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and that at New Orleans, $2,804,956 44. But it is unnecessary to pursue these minutiæ further, to establish the fact that the miscellaneous expenses of the new Confederacy will be at least half as great as those of the old one.

Four millions, seven hundred and fifty-three thousand, nine hundred and seventy-two dollars, and sixty cents, ($4,753,972 60) was expended under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, including the Indian Department, military and naval pensions, and private individuals. As the Cotton States would have no territory, and its Indian relations would be confined to Texas, but little of the money expended in that line would be required, and it is probable that $1,500,000 would suffice.

Military fame is the great goal of southern ambition, and this alone would prompt a strong peace establishment, even if the motive of self-defense did not peremptorily demand it. The existence of the whole United States intact would be a greater safeguard and protection from foreign invasion than an army of 50,000 disciplined soldiers in a southern confederacy. No nation would be so reckless as to invade England, though every regular soldier were dismissed from the service; while no army that Denmark could bring into the field could protect that peninsula if its integrity were not guaranteed by the great powers. What the Southern Confederacy would lose in real strength, it must atone for in expensive show; and what they would lack in moral power must be compensated for by an army. Besides, the sons of the wealthy planters must be provided with commissions. They have not all had positions under the national government, and hence demands have been frequently made for an increase in the army. Southern secretaries have recommended it, and southern congressmen have voted for it; and it was only through the opposition of the North that the peace establishment was kept within the present limits. Poor men, who have learned from the example of the wealthy that labor is disgraceful and military service honorable, will rush to the army, and it will only be a question between supporting them as paupers or soldiers.

This large force cannot be kept inactive. Wars generally originate in the necessity for occupying the soldiery, and preventing them from becoming troublesome to their masters; and a Southern army will be no exception, even though there were really no ulterior designs entertained with reference to Cuba, Mexico, and Central America. But such designs are entertained, and it is principally with a view of putting them in execution that the disunion project was originated. On the other hand, those countries, having submitted so long to insults from filibusters without being able to avenge themselves, will feel that they are strong enough to cope with their new adversary, and will invite attack.

The average cost of every American soldier per annum is about $1,000; but in the new Confederacy it will probably be more, as all arms and munitions, together with a great portion of the army rations, must be imported; so that it is reasonable to suppose that the actual expense of a southern army, including fortifications, etc., would be $40,000,000; certainly it cannot be below the present figures—the amount at which we will place it, as we have no desire to overrate the difficulties that will but too soon present themselves to the aspiring oligarchy of cottondom.

What has been said with reference to the necessity for an army will apply with equal force to the navy; but the difficulty of equipping the latter will be greater than that of inaugurating the former. Vessels must be built as well as manned, and the experience required to make good sailors is not to be found in the South Sailors and marines are not so honorably regarded as soldiers; and while there would be no lack of officers for the navy, privates could only be obtained from among foreigners, and of course a bounty must be offered to induce them to incur the risk of being punished for treason if taken in hostility to their native country. In order to make sailors competent to man a navy a long apprenticeship is required. Even if the southern youth felt an inclination for seafaring life, no opportunity exists to acquire proficiency. It is, indeed, surprising how small is the whole southern marine, including ships, brigs, schooners, sloops, canal boats, steamers, and oyster boats; but the following figures, taken from the Report on Commerce and Navigation for 1858, will show its insignificance.

The total tonnage of the non-seceding states on the 30th of June, 1858, was 4,652,711 tons, and that of the cotton confed

eracy, 397,097. During the saine year there were built vessels of various kinds as follows:

Non-seceded States. Seceded States. Ships ........

............... 122
Brigs .........

Schooners .............
Sloops and canal boats....


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By a comparison embracing a series of years, it will be found that the difference in the amount of ship building in the two sections is becoming greater in proportion as slavery prospers, and will continue to do so, and the order can only be reversed by resorting to free labor.

This marine certainly is very insignificant; yet if the Southern Confederacy would take its position among nations it must maintain a navy; and to equip one, it will be necessary to import ship carpenters, sailors, and machinery, indeed, every thing but officers. There is no doubt but this will cost at least $20,000,000 per annum for several years to come; and can any one point to an instance of permanent governmental retrenchment after several years of precedent? There is no reason to suppose that the nature of the southerner will be changed when legislating exclusively for a southern constituency. He will indulge in his extravagance, and his love of place and power, just as much—perhaps more then than now, as the northern element has long notoriously held him in check.

The summary of the necessary expenditures of the new gov. ernment, exclusive of an item of great magnitude, which will be noticed hereafter, will be Civil List..........

$2,981,897 83 Foreign Intercourse ..

1,166,990 81 Miscellaneous .......

8,318,087 63 Interior Department ..

1,500,000 00 War Department.....

23,243,822 38 Navy Department .....

20,000,000 00 Total

.. $57,210,798 65 This rather formidable sum, when divided, will be found to amount to about $22 to every free man, woman, and child, or


$160 to every voter in the Confederacy; and this, too, without taking into consideration certain items of expenditure arising from the existence of slavery, such as keeping up extra patrols, etc. With such burdens, independence will soon be found an expensive luxury.

The question immediately occurs, Whence will come this enormous sum? What species of taxation will be adopted which will render the burden tolerable? The imports and exports of the South amount to about $200,000,000 annually, and the sum could be raised by a uniform duty of 27 per cent. on the former. But this would be more than the people could endure. Of the imports one half are provisions, and these must be admitted free; upon the remainder, a tariff averaging fifteen per cent. is proposed, which will, of course, yield an income of $15,000,000. In addition to this the proposed export duty on cotton will furnish about $8,000,000 more. But there is still a deficiency of over $30,000,000 even for an ordinary peace establishment, for the support of the Confederation, besides the amount required by a long array of municipal and state taxes. Will this amount be obtained by a direct levy? The people would not submit to it a single year. It must then be raised by a carefully adjusted duty on exports and imports, at the expense of the favorite southern idea of free trade. The result of such regulations will be particularly disastrous.

Every article exported must be sold by the consumer at a price to make it compete with the same production in other countries, and in the case of cotton will give a new impetus to its culture elsewhere. On the other hand, duties on imports, while they have a tendency to build up manufactures in free labor communities, will only be a burden without stimulating home industry; for manufactures never flourish where slavery exists. Under such burdens the South must languish, and commerce must be paralyzed.

The whole secession movement originated in the supposed ability of the South to reverse the relations of demand and supply, and make the latter regulate the former. This is, indeed, a pleasing illusion ; but the difficulty is, that it is an illusion. There can be nothing plainer than that the producer of the raw material pays the export, and the consumer of the manufactured article the import duty, and the confederates

will find that they are no exception to this rule. Instead of being untaxed, they will pay a double levy, one on exports, and another on imports.

Were the Southern States the only producers, present and prospective, of cotton, they might reverse the law of taxation so far as that article is concerned; but they are not. Providence has wisely arranged that no one portion of the world can monopolize the production of any article essential to the welfare of the whole human race, and the cotton plant is no exception. The following table is very significant upon this point, showing, as it does, that even while our Southern States are in the fullest tide of peaceful prosperity, some other countries of the world, and especially the East Indies, are gaining rapidly upon them:


United States, Ibs. 1832...

322,215,122 1838

595,952,297 1840...

742,941,061 1845.

872,905,996 1848.....

814,274,431 1856..

1,351,431,827 1857...

1,048,282,472 1858.......... 1,118,624,012 1859.......... 961,707,264 1860.......... 1,115,890,608

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Although, in the natural course of events, India must have become the rival of the South, the secession movement will hasten the time, and the Slave States, in five years, will find themselves robbed of their fancied supremacy.

Egypt has increased its exports twenty-four fold during the thirty-four years ending 1855, and since that period they have steadily and rapidly augmented. But about 8,000,000 of acres of cotton is planted each year in the United States, and it will not take long to cultivate twice that amount in South America, Australia, India, or Central Africa. With reference to the capacity of this last country to produce cheap cotton, the following extracts from authentic documents will sufficiently illustrate.

Mr. Campbell, at a recent meeting in the New York Bible House, draws the following conclusions from a minute investigation:

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