada. At first eightnary political changes of the two last een persons were arrested, but it seemed years. It cannot be doubted that quite as if the government was afraid openly a number of them warmly sympathize to admit how widely Protestant ideas with the cause of the union. The pope have spread, and all of them, except himself not long ago publicly expressed | Alhama, have since been discharged, his regret that a Neapolitan bishop had either entirely or on bail. In Malaga written to him in favor of Garibaldi. and Seville no arrests were made; but in In the city of Naples an association of Barcelona, on October 8, another leading priests has been formed to labor for the man among the Spanish Protestants, confirmation of the Union, and their Manuel Matamoros, was arrested, and committee has issued a pamphlet, in more information on the Protestant assowhich they solicit the co-operation of the ciations fell, on that occasion, into the entire clergy of the kingdom. The col- hands of the police. Matamoros was porteurs also report from various parts sent, toward the close of December, to of Italy that they occasionally meet Granada, where he is to be tried, togethwith priests who gladly buy the Bible, er with Alhama and others. Both the and approve of the objects of the Bible prisoners astonished the judge by Societies. But only a few have as frankly acknowledging that they no yet been found willing to shake off longer believed in the doctrines of the openly the belief in the spiritual su- Roman Catholic Churclr, but only in the premacy of the pope, and to embrace | word of God. Matamoros says that the the principles of evangelical Chris- / work in Barcelona has not suffered in tianity.

the slightest degree; that in Andalusia The reduction of the number of con- (of which Seville is the capital) they bare vents is likely to take place on a grand received a fearful blow; but time will scale. With regard to the Jesuits, we obliterate their panic, and all go on as learn from a letter addressed by the before. According to another report, general of the order to Victor Emanuel, six Protestants have fled to Gibraltar, that that order has lost three colleges in to avoid captivity. The English branch Lombardy, six in Modena, eleven in the of the Evangelical Association has solicpontifical states, nineteen in the king ited the government to exert itself in dom of Naples, and fifteen in Sicily. behalf of the prisoners; and Lord John

Russell has assured the committee who SPAIN.

waited on him that he cordially sympa. PROTESTANTISM. - It has been well thizes with the object of their petition, known for some time in the Protestant though it may not be in the power of world, that the work of evangelization, I the government to give to it an official 80 auspiciously begun in Spain a few | support. years ago, during the short period of liberal government, had not been extin

TURKEY. guished, but was smouldering on, ready | THE GREEK CHURCH.—The election of to burst forth with increased power as a new patriarch of Constantinople, to the importance of which, under the present, no concern, as they were not going circumstances, we called attention in the henceforth to acknowledge the Greek October number of the Methodist Quar- patriarch. They have, in fact, so far as terly Review, (p. 674,) took place on it is in their power, severed all connecOctober 16. It was the first time that tion with the patriarchate of Constantinothe representatives of the laity took part ple. They had long been threatening that in this important act, and the innovation if the Porte would not concede to them had awakened in the Protestant Churches a national Bulgarian patriarchate the of Europe and America many hopes for whole nation would go over to Rome, the beginning of a thorough reformation and place itself under the protectorate in the Greek Church. The result of the of France. As the Porte refused to comexperiment, however, does not confirm ply with their demand, all the preliminaench hopes. The proceedings of the ries for a union with Rome were taken, election bear a comparison with the and Roman Catholic papers in Europe most disgraceful events in Church His and this country even prematurely antory. According to the right conferred nounced the consummation of the union. on them by the new constitution, the According to the last advices, however, patriarchis, archbishops, and bishops of only a limited number, including the Turkey had nominated for the vacant editor of a Bulgarian paper in Constantisee, by writing, the candidates who to nople, have been found willing to take them seemed most worthy to occupy it. the final step. The bulk of the nation are The National Assembly, consisting of still hesitating, and waiting for further deabout forty clergymen and eighty laymen, velopments, and many are said to prefer was convened in September, and selected | to enroll themselves civilly as Protestfrom the names nominated by the bishopy | ants, as this step would not require of eleven names which were handed over them a sudden change in their religious to the Porte, to see if the government profession, which they may feel not to would object to any of them. The Porte be warranted by political causes. in this case did not make use of the right of veto, and the National Assembly | THE ARMENIAN CHURCH.-We referred chose three candidates, from which the in the January number of the Methodist clerical members had to elect the patri- Quarterly Review (p. 142) to the efforts arch. Before the election took place, a made by the High Church Episcopalians portion of the assembly insisted that in England for establishing a closer union tlose clerical members who had been between the Church of England and the convicted before the Porte of having been eastern Churches. Intelligence has since guilty of bribery and other scandalous been received from Turkey that the crimes, should not vote. This gave rise Armenian press, which has risen to con- : to a most disgraceful quarrel, in which siderable importance since the establishecclesiastics and laymen, high and low, ment of the American missions in Turkey, mingled in a general and uproarious has taken up the subject, and seems to refight. One of the bishops was nearly gard it with favor. A pamphlet has been strangled by an archdeacon, who, it is issued whose object is to show how nearly said, in his turn lost three fourths of his the Armenian Church is like that of Enbeard by the unsanctified hands of a lay- | gland. The pamphlet, to this end, quotes man who came to the rescue of the bishop. from the prayer-book the whole of the The result of the whole was that a man twenty-fifth Article of Religion, but so has been chosen to the office of patriarch cunningly shapes the translation as to who has always shown himself a decided make it appear that the Church of Enopponent of any reform, and is even now gland, as well as the Armenian, believes in favor of overthrowing the entire new in seven sacraments, though five of them, constitution. The election has been con the pamphlet says, are received only, as firmed by the Sultan, but a large and re- they are by the Armenian Church, as secspectable body of the Greeks have strongondary sacraments. Several Armenian ly protested against it. The Bulgarians, theologians are quoted in support of this who had been treated with entire neglect theory. As this is the very same schemo when the new rules were being framed, | by means of which Henry Newman and utterly refused to be represented in the other Oxford Tractarians endeavored to assembly for electing the patriarch, prove the possibility of harmonizing the either by laymen or ecclesiastics, saying thirty-nine articles with the decrees of that it was a matter in which they had the Council of Trent, it is believed that

English Puseyites aided in the compila- | Church at Echmiadzin, but being sometion of the pamphlet, which has the im- what unwell, and his time of absence primatur of the patriarch on the title- | having almost expired, he abandoned page.

his journey to Echmiadzin, and spent Information is also given by Armenian ten days in Tiflis to confer with the archjournals of an interview which Rev. G. bishop of that city. He expressed, in Williams, of Cambridge, had with the the name of the Church of England, his acArmenian Archbishop of Tiflis, in Georgia, knowledgement of the Armenian Church relative to the scheme of a union be- as a true, orthodox, and apostolic Church, tween the English and Armenian and kissed "the sacred hand of his holiChurches. Mr. Williams was the bearer ness." The archbishop in return granted of letters from the Bishops of Oxford and to him his episcopal blessing, and exLincoln, who, it appears, assumed to pressed a thousand good wishes for himspeak in the name of the Church of self and his people. To the proposition England to “the Catholicos, patriarch, 1 of Mr. Williams to send a few young bishops, etc., of the orthodox Eastern Armenians to Cambridge for an educaChurch.” He was to see "the holy ca- tion no definite answer was given. cholicos," the head of the entire Armenian

ART. XI.—FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

ENGLAND.

ceives in fact the character of a history The Life and Times of Aonio Paleario, of die Paleon of the Church of England. The work

of or, a History of the Italian Reformers of

will be completed in five volumes, the the Sixteenth Century, by M. Young,

first of which contains the Anglo-Saxon (London, 1860, 2 vols.,) is a work on a

| period. The Christian Observer, of Lonsubject which just now commands a

don, the monthly organ of the evangelmore than common interest. The “Sec

| ical school in the Church of England, oad Reformation," which for some years

devotes a long article to the work. It

justly censures the prejudices and fanathas so auspiciously begun in the Apennine peninsula, has naturally drawn back

icism of the author, “whose intellect is the attention of the Protestant world to

at once disturbed when the specter of a the glorious history of the first reforma

Methodist or a Puritan crosses his path,"

but at the conclusion of its article it tion, and to the many good and great men who were the leaders of the evangelical

acknowledges the partial merits of the movement. Antonio, or as, in accord

book in the following terms: “As the ance with the predilection of his times for

historian of a period of our history which classic names, he later used to call him

has had some charms for ourselves, we self, Aonio Paleario, has established, by

admire his diligence, and admit not only his work on the Benefit of Christ's Death,

his accuracy and research, but the skill

with which he has disentangled obscure (noticed, p. 340,) a just claim to be count

and complicated events, and the interest ed among them.

which he has thrown over those portions Among the most important recent En

of the story which in other hands might glish works on Church history belongs the

have been dry and barren." *Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury," (London, vol. 1, 1860,) by Dr. Hook, the The same number of the Christian Obwell known High Church dean of Chiches server reviews Dr. Hessey's Bampton tor. The work contains much more than Lectures on “Sunday: its Origin, History, what the title would indicate, for it not and present Obligation.” (London, 1860.) only gives the biographies of the incum The Bampton Lectures have of late rebents of the See of Canterbury, of many gained their ancient celebrity. In 1858 of whom nothing is known except their Mr. Mansel exerted his logical mind names, but it makes the life of every pre- | against the German Rationalism now Late who is under review the center making its advances in England. In around which we see the ecclesiastical 1859 Mr. Rawlinson brought modern world revolve; and thus the work ro- | discovery to bear on the history of the

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