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II. Questions and requirements relating to grammar and sentential analysis. These are merely suggestive, and should be added to, both in amount and difficulty, if the previous training of the class justify. The skilled teacher will be able to make the reading lesson truly the focus of grammatical training by showing that the rules and principles which scholars have been taught in a technical way, with application only to "cut-and-dried ” examples, find concrete embodiment in actual literature. This is grammar vitalized.

III. Exercises in the thought and style of the pieces, together with easy rhetorical questions as to order of words, the more useful figures of speech, etc.

Composition. - It will be noted that the method of utilizing the reading lesson in the way of composition writing, which was begun in the Third and continued in the Fourth Reader, is in this book extended to such pieces as are peculiarly suitable for this kind of exercise. Pupils who have gone through the composition work in the Third and Fourth Readers will have become familiar with the mode of making abstracts from memory by means of these “heads,” and it only remains to apply this mastery to these pieces of more mature thought and enlarged range of literary expression.

I. DEF. 1. A figure of speech is a deviation from the direct and literal mode of expression.

DEF. 2. A simile, or comparison, is the statement of a likeness between one thing and another; as, —

The tear down childhood's cheek that flows

Is like the dewdrop on the rose. DEF. 3. A metaphor is a mode of speaking of one object as if it were another; as,

Virtue is a jewel. Simile and metaphor both express comparison. In the simile, one object is said to resemble another; and some sign of

comparison (as, like, etc.) stands between them. In the metaphor, an object is spoken of as if it were another, and no sign of comparison is used. A metaphor is an implied simile. Thus, –

SIMILE. - He is like a lion in the fight.

METAPHOR. — He is a lion in the fight. DEF. 4. Personification is the figure of speech in which an inanimate being is represented as animated or endowed with personality; as, –

The mountains sing together, the hills rejoice and clap hands. DEF. 5. Antithesis is the statement of a contrast or opposition of thoughts and words; as,

I do not live that I may eat, but I eat that I may live. DEF. 6. Climax (meaning literally a ladder) is a series of statements rising in strength or importance until the last; as, –

Learning is better than wealth ; culture is better than learning ; WISDOM is better than culture.

DEF. 7. Synecdoche 1 is the figure of speech by which the whole of a thing is put for a part, or a part for the whole; the genus for the species, or the species for the genus; and the like: as,

Sail, for ship.

Daily bread, for daily food. DEF. 8. Metonymy 2 is the use of the name of one object to represent some related object; as, –


1 Synecdoche ( pron., sin-ek'do-ke), from the Greek sun, “ together with," and ekilechomai, to understand in a certain sense.”

2 Metonymy (pron., me-ton'î-mî), from the Greek meta, implying "change," and onoma, a name.”

Gray hairs, meaning old age.

The fatal cup, meaning the drink in the cup. DEF. 9. Hy-pēr'bo-le consists in magnifying objects beyond their natural bounds to make a statement more emphatic. “Swift as the wind,” “Rivers of blood, and hills of slain,” are hyperbolical expressions.

DEF. 10. Apostrophe consists in addressing some absent person or thing as if present; as,

Milton, thou shouldst be with us at this hour! DEF. 11. Irony is the use of words whose literal meaning is contrary to the real signification; as,

Brutus is an honorable (meaning not honorable] man! DEF. 12. Ellipsis is the omission of words grammatically necessary, but supplied by the thought.


DEF. 13. The direct or grammatical order of words is their ordinary prose arrangement.

DEF. 14. The indirect or rhetorical order of words is an inverted arrangement of words adopted to make a statement more impressive.

In the sentence, “I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny the atrocious crime of being a young man,” the words are arranged in the grammatical order, — subject, verb, object; but in the form, The atrocious crime of being a young man, I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny,” the words are arranged in the indirect or rhetorical order.

DEF. 15. A period is a sentence in which, by using an inverted order of words, the meaning is suspended till the close or near the close.

DEF. 16. A loose sentence is one which may be brought to a grammatical close at one or more points before the end.

PERIOD. - On the rich and the eloquent, on nobles and priests, the Puritans looked down with contempt.

LOOSE SENTENCE. - The Puritans looked down with contempt on the rich | and the eloquent, I on nobles and priests.

III. DEF. 17. Description is the representation of things observed at any one point of time.

DEF. 18. Narration is the report of a succession of events observed in the order of time.

Def. 19. Exposition is the discussion of principles.

DEF. 20. Poetry, in its mechanism, is that kind of composition in which words are arranged in lines (verses) containing a definite number and succession of accented and unaccented syllables.

DEF. 21. Rhyme is that species of verse in which is found concord of sounds in words at the end of lines.

DEF. 22. Blank verse consists of unrhymed lines containing five feet of two syllables each, with the accent on the second syllable.

Def. 23. A refrain is a phrase or verse which occurs at the end of each of the stanzas of a poem.

DEF. 24. Style is the peculiar manner in which thought is expressed in language.

There are many descriptive words used to denote the various kinds of style, and the meaning of these the pupil may look up in the dictionary; as, figurative, flowery, plain, verbose, terse, simple, sublime, witty, epigrammatic.


1. – How to Write.

eon-sist', to be made up of. post, place, office.
couch, to express, phrase, state. re-gärd', respect, particular.
eūʼri-oŭs, inquisitive, anxious. spürt, casual effort.
hěad, topic, subdivision.

tongue, language. in-different, unheeding, uninter- trans-lāte', to express in other ested.



This lively and instructive piece is by Rev. Edward Everett Hale (6. 1822), an American essayist. His style is clear, pointed, and vivacious.

(11) leading articles, called leaders for short, are editorial articles of a newspaper. -(5) capping verses: naming alternately verses beginning alike. (13) Saxon words: those words which we owe to the Anglo-Saxons, German tribes who conquered Britain in the fifth century A.D. — (13) Latin words here means those English words which are derived from the Latin language either directly or through French, Italian, or Spanish.

1. Whenever I am going to write anything, I find it best to think first what I am going to say. This is a lesson which nine writers out of ten have never

1 The numerals thus prefixed in the Preparatory Notes throughout this book indicate in each case the paragraph or stanza of the piece in which the word or phrase is found.

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