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II. Faults in Quality. — The following are enumerated by Murdoch as faults which impair purity of tone:
1. The guttural tone -a mode of utterance which seems to make the voice issue from an obstructed throat.
2. Nasal tone which makes the voice sound as if it came only through the nose.
3. The oral tone — the slight, ineffective voice of indifference, feebleness, or fatigue; or the mincing tone of false taste.
4. The pectoral tone-a fault arising from an imperfect habit of breathing, in consequence of which the lungs are not furnished with a sufficient supply of air to produce full and clear tone.
Of course, all these “ faults” in quality may become merits when appropriately used by the professional elocutionist for expressive or imitative effects.
O that this lovely vale were mine!
My years would gently glide;
By peace be sanctified !
There is a land, of every land the pride,
Thou, too, sail on, O ship of state !
Hence, horrible shadow !
The citizens whispered, with white lips,
Emphasis is the mode of drawing attention to one or more words in a sentence. By the proper use of emphasis we impart interest and animation to reading.
Emphasis, though often confounded with mere comparative force of utterance on an accented syllable, has in reality the wider scope of signification indicated in the preceding and following paragraphs. It is, therefore, not one of the simple elements of vocal expression, but the utilization of two or more of these elements to the end of calling special attention to emphatic words.
Modes of Emphasis. — To call special attention to a word in any way, is to emphasize it. Hence a word may be rendered emphatic by the use of extra force, by a change in the inflection, by pauses, or even by uttering it in a very low key. I. Emphasis by Force. — A word may be emphasized
by uttering it in a louder tone (that is, with extra “force").
Exercise. [The lowest degree of emphasis is usually marked by Italics; the next higher degree, by SMALL CAPITALS: the highest degree, by LARGE CAPITALS.
Go, ring the bells, and fire the guns,
And Aling the starry banners out;
Give back their cradle shout.
weep o'er days more blest? Must we but blush? Our fathers BLED!
What can alone ennoble fight?
Not that I loved Cæsar LESS, but Rome MORE.
And if thou saidst I am not peer
Lord Angus, thou HAST LIED!
God, and your native land!
II. Emphasis by Inflection. — A word may be empha
sized by the use of the suitable inflection.
Be not like dumb, driven cattle':
Sink or swim, líve or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and my heart to this vote.
Three thousand ducats': 'tis a good round sum'.
In the one writer we most admire the man'; in the other', the work'.
Stand! the ground's your own, my braves !
Produced the beast, and lo! 'twas white !
Truly, sir, ăll that I live by is with the awl. Is thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing ? III. Emphasis by Time. — A word may be rendered
emphatic by uttering it more slowly, or by pausing before or after it.
A day, an hour, / of virtuous liberty is worth a whole eternity | of bondage.
He woke | to die.
He i jests at scars | who never felt a wound.
II. - DEFINITIONS IN LANGUAGE STUDY.
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.
If the language work in the previous numbers of this series has been faithfully attended to, the pupil will have acquired considerable knowledge in practical grammar and composition. In this Reader it is assumed that the scholar understands the meaning of ordinary grammatical terms, including the names denoting the parts of speech and their modifications, together with the classification and elements of sentences. The definitions given below are confined to the explanation of such terms as are used in the very elementary rhetorical exercises called for under the Language Studies.
Language Study. — The exercises under this head are presented in three subdivisions :
I. The analysis of a few Latin derivative words selected from the lesson. These derivatives, together with some hundreds of others occurring in the pieces, will be found in the Appendix, arranged under their respective Latin roots, -and it will be noticed that in the case of the derivatives whose analysis is called for, the root-word is indicated in Italic in parenthesis. Teachers who appreciate the value and interest of historic etymology will, of course, add largely to the number of words called for in the exercises.1
1 The teacher is referred for many suggestive hints and much valuable material on this interesting study to Swinton's “New Word Analysis,” Anderson's “Study of English Words," or Kennedy's “What Words Say,” published by American Book Company.