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then and afterwards take pleasure in these reflections, hoping by them to prevent my becoming insensible to the value of what I was leaving.

8. But all my dreams were soon put to flight by an order from the officer to trim the yards, as the wind was getting ahead; and I could plainly see, by the looks the sailors occasionally cast to windward, and by the dark clouds that were fast coming up, that we had bad weather to prepare for, and had heard the captain say that he expected to be in the Gulf Stream by twelve o'clock. In a few minutes eight bells was struck, the watch called, and we went below.

9. I now began to feel the first discomforts of a sailor's life. The steerage in which I lived was filled with coils of rigging, spare sails, old junk, and ship stores, which had not been stowed away. Moreover, there had been no berths built for us to sleep in, and we were not allowed to drive nails to hang our clothes upon.

10. The sea, too, had risen, the vessel was rolling heavily, and everything was pitched about in grand confusion.

I shortly heard the raindrops falling on deck, thick and fast; and the watch evidently had their hands full of work, for I could hear the loud and repeated orders of the mate, the trampling of feet, the creaking of blocks, and all the indications of a coming storm.

11. When I got upon deck, a new scene and a new experience were before me. The little brig was close

hauled upon the wind, and lying over, as it then seemed to me, nearly upon her beam ends. The heavy head sea was beating against her bows with the noise and force almost of a sledge hammer, and flying over the deck, drenching us completely through. The topsail halyards had been let go, and the great sails were filling out and backing against the masts with a noise like thunder. The wind was whistling through the rigging, loose ropes flying about; loud, and to me unintelligible, orders constantly given, and rapidly executed; and the sailors “singing out” at the ropes in their hoarse and peculiar strains.

12. In addition to all this, I had not got my 66 sea legs on,” was dreadfully sick, with hardly strength enough to hold on to anything; and it was pitch dark. This was my state when I was ordered aloft, for the first time, to reef topsails.

13. How I got along I can not now remember. I "laid out” on the yards, and held on with all my strength. I could not have been of much service, for I remember having been sick several times before I left the topsail yard. Soon, however, all was snug aloft, and we were again allowed to go below.

14. This I did not consider much of a favor, for the confusion of everything below, and that inexpressible sickening smell caused by the shaking-up of the bilge water in the hold, made the steerage but an indifferent refuge from the cold, wet decks. I had often read of the nautical experiences of others, but I felt as though there could be none worse than mine; for, in addition to every other evil, I could not but remember that this was only the first night of a twoyears' voyage.

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I. Write the analysis of: perfect (facere); imperfection (facere), captain (caput); motion (movere); preparation (parare), unintelli. gible (legere).

II. Analyze the sentence: “There is not so helpless and pitiable an object in the world as a landsman beginning a sailor's life.”

From what nouns are these adjectives formed : "helpless ; " "pitiable;” “insensible;' “occasional," " dreadful"?

III. Does this piece belong to the class of narrative or of descriptive composition? Point out bits of description.

Which sentence in paragraph 7 is a period ? (See Definition 15.)

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eôr'pu-lent, stout, fleshy. e-lāt'ed, overjoyed. coûrte'sy-ing, bowing low with făr'ri-er, a horse doctor. bended knee.

sus-çěp'ti-ble, capable of.


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This pointed satire on certain features of education in England is from “Hard Times," by Charles Dickens (1812–1870), the Shakespeare of the novel, and an original genius of world-wide popularity. Dickens's most striking peculiarities are a rich vein of humor, and great power in pathetic description.

1. “Now, what I want is Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted

in life. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts: nothing else will ever be of any service to them. This is the principle on which I bring up my own children, and this is the principle on which I bring up these children. Stick to Facts, sir! In this life we want nothing but Facts, sir; nothing but Facts!”

2. The speaker, and the schoolmaster, and the third grown person present, all backed a little, and swept with their eyes the inclined plane of little vesssels then and there arranged in order, ready to have gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim.

3. Thomas Gradgrind, sir. A man of realities. A man of facts and calculations. A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and two are four, and nothing over, and who is not to be talked into allowing for any thing over. Thomas Gradgrind, sir, with a rule and pair of scales, and the multiplication table always in his pocket, sir, ready to weigh and measure any parcel of human nature, and tell you exactly what it comes to.

4. It is a mere question of figures, a case of simple arithmetic. You might hope to get some other nonsensical belief into the head of George Gradgrind, or Augustus Gradgrind, or John Gradgrind, or Joseph Gradgrind, but into the head of Thomas Gradgrind

no, sir!

Indeed, he seemed a kind of cannon loaded to the muzzle with facts.

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5. “Girl number twenty,” said Mr. Gradgrind, squarely pointing with his square forefinger. “I don't know that girl. Who is that girl?”

“Sissy Jupe, sir,” explained number twenty, blushing, standing up, and courtesying. “Sissy is not a name," said Mr. Gradgrind. “Don't

“ call yourself Sissy. Call yourself Cecelia.”

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