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Pilate. The emperor has seen fit to! THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES.—The show greater forbearance than other religious anniversaries have been well European governments, for instance, the attended and animated meetings. King of Sardinia, used to show, and Though the operations of the religious has contented himself with having an societies of France are of course conofficial blame inflicted on the bishop by ducted on a much smaller scale than the Conseil d'Etat. A subsequent circu those of England, their proceedings delar of Mr. Delaugle, Minister of Justice, rive a peculiar interest from the circuminforms the attorney general that the stance that they indicate the progress of articles 201 and 204 of the Penal Code Protestant Christianity in the chief are still in force, which condemn to im Roman Catholic country. Many of the prisonment or banishment any minister statistical figures in the annual reports of religion who in print or speech pub- gave striking proofs of this progress. licly criticises an act of the govern We learn, for instance, that three millment.

ions of Bibles have been circulated in The Roman Catholic party of France

France during the last eighteen years, claim to be numerically very strong,

tbat a Protestant Almanac has a yearly and to be rapidly increasing in strength,

circulation of two hundred thousand and they adduce as a proof the steady

copies, and that the foreign Missionary increase of church-goers in all parts of

Society is considerably extending its the empire during Lent, which this year

sphere of action, embracing now South was more noticeable than in any previous

| Africa, China, and Hayti. year. This proof will appear, however, as less conclusive, when we take into

ITALY. consideration, on the one hand, the vast theatrical display of the churches during

THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES. From this period, which attracts thousands who

all parts of Italy we have a cheering show no interest in the religious exer

view of the progress of evangelical cises, and, on the other hand, that after

principles. Tuscany and Naples, in Lent the attendance regularly again de

particular, have become the center of clines. In the French Senate an address

the most zealous endeavors for the evanto the emperor, indorsing his policy in

gelization of the country. In Florence Italy, has been adopted by all except

the Theological Seminary of the Waldenfour votes. In the Corps Legislatif an

sians is gaining a firm footing. Through amendment to the address, which advo

the princely liberality of four individuals, cated the temporal power of the Pope,

aided by a donation from the Irish has received the considerable number of

Presbyterian Church, the Palazzo Ricaninety-one votes; but after its rejection

soli, formerly Salviati, in Florence, bas the entire address, indorsing the emper

been purchased and made over for the or's policy, has been adopted against

accommodation of church, theological only fifteen votes.

college, schools, etc. The establishment

of Protestant schools is vigorously The convents which, owing to the pushed on. According to late advices patronage of the government, had mul- about a dozen well-trained youths were tiplied so rapidly in France during the about to leave the Waldensian Normal past thirty years, have been foremost in School at La Tour; but these being instirring up the passions of the people sufficient to meet the demand, it was against the pretended anti-Roman policy | intended to begin a Protestant Normal of the emperor. The government has ļ School for Central Italy in Florence. therefore resolved to enforce against The institution of Protestant deaconsome of the convents the law according esses, which was established last year to which their legal existence requires a | in the same city, has enrolled about previous authorization. Some of those forty pupils, and has already one or two monastic communities, which have been Italian girls in preparation as teachers. founded without authorization, have been The Swiss school in Florence is under suppressed ; and from others all the the direction of a young Swiss clergymembers, who were not natives of man of great educational ability, who France, have been expelled. These will actively co-operate in personal efmeasures have greatly embittered the fort, as well as by advice, in advancing hostility already existing between the the interests of the evangelical Italian government and the clergy.

schools.

In Naples a Neapolitan Evangelization' aid in the reunion of his former territory Aid Society has been formed, which, ac- | with the new kingdom of Italy, the repcording to its programme, has five prin- , resentatives of the Italian people, 23cipal objects in view, namely: 1. To sembled in Parliament, have not only assist native Protestant preachers; 2. sanctioned the formation of a united To assist in establishing schools on Italy, but they have, with almost perfect strictly Protestant principles; 3. To aid ubanimity, declared that the nation has the work of colportage, Scripture read a right to Rome as its capital, and that ing, etc.; 4. To translate into Italian they must have it. All the bishops side Protestant religious and controversial with the pope, and we have heard only works; 5. To establish a printing press, I of a single Neapolitan bishop who has and publish journals, newspapers, etc., , openly declared himself in favor of the in order to show what the Protestant recent political changes; but this fact doctrines really are. Gavazzi has con- only corroborates the view that the potinued to preach five times a week to litical emancipation of Italy from the inan earnestly attentive audience, and fluence of Rome may be regarded as the tone of his sermons is said to have complete. The same cannot yet be said become more evangelical. Another cou- to be the case with regard to the ecclesiverted ex-priest, Rev. Mr. Cresi, is occu-astical emancipation. Victor Emanuel, pying a hall in another part of the city Cavour, and Garibaldi have shown, on mafor religious services, and he was, at the ny occasions, that they have either none close of April, on the point of opening a or but little regard for the doctrinal sys. ragged school, for which a Protestant | tem of Rome, and that they would rejoice lady had kindly paid the rent, while at its overthrow or thorough reformation. another Protestant lady has volunteered But there are indications that thousands, to instruct the children.

who are willing to accept the abolition The recognition of the civil and politi- of the temporal power as a fact, or even cal rights of Protestants is evidently to hail it as the harbinger of a new gloprogressing. One of the leading men rious era in the history of Italy, cling among the Italian converts, Professor i firmly to "the religion of their fathers," Mazzarella, has been elected a member and even hope that the loss of temporal of the Italian Parliament. Several out- power may redound in a great spiritual rages against the rights of Protestants reformation, Cavour himself, in a speech have occurred at the instigation of the in the Italian Parliament, expressed the priests in Tuscany, Protestant families belief that the political unity of Italy having been forcibly prevented from being once carried through, the "Cathohaving their children baptized and their lic" party would develop a power which it dead buried; yet, in most cases, the l had never possessed under the old regime, government and also the local authori

and that the time, therefore, might soon ties have made laudable efforts for come when he would be himself in maintaining the principles of religious | Parliament, a member of the oppositional toleration. The Monitore Toscano has | minority. published a circular from Minghetti, the Minister of the Interior, addressed to

SPAIN. all governors, intendants, etc., ordering that henceforth a portion of the public PROTESTANTISM.—Some of the Spanish Campo Santo in every town or village, converts, whose arrest we recorded in shall be marked off by a wall or hedge, | the April number of the Methodist Quarfor the burial of all non-Catholics, unless terly Review, have been liberated on the municipality choose to provide a bail, but Matamoros and Alhama have separate cemetery.

been refused this favor. One of the

Spanish authorities at Granada told THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.-If Matamoros that he pitied his sad case, obedience to all Papal decrees, and a but that it would have been better for belief in the efficiency of the ecclesiasti. him if he had committed robbery or cal censures, were an essential feature of murder. Tho prisoners expected that the Roman Catholic system, nearly all the maximum of punishment which the Italy might be said this day to have left law permits would be inflicted upoti the communion of Rome. For, although them. They have found a warm friend the Pope has pronounced excommunica- i and advocate in Sir Robert Peel, who in tion against all who have aided or may the beginning of this year happened to

travel to Grenada in the same diligence for gaining the entire nation for the with Matamoros, and being interested in | cause of the union will be redoubled. his case, afterward visited him and Al 1 The great majority of the nation, hama in prison. Sir Robert has twice | however, persevere in their efforts to brought their case before the House of | secure the independence of all the Bul. Commons, and on April 30 an influential | garian Churches from the oppressive meeting was held at London, under the rule of the Greek Patriarch, and the presidency of the Earl of Shaftesbury, formation of a Free Bulgarian Church. for the purpose of calling on the English | A memorial signed by two bishops, six government to interfere so as to put al other ecclesiastics, and twenty-seven of stop to the religious persecution of the the leading men of the nation, has been Spanish Protestants; but Lord Russell, addressed to the members of the Evannotwithstanding his sympathies with gelical Alliance of Constantinople, asktheir cause, did not seem disposed to ing for their kind offices in behoof of the make any official application on the sub objects for which the Bulgarians are ject to the Spanish government. In the seeking. The Evangelical Alliance has meanwhile it is gratifying to hear that warmly recommended the matter to the the liberal democratic party of Spain are representatives of the seven Protestant cordially sympathizing with the friends countries, part of whom, at least, have of religious and civil freedom in Europe promised to exert themselves in favor of and America, that they are making great the just rights of the Bulgarians. The er efforts than ever before for securing to Patriarch of Constantinople, supported their own country the privileges of re by the influence of Russia, has obtained ligious liberty, and that they are confi from the Porte a decree of banishment dent of a speedy success.

for the Bulgarian bishops, but the exe

cution of the decree has been prevented TURKEY

in time. The Turkish government has,

on the contrary, so far yielded to the THE GREEK CHURCH.—The Bulgarian

demands of the Bulgarians, as to conquestion still awaits its final solution. sent to the calling of a convention of The expectations of the Roman mission

delegates from all parts of Bulgaria, to aries, who hoped that they would draw

test the sentiments of the people at over the entire people to their Church,

| large in regard to their relations to the have not been realized. The only Bul

Greek Patriarch. garian bishop who at first favored a union with Rome, hesitated when the final step was to be taken, and the PROTESTANTISM.-The Protestant misnumber of Bulgarians who really have sions among the Mussulmans have been gone over seems to be very small. The steadily going on, but threatening clouds shrewdest and most active among the are beginning to rise upon the horizon. Roman missionaries in Turkey, Mr. The Porte intends to organize a decided Boré, has headed a Bulgarian deputation opposition against what they consider the to Rome, which was to announce the encroachments of the Bible into their nasubmission of the entire nation to the tionality. Their plan seems to be this : to Pope as an event likely to take place make diligent search for the New Testashortly. One of the clerical members ment and Bibles in Turkish, and for their of the deputation has been appointed by owners and readers; to confiscate the the Pope patriarch of the United Bulga- books; to frighten or punish (according rians, and the nucleus of a United Bul- to the degree of culpability) the individgarian Church having thus been formed, uals; and to exile those who have really it may be expected that the endeavors | made defection.

FOURTH SERIES, VOL. XIII.--32

ART. X.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

ENGLAND.

| Adventures in Equatorial . Africa with Rev. Donald M'Donald, of Scotland, is Accounts of the Cannibals and other Sav. the author of an able work, entitled, | age Tribes, and of the chase of the GoCreation and the Fall. More lately he

rilla, the Nest-building Ape, Chimpanzee, has published a second work, from the

Hippopotamus, etc. By M. Paul Du press of T. & T. Clark, entitled an Intro Chaillù. With map and eighty illustraduction to the Pentateuch. It maintains tions. This work is awaited with high ably the Mosaic authorship and histori expectation by scientific men and the cal authority of the Five Books.

public generally. Dr. A. P. Stanley (author of Sinai and

A Life of Professor Porson, by the Palestine and Life of Arnold) has pub

Rev. John Selby Walton, with a por. lished Lectures on the History of the

trait, is promised by Longman & Co. Eastern Church, with an Introduction on

A Life of Edward Irving, in two vol. the Study of Ecclesiastical History. umes, by Mrs. Oliphant, is in preparation Stanley is Regius Professor of Ecclesi

from Hurst & Blackett's press. astical History in the University of Professor Owen has published the Oxford.

Posthumous Papers of Dr. John Hunter, Dr. Tulloch has published a volume,

with an “Introductory Lecture on the entitled, English Puritanism and its

Hunterian Collection of Fossil Remains." Leaders. The characters he portrays

Of Darwin's Work on Species six are Cromwell, Milton, Baxter, and thousand copies have been sold in En. Bunyan.

gland. He has issued a new edition, Bagster & Co. publish A Methodization

with various additions and corrections. of the Hebrew Verb, on an original plan,

Prefixed is an “Historical Sketch of for the use of learners.

the recent Progress of Opinion on the

Origin of Species.” The Genetic Cycle in Organic Nature; or, The Succession of Forms in the

The Oxford Essays and Reviews have Propagation of Plants and Animals. called out the following publications: By George Ogilvie, Regius Professor in The Dangers and Safeguards of ModAberdeen University, is published by ern Theology, by the Bishop of London Longman & Co. Professor Ogilvie is

Scripture and Science not at Variance; author of a previous work, entitled,

with Remarks on the Historical Charac Master-Builder's Plan in Typical Forms

ter, Plenary Inspiration, and surpassing of Animals.

importance of the Earlier Chapters of The Introduction of Christianity into Genesis. By John H. Pratt, M. A., Britain ; an argument in favor of St. Archdeacon of Calcutta. Paul's having visited the extreme Bound

" Essays and Reviews " anticipated. aries of the West. By Rev. B. W. Sa

Extracts from a work published in the ville, A. M.

year 1825, and attributed to the Lord The first and second volumes of Lord Bishop of St. David's. Stanhope's Life of the Younger Pitt

The Essays and Reviews" and the have appeared. The biographies bith

People of England; a popular Refutation erto of this, as of most other British

of the principal Propositions of the Esstatesmen, are very incomplete. Lord

sayists. With an appendix, containing Stanhope has had access to documents hitherto unused, and his work, though

the protest of the bishops and clergy,

ork, though the proceedings in convocation, and all unsatisfactory, is a great improvement the documents and letters connected upon its predecessors.

with the subjoct. Bohn has published the first volume

Sermons, chiefly on the Theory of Beof the Letters and Works of Lady Mary | lief. by the late James Shergold Boone. Montague. By Lord Wharncliffe. It is this volume is highly commended “to a third edition with additions.

the higher class of minds” by the LiteMurray advertises as “just ready," rory Churchman, as specially adapted to The Gorilla Country; Explorations and / "the present crisis."

Dr. Temple (one of the authors of British Museum are in possession of Essays and Reviews, and successor to similar tablets, but they are not near so Dr. Arnold at Rugby) has published complete as the one lately discovered, Sermons preached in Rugby School which is to find its place in the new Chapel in 1858, 1859, 1860. From Museum in Egypt. This tablet of M'Millan's press.

| Memphis will determine the Egyptian Henry Calderwood has published at

dynasties of the ante-pyramidical pe

riod.” the press of M'Millan & Co., a second edition of his Philosophy of the Infinite ;

GERMANY. a treatise on Man's Knowledge of the Infinite Being in answer to Sir Wil

Professor A. Wuttke, of Berlin, has liam Hamilton and Mr. Mansel. To this commenced the publication of a new edition are added an answer to Sir Will

Manual of Christian Ethics, (Handbuch liam Hamilton's letter to the author, and

der Christlichen Sittenlehre, Berlin, 1861,) a Reriew of Mr. Mansel's Limits of Re the first volume of which has just apligious Thought. Mr. Calderwood is a peared, while the second is announced clear tbinker and often an eloquent writer. to be published before the close of the His work is abundantly worthy of re year. The author has already favorably publication in this country.

distinguished himself among the younger

theological scholars of Germany by a The Westminster Review notices, un- work on paganism, and by a number of favorably to the institution it describes, contributions to the leading evangelical The Underground Railroad from Slavery journals of his country. With regard to Freedom, by Rev. W. M. Mitchell, of to the character of his new work, he anToronto, C. W. The same Review nounces that it will neither be so specuispeaks with earnest contempt of “ Ne | lative as some of its predecessors, nor groes and Negro Slavery; the first an exclusively biblical; but that he has eninferior race, the latter its normal con deavored to give a manual of ethical dition ; by J. II. Van Evrie, M. D., theology, wholly resting on the basis of New York." It commends “ Secession, the Sacred Scriptures, and wrought into Concession, or Self- Possession- Whichi a scientific system, not through a foreign a letter addressed by a citizen of Mas philosophy, but, as he calls it, through a sachusetts to Charles Sumner; pub self-development of the spirit of the Bilished by Walker & Wise, Boston." ble. A long introduction contains, beThe London Athenæum says: “The

sides other valuable discussions, a history first number of a new 'German Quarter

of ethics in paganism, Judaism, and ly Review of English Theological In

Christianity. quiry and Criticism'has appeared at The Essence of the Christian Sermon Gotha, from the press of Herr Perthes. according to the Prototype of the Apostolic The work is conducted by Dr. Ileiden- | Sermon (Das Wesen der Christlichen Preheim, who resides, we believe, in En- digt, etc., Gotha, 1861) is the title of an gland, and is a minister of the English | important homiletic work by Rev. Mr. Church. The purpose of the conductor | Beyer. The author divides his subject is, not merely to discuss for the benefit into three books: in the first he treats of German theologians the development of “the sermon as the word of God;" of doctrine in the Church to which he | in the second, of "the sermon as the has attached himself, but to lay before word of God to the congregation;" and German scholars the results of English in the third, of the word of God to the enterprise and travel, so far as these congregation as the expression of Christend to illustrate the Scripture records. tian personality.” Throughout the subSome of the inedited treasures of the ject is discussed, as the author anBritish Museum are to appear in this nounces, “with particular reference to Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift."

the principal tendencies of modern the

ology." Simultaneously another contriThe Athenaeum furnishes the following i bution to the same branch of theology item of Egyptological intelligence :

ingence: is published by Rev. Mr. Kirsch, under o M. Mariette is said to have made a !

& the title, The Popular Sermon. (Die and important discovery in the ru- | Populäre Predigt, etc., Leipsic, 1861.) new ins of Memphis; it is a list of sixtythree Eryptian kings, engraved on The many admirers of the exegetical

restone The Paris Library and the works of Professor Hengstenberg will

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