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carloads and the State tells us where they would like to have the car sent. We send it there. Once the seal on the car is broken, it is their property to take care of and handle and their cost.

Mr. PUCINSKI. We will get this from the State administrators, but do you envision any substantial difficulties to the State and a substantial increase of cost, by distributing this food to this additional group that would be in the program during the summer months?

Mr. Davis. There will be an additional cost to someone, of course. Whether this is borne by the States where they have such a setup, or whether it is borne by the local community, there will be additional expense. I might just add that under a provision like this, it is possible that there will be a fairly large number of rather small individual programs. This, of course, as far as the surplus foods are concerned, would require extra expense. But this would be in the nature of making some provision for a local holding point of temporary storage from which it could be distributed to the small units.

Mr. PUCINSKI. We are very grateful to you for this testimony this morning. I think certainly it has given us a much better understanding of the lunch program. I am particularly grateful to you for clearing up this milk situation, and we certainly are going to be in touch with you and the Department as this legislation moves forward. I am grateful to you, Mr. Davis.

Counsel, do you have any questions? Mr. FOREMAN. I will submit my questions in writing. Mr. PUCINSKI. If there are no further questions at this time, we will recess at this time.

(Whereupon, at 11:10 a.m., the subcommittee recessed, subject to the call of the Chair.)



FRIDAY, MARCH 18, 1966


New York, N.Y. The subcommittee met at 10 a.m., pursuant to recess, in room 102, U.S. Federal Building, Foley Square, New York, N.Y., Hon. Roman C. Pucinski (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives Pucinski, Scheuer, and Daniels.
Also present: Representative Carey.

Professional staff present: Jay H. Foreman, counsel to the subcommittee.

Mr. PUCINSKI. The hearing will come to order.

The Select Subcommittee on Education is meeting this morning to conduct hearings on H.R. 9339 introduced by our colleague from New York, Representative James H. Scheuer. Å.R. 9339 would establish a special summer lunch program to complement the existing national school lunch program.

There exists in the United States today a scandalous situation. Some 17 million children receive their lunch during the school year. We know that for a substantial number of these children the only decent meal they receive is their school lunch.

What happens to these children during the 3 months of summer vacation? Certainly there is no less need of nourishment during these months, yet the existing Federal legislation makes no provision for this situation.

Congressman Scheuer's bill provides a remedy for this situation by providing for a lunch program for youth between the ages of 6 and 16 who participate in summer youth centers, including community action programs approved under the Economic Opportunities Act.

The great need for this legislation is abundantly clear and we are conducting these hearings to learn from the experts and interested persons how we can implement this important human program.

Now our first witness this morning is Congressman Hugh Carey from the city of New York, who is a member of the House Committee on Education and Labor.

You may proceed, Mr. Carey.



Mr. CAREY. Mr. Chairman, I am most gratified to appear before your subcommittee this morning to testify in support of Congressman



James Scheuer's bill to provide for a special summer lunch program to complement the national school lunch program which is discontinued in almost all areas during the summer months.

Experience has proven beyond doubt that the inadequate diets received by far too many youths handicap them throughout their lives. Many lifelong medical problems have their origins in deficient nutrition and poor eating habits during childhood.

Faulty nutrition can not only result in physical disabilities, but in mental and emotional disorders and retardation. Lack of ambition and motivation can often be traced to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. A healthy mind in a healthy body is not an empty maxim; it is a living truth as has been amply demonstrated by the experience we have gained in the war on poverty.

Today the Federal and State Governments under the National School Lunch Act provide lunches for some 17 million children attending public and private nonprofit schools. Studies have shown that, for all too many of these children, the school lunch is the only nutritious meal received during the day.

What happens to these young people during the summer when the school lunch is unavailable is all too clear. Their diets are grossly inadequate and seriously debilitating unless a private agency fills this gap in the existing governmental program.

Mr. Chairman, H.R. 9339 will close the lunch gap by extending food assistance to a variety of public and private nonprofit organizations conducting summer youth activity programs. Programs which will qualify for such assistance will include recreation centers, day camps, neighborhood child centers, summer camps, OEO, youth activities, and similar programs organized to promote health and recreation of children.

The Roman Catholic diocese of Brooklyn carries on a voluntary, interfaith program for 600 children. Transportation costs alone amount to many thousands of dollars. Federal assistance in providing food supplies and equipment for the storing, preparing, and serving of food for children under this act would greatly benefit the 600 youths participating in this program. This is only one example of the type of assistance which would be authorized by Congressman Scheuer's valuable proposal.

Mr. Chairman, it is my understanding that the present bill would not authorize lunches for preschool children, but that it is the author's intent that such children should be allowed to receive lunches under the special summer program. I support this intent and hope that the subcommittee will amend the bill to authorize the provisions of lunches for children under 6 years of age as well as those over 6. Clearly, child nutrition is as necessary for these very young children as for the older ones.

In conclusion, I would like to reaffirm my support for this proposal and to express my belief that this subcommittee has an opportunity to provide a further significant service to the Nation.

I strongly believe that a thorough study of child nutrition is urgently needed. I believe that a Federal agency, such as the National Institutes of Health, should be authorized to conduct a research program into dietary problems. Sufficient money should be appropriated to allow such a study to determine how food can best be prepared and served, which foods are most beneficial, what kinds

and quantities of food are required for an optimum diet, and to investigate related matters.

Thank you.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Thank you, Mr. Carey, for presenting this statement to the subcommittee. We are grateful for your support of this legislation.

Mr. CAREY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. PUCINSKI. I should like unanimous consent to place in the record at this point, in its entirety, a statement prepared by the New York City council president, Mr. Frank D. O'Connor, who has prepared an extensive statement on Congressman Scheuer's bill which expresses his full support of this very important legislation.

There being no objection, Mr. O'Connor's statement will be placed in the record at this point in its entirety.

(The document referred to follows:)

TESTIMONY OF FRANK D. O'CONNOR, NEW YORK COUNCIL PRESIDENT I welcome this opportunity to testify on a subject that concerns me deeply: The health and well-being of our children. Many federal, state and local programs have been directed toward this problem, and much has been accomplished.

The National School Fund Act has met a tremendous need in helping to provide basic nutritional support for many children. This program has been of great significance in poverty impacted areas. But hunger does not end with the school year. If anything, children are physically more active in the summertime and their nutritional needs during this period are of great concern.

Congressman Scheuer's bill, which is before us, providing for a Special Summer Lunch Program, would enable us to attack this need. There are over one million children between the ages of 6 and 16 within this city, the age range covered by the proposed legislation, who will be the beneficiaries of this Act.

The President in his March 1st message to Congress on Domestic Health and Education proposals stated, “No child in an affluent America should be without an adequate diet”. He has directed the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity, to examine means by which the benefits of sound nutrition can be expanded to every child who needs our aid. This bill will help to furnish those benefits.

By providing federal aid for summer lunches, funds which local governments and private non-profit groups now allocate for this purpose can be released for expansion of their basic

programs so that more children can be served. We must be aware of problems that have arisen in the administration of lunch programs in educational institutions concerning the quality of food, preparation, storage, transportation and other logistical difficulties. They will not be solved by the mere allocation of money and require constant attention. Nevertheless, it is patently clear that a large number of our children do not have balanced diets do not receive minimal daily nutritional requirements, and are ill-fed during the summer months. Their health is not a seasonal concern.

Too often federal legislation contains mechanical and unrealistic restrictions which prevent the distribution of benefits in accordance with need. That is not the case in this instance. The bill before us is a large step forward, and I strongly urge its passage.

Thank you.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Our second witness this morning is the deputy mayor of the city of New York, the Honorable Timothy Costello, who is here representing Mayor Lindsey and, I believe, speaking for Mayor Lindsey.

Mr. Deputy Mayor, I wonder if you would like to take your place here at the witness table.

We would like to welcome you to this committee, Mr. Costello. I would like to call upon your colleague, Mr. Scheuer, who is the sponsor of this legislation and who is the moving force in arranging today's

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