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If a being be, like Adam, created pure and disposed to right, yet as an agent freely able to choose right or wrong, his holiness, as created and before his free act, is pure and excellent. Yet it is not meritorious. It can claim no moral approbation or moral reward. Its first meritorious and morally deserving holiness is derived from action. And that action must be volition put forth with full and adequate power of contrary action instead.
Again, if God should create or allow to be born a being of mixed character, (suppose it to be man,) the automatic spring of whose volitions, under the touch of automatic motive forces, should be necessitatively sometimes in an injurious direction, and sometimes in a beneficial direction, such a being might be automatically excellent and perfect, but he would be below the conditions of probationary existence. His good or bad volitions being automatic, would be equally irresponsible and unmeriting of reward or penalty. Any ideas or notions implanted in his own nature of moral approval or condemnation would be arbitrary and false. He is incapable, in a responsible sense, of moral action, moral character, moral probation, judgment, or retribution.
Let us now suppose a being, such as man truly is, of a mixed character in another respect. Suppose him automatic in his perceptions, emotions, and desires, yet free and alternative in his volitions; capable of choosing either of diverse ways in a right direction or in a wrong instead. He is now no longer in a pure automatic nature. He has mounted into the grade of a morally responsible being. He is henceforth capable of probation, responsibility, judgment, and retribution.
Again, let us suppose that this last being is able, by his free volitions, to modify his automatic propensions ; namely, his intellections, emotions, and desires, so as to make them better or worse than they naturally were. Either he neglects to restrain them from excess or wrong direction ; or he directs, impels, develops, trains, and enlarges them for wrong; or he restrains and confines them to their proper degree and to a right direction. Even his automatic faculties would thence derive a sort of secondary responsible character; at least for much, if not for all their so formed character, he would be volitionally and morally responsible. It is thus that a man's sensibilities, intellections,
emotions, and beliefs become responsible. Again, a man may so train up into magnitude and force of will his automatic faculties, as to render suppressed his freedom of volition for any good; and thus he is automatically evil. Such volitional automatism for evil being self-superinduced, is responsible ; since where a man has freely annihilated his own power for good, he is responsible for the evil. Self-produced necessity is a responsible necessity. And from this view we can clearly understand how the sinner who is given up of God, and who sins and only sins, and that by a perpetual necessity, is responsible for his sins none the less. The necessity is superinduced, and therefore only aggravates the guilt of every sin. So all the sins of the finally damned, however necessitated, are none the less responsible, that necessity being self-superinduced. The holiness of the saints in heaven is none the less rewardable because it has become necessary; since, though they rest from their labors, their works do follow them. They are rewardable, not only for their works during probation, but for their works of holiness, obedience, love, and praise before God in heaven.
ART. IX.-FOREIGN RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
| bishop of Canterbury declared, with the THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES.— A new consent of all the bishops, the holding era seems to have begun in the Church of such views as are expressed by the of England. The Convocations of Can- Essays and Reviews inconsistent with an terbury and York, which for about one honest subscription to the formularies hundred and fifty years had virtually of the Church, though believing it doubt. lost their legislative powers, have been ful whether the bishops would feel at this year. for the first time, restored to liberty to take any decisive measures the fullness of their former jurisdiction, against the authors. The lower house That of Canterbury had, for seven or of the Convocation of Canterbury, by an eight years, gradually prepared for this overwhelming majority, expressed their important change, while that of York | concurrence with the joint letter of the met this year for the first time, and bishops, and pledged their influence to found itself at once in full possession of protect the Church from the "pernicious those rights which the Convocation of doctrines and heretical tendencies" of Canterhury had been gradually recover the book. Later the same house aping. Henceforth the annual meetings pointed a committee, with Archdeacon of both are to be as regular in their re Denison as chairman, to extract from currence as those of Parliament. Both the volume the most obnoxious passages, conventions had a very interesting de- and to submit them to the bishops for bate on the Oxford “Essays and Re- further legislation. From the discussion views." Already, before the meeting of in the upper house it appeared that the the convocations, a letter of the Arch- ! bishops were divided as to the best
course to pursue with regard to the au- ; ticle, very largely in sympathy with the thors of the book. The Bishop of Lon. ) essayists, has appeared in the Edinburgh don, who said he was a personal friend Review, from the pen of Dr. Stanley, Proof two of the authors, hoped that they fessor of Ecclesiastical History at Oro would issue a declaration satisfactory to ford, and biographer of Dr. Arnold. the Church, and dissuaded the bishops The great English anniversaries were from basty action. The Bishop of Ox- this year of more than usual interest ford, on the other hand, insisted on a So largely has the interest of the Enformal retraction, and a majority of the glish Churches in the objccts of the bishops were with him of opinion that a religious associations increased, that mere declaration, as proposed by the nearly all the chief societies could report Bishop of London, would not be suffi- an income exceeding that of any precient.
vious year. Thus it was the case with The discussion on this important sub-| the Wesleyan Missionary Society, Bapject in the convocation was but a faint tist Missionary Society, British and reflex of the immense agitation which Foreign Bible Society, and others. And has been created by the controversy in yet the number of congregations which the entire State Church, and which has contribute nothing for the religious soalready made it one of the most memor cieties, seems to be larger than might be able theological controversies England inferred from the great amount of the has ever seen. In March a deputation receipts; for it was stated, for instance, of the English clergy waited on the at the Baptist Missionary Society, that Archbishop of Canterbury to present an there were still about one thousand conaddress, signed by nine thousand min-| gregations which were not at all repreisters, which expresses the hope that sented in the list of contributors. The the Church would interfere by way of annual reports indicated that the manidiscipline. The High and Low Church fold and extensive agencies of the British parties are unanimous in their condem- Christians for promoting the progress of nation of the book; and also a number religion at home and abroad have been of leading men among the Broad Church- again greatly blessed, and at the Wesmen, such as the Archbishop of Dublin, leyan Missionary meeting, in particular, and the Bishops of Hereford and St. a letter just received from China conDavids, have raised their voices against tained surprising recent intelligence it. Others of this school, as the Bishop concerning the bright prospects of Chrisof London, in his recently published tianity among the Chinese insurgents. work, “Dangers and Safeguards of Mod. At the annual meeting of the Malta ern Theology," endeavor to hold a me- Protestant College Society, for the free diating position. The number of books education of natives in the Turkish em. and pamphlets published against the pire, and other countries contiguous to Essays is innumerable, while but few the Mediterranean, it was stated that a have come out in its favor. Also all special sum of £10,000 is now being the great literary organs of England raised for the liquidation of a heavy have taken part in the controversy. An debt on the institution, and to provide, article in the Quarterly Review, which by the enlargement of the buildings, for was first ascribed to Bishop Wilberforce the free admission of an increased numof Oxford and afterward to Mr. Man-ber of Oriental missionary students, and sell, attracted so great attention, that secure their maintenance for a few the number containing it passed rapidly years. through five editions. Rev. Dr. Buchanan, of Edinburgh, has replied to the THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.seven Essays in detail, in a series of The bishops of Ireland have held an. seven letters in the Morning Post, which other National Synod at Dublin, and have since been issued in separate book issued another manifesto to "the Cathoform. In the North British Review the lic clergy and laity of Ireland." It is subject has been discussed with great signed by all the prelates (27) except fullness by Mr. Isaac Taylor, who Archbishop M'Hale, who did not attend charges the essayists with borrowing the meeting. Dr. Cullen signs it before from Germany in a frivolous, vain- " the primate of all Ireland," as "the glorious spirit, without giving due weight | delegate of the apostolic see." The to the difficulties of the subject, and the whole of the document has been read refutations already given. An able ar- ! from every altar and pulpit of Ireland,
on one or two Sundays. The bishops ex- | partly to a so-called "mediating" party. hort the faithful "to walk in the footsteps One of the newly appointed councillors of the Queen of Heaven." They quote the is Dr. Rothe, the author of the most cel. report of the Commission on Education ebrated German work on Christian ethin England in favor of the denomina- | ics. At all events, the position of the tional system, which alone will satisfy | Rationalists has become a much more them. But they pronounce no formal | favorable one. They have at least one condemnation of the national system, decided representative in the governand issue no prohibition for the with ment of the Church, they are sure of drawal of the Roman Catholic children the support of the majority of the legisfrom the schools.
lature, they expect greater concessions
from the government, and they hope that GERMANY.
they can turn the growing dissatisfac
tion of the people with the interference THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES.—The of state governments in Church matters influence of Rationalism in some of the to their advantage. German State Churches, of which we A revival of religion, like those expegave a full account in the April number rienced by so many of the English and of the Methodist Quarterly Review, American Churches, is a phenomenon so seems still to be on the increase. In unknown in Germany, that the first apthe Palatinate, the western part of Ba pearance of it could not fail to produce varia, the General Synod of the United a profound commotion. Even most of Evangelical Church, which met from the evangelical pastors and Churches February 22 to March 10, has been pre- have been accustomed to look upon it vailed upon, by the influence of the gov with distrust and suspicion. At length ernment and other outside pressure, to the time of trial has come, the first remake to the Rationalistic party very cent movement of the kind on German important concessions. The great ma soil having taken place in an institution jority of the sypod (thirty-six to eleven) for poor children at Elberfeld. Physical was still of opinion that the official Ra- | phenomena have attended the revival, tionalistic church-books, (hymn book and very similar to those in Ireland and Jacatechism,) which were formerly in use, maica, and have startled out of their and whose expulsion from the Churches propriety the political press, who have was decreed by former General Synods, raised a furious outcry against it, and the are "unequivocally opposed to the civil authorities, who have thought it faith and confession of the Church;' necessary to interfere. All the officers but in view of the violent agitation of of the institution have been compelled the Rationalistic party, it did not dare to leave: and attempts have been made to provide for any effectual measures for to put down the work by force, or to the final suppression of the old books, but terrify the children, by tedious examinaleft the final decision to the option of the tions, into the belief that they were several congregations. Since then the merely under a delusion! On the other opposition to the introduction of the or hand, however, seven of the evangelical thodox books has become much stronger; pastors of Elberfeld, who have been an association for this purpose numbers constantly visiting the institution, and more than ten thousand active mem who are most intimately acquainted bers; in Neustadt, one of the largest with the whole case, have come out in congregations of the province, the pres- defense of the revival. They testify bytery have decreed, by seven votes that the most marked features observagainst three, to remove the orthodoxable among the children have been sorbooks which had already been in use row for sin, and crying to God for for some time, and to reintroduce the 1 mercy. They throw the responsibility old ones, and it is feared that many of having marred this great and good other congregations will follow this ex work on the magistracy. The district ample. The Church stands evidently synod, which met at Elberfeld in the on the eve of a very violent internal beginning of May, has issued a strong struggle. In the Grand Duchy of Baden protest against the dismission of the offithe Rationalistic party has not gained cers of the poor-house ; on the other KO complete a victory as was at first an- | hand, however, the town council of El. ticipated. The new members of the berfeld has, with all votes against four, Supreme Ecclesiastical Board belong | remonstrated against this "interference of the synod in matters of city govern-, has been rejected by the Chamber of ment."
Representatives by a decided majority. The political agitation in Austria has | The representatives of the people had at length compelled the government to never given their consent to this commake to the Protestants of the German pact. In 1857 it was agreed to by the and Sclavonian provinces some of those cabinet without consulting the chamconcessions for which they have peti. bers, and the government commenced to tioned for so many years. The imperial carry its provisions through, independpatent of April 8 declared that hence ently of the legislature. The voice of forth the Protestants shall have equal the entire Protestant population declar. rights with the Roman Catholics. They ed itself loudly in favor of rejection, and shall have, therefore, also the right to more than six hundred petitions, all nusettle in any place they choose, a provis merously signed, were addressed, to this ion which has given some offense end, to the government and the legislaamong the fanatical people of Tyrol, ture. When the Chambers were confrom which province the Protestants vened on February 28 the discussion of have been hitherto excluded. All the the concordat question was immediately former restrictions with regard to the urged, and, on the vote being taken, establishment of churches with spires sixty-seven members voted for the reand bells, the public celebration of re- iection, and only twenty-seven against ligious solemnities, and the free purchase | it. The majority comprises all the of books and periodicals, are abolished. Protestant deputies, save four, while the Henceforth the Protestants will be ex Roman Catholic members, except two, empted from paying, as beretofore they form the minority. The time of concorhad to do, fees to the Roman Catholic dats may now be regarded as past. The priests. The patent gives to the Church legislatures of some of the smaller states also a provisional Church constitution, on wbich have a numerous Roman Cathore a thoroughly presbyterian basis ; and the | population, have voted addresses to first General Synod has the right either their princes, petitioning them not to to ratify this provisional constitution or enter into any concordat with the Pope, to propose changes. For the ecclesias- but to regulate the affairs of the Roman tical and educational wants of the Prot- Catholic citizens in the way of ordinary estant Churches a proportional contribu-l legislation. tion from the state treasury is promised. So far the contents of the patent seem to
FRANCE. have been received in Austria with general satisfaction. The only points to TAE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.which objections have been made are Among the innumerable pamphlets to those which reserve for the emperor the which the situation of Rome has given right of appointing all the councillors rise, none seems to have made a deeper and the president of the Supreme Eccle sensation than the one entitled France, siastical Council, and of confirming the Rome, and Italy. Signed by M. de la superintendents. It is true that the Guerronnière, director of printing and same right is possessed by all the other publication at the Ministry of the Interior, princes of Germany, Protestant and Ro
and approved by M. de Persigny, it was nan Catholic; but, in accordance with | considered throughout France, and by the general demand of ecclesiastical in all parties, to be the view the emperor dependence, which is growing through wishes the world to take of his policy out Germany, the Austrian Protestants, with regard to the temporal power of the once in possession of representative as- | popes. The bishops of France are alsemblies, will soon demand that the most unanimously so fanatical and blind self-government of the Church be car supporters of the secular sovereignty of ried through in all its details.
the Bishop of Rome, that they have been
induced, by the great success of the THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. above pamphlet, to make the most vioThe influence which Rome had gradually lent attacks on the emperor. The palm gained in several German States by of boldness in these attacks is due to means of favorable concordats, has ex- / the Bishop of Poitiers, who in a pastorperienced another and emphatic reverse. | al letter, which had to be read from The concordat which the Pope had con every pulpit of the diocese, did not hesicluded with the King of Wurtemberg / tate to represent the emperor as Pontius