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çare to give them an aversion to gaming of every kind; for gaming has ruined the morals and the fortunes of many.

As they advance through this period, the great outlines of their duty to God, to their neighbour, and to themselves, are to be laid before them, in proportion as they appear capable of comprehending them.

Arguments drawn from present interest, will be of great efficacy with children, and may be used to enforce those which are drawn from the esteem which the world will have for them when men, and from the happiness which they may expect as the future reward of their virtue.

A sense of order, neatness, and decency, being natural to most children, will serve as a handle for governing them, and ought to be encouraged in all.

The rank which they hold in the creation, and the powers nity of the human soul, being frequently represented to them, will inspire them with a reverence for themselves, and restrain them from mean and unworthy pursuits. At the same time the proneness of the human mind to indulge its passions without regarding its duty, the sense it ought to have of its dependence on the Deity, the need it has of Divine aid, and the means pointed out by revelation for obtaining that aid; all these, being deeply impressed on their minds, will tend. to preserve them humble, modest, and circumspect. It is the religious principle that will be found to be the surest and the most comfortable guide of human life, It is the Christian religion that, revealing, in the clearest manner, the perfections, the mercies, and the laws of God, and enforcing the precepts of natural reason, by the most persuasive motives, purifies, supports, and elevates the soul.

[ To be continued.]

TO THE

EDITOR OF THE FREEMASONS' MAGAZINE.

SIR,

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TH
THE following account of the Foundation of the City of London,
and London-Stone, I found among

-the
papers

Gentleman, who has been dead some years, but who was a great Antiquary, and very minute in his observations ; if, therefore, you think it worth inserting in your excellent Magazine, I will transmit to you some other pieces of his Miscellaneous collection, equally curious and interesting. I am, Sir, Your Faithful Brother,

B. B. LONDON did not exist when Julius Cæsar invaded England, 54 years before Christ's birth; the Roman Emperor Claudius Drusus conquered Britain forty-five years after it, London became a Roman co

lony and city, when Julius Agricola was Roman-Lieutenant here onder the Emperor Domitian, Anno 85, and called by the Romans, Lone dinam and Augusta ; by the Saxons, Lunden Craster and London Byrig ; by the Normans, Londonia, Lundonia, Londind, and Londres; and for several ages past, London. London Stone was the * centre of the then city, and the first standard or mile-stone in this island, like that in the forum of ancient Rome, from which the dimensions of all their roads and journies' were begun; (see Cambden's Britannia, Vol. I. p. 372.) and the four military roads which they cut through this island, to the four winds or cardinal points, all led to this city, and centered at London Stone, viz.

The ist, denominated the Roman Trasdetus Road or Ferry, ran North and South.

The ad was the Prætorian way or Watling-street, which ran South East to North-West.

The 3d Ermine-street, which ran South-West and North.

The 4th road was the vicinial way which ran North-East to South-
West; all which four Military Ways, answered the four original Gates
in London, viz.
NEWGATE,

CRIPPLEGATE,
ALDGATE, and

DOWGATE *,
All entering at this Standard Mile-Stone of ancient London, placed
there by Julius Agricola, who was Governor of Britain, under the Em-
perors Flavius, Vespasian, Titus Vespasian, and Flavius Domitian,
from 80 to 85; who, during his Lieutenantship, civilized the Britons
after the Roman manner, both in cloathing, themselves, and build-
ing houses for themselves, and temples to their gods.

N. B. This London Stone originally stood on the South side of Cannon-street, fastened down with strong iron bars deep in the ground, but causing carts and coaches to be overturned, was moved, 13th December, 1742, to the South-West door of St. Swithin's Church, by Richard Martin and Basil Brown, then Church-Wardens,

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REMARKS ON THE

MUTABILITY OF FORTUNE.

THERE is nothing certain in this world but death : theory supposes, fatality which constantly attends the wayward lot of mortals, is so secret in its operations, that it bafies all tne penetration of men to discover it. Xerxes came to conquer Greece with such a numerous force, that his army quite exhausted the rivers in quenching their natural thirst, He cover the sea with ships, as numerous as the caterpillars which formerly infested Egypt; whence he was in dated with such a certain

Dour or Dowgate, signifies the Watergate.

prospect of success, that he already considered himself as a complete master of the sea ; and he commanded it to be whipped with rods, for having the insolence to mutiny tempestuously against him. But, alas! he shamefully lost so many thousand men, and such a number of ships, that he thought himself very fortunate in escaping on board a small fishing bark.

Alexander the Great, after having conquered almost three quarters of the globe, wept because he had not another world to conquer. He retired to Babylon to pass the remainder of his days in luxury and voluptuousness, being then no more than thirty years of age : but he there terminated his life at the end of a few days ; and of all his conquests possessed only a grave of the length of about six feet.

Polycratos, the tyrant of Samos, was so fortunate that he never met with any disgrace in the course of a long life, which induced him presumptuously to believe that he had chained fortune herself to the wheels of his car ; yet, he was at length driven from his throne, deprived of every thing, and by his own subjects fixed to a cross, where he finished his career by a most ignominious death.

Crasus, who had amassed immense riches, and was highly elated with his prosperity, considered Solon as a fool, when he told him, “ there was no happiness on this side the grave,” till he found himself tied to the funeral pile by order of Cyrus, after having lost his crown, his dominions, and his treasures.

Gustavus the Third of Sweden, in the full vigour of life, meditated a counter-revolution in France in 1792: he hardly entertained a doubt, with the assistance of his allies, of restoring absolute power to the Gala lic monarch; but, before he commenced hostilities, one of his own officers put a period to his life in the midst of the jollity and splendor of a masquerade.

In a word, how many examples are there of the uncertain issue of the affairs of this world. To-day we see a prince upon a throne-the next losing his head on a scaffold, as our own history and the history of France can evince. To-day we see a man condemned to the most horrid dungeon, upon the point of being sacrificed to his inveterate foes; to morrow on a throne, as in the person of Mathias Corvinus of Hungary: to-day we see a Belisarius, a general crowned with laurels, the favourite of the blind goddess, as well as of the emperor ; to-morrow divested of his sight, begging alms at the gates of Rome.

How many men, from the meanest and most obscure extraction, have I seen end their lives in opulence and grandeur; and how many more, born to riches, rank, and titles, close their lives in misery and want ? Others purşue a phantom, ånd grasp a shadow; or, whilst their constant goal has been glory and renown, they have at length acquired nothing but censure and disgrace: and some, quite indifferent about the smiles of fortune, have been caressed by her so far as to obtain the highest pinnacle of wealth and power.

How many generous men have become misers ! how many misers perish for want of the necessaries of life! how many friends becoine open enemies! and how many foes forget their enmity, and cherish those

they hated! Nay, it sometimes happens that wise men degenerate into fools, and fools recover their senses. Bigots and enthusiasts have been guilty of suicide, whilst some of the greatest villains have died peaceably in their beds.

I shall conclude, as I began, with observing, that there is nothing certain in this world but death: the time, manner, and consequences of which are entirely uncertain, and impenetrable to the researches of the most judicious, learned, and segacious.

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LONDON CHARACTERIZED.

BY DR. JOHNSON. F

must not be satisfied with seeing its great streets and squares, but must survey the innumerable little alleys and courts. It is not in the shewy evolutions of buildings, but in the multiplicity of human habitations which are crowded together, that the immensity of London consists. I have often amused myself with thinking how different a place London is, to different people. They whose narrow minds are contracted to the consideration of some one particular object, view it only through that medium. A politician thinks of it merely as a seať of Government in its different departments; a grazier, as a vast market for cattle; a mercantile man, as a place where a prodigious deal of business is done upon 'Change ; a Dramatic enthusiast, as the grand scene of_Theatrical Entertainments; a Man of Pleasure, as an assemblage of Taverns, and the great emporium for ladies of easy virtue ; but the intellectual man is struck with it, as comprehending the whole of human life in all its variety, the contemplation of which is inexhaustible.

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LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
R. Blair will soon present the public with a fourth volume of his

very popular Sermons. Mrs. Piozzi, to whose sprightly and agreeable pen we have been in several instances indebted for much information and amusement, is at present engaged in a work very different in its nature from her other publications--a Collection of English Synonimes, upon the plan of the admired French work of Abbé Girard.

Mr. Malone is employed in superintending a splendid edition of the works of his friend, the late much-lamented President of the Royal Academy.

The Earl of Hardwick proposes to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of his uncle the late Earl, by publishing an elegant edition of the “ 'Athenian Letters,” with portraits of the principal personages who contributed to that truly classical performance.

Mr. Wakefield has printed two volumes of his edition of Pope; and Dr. Warton has made considerable progress in a similar undertaking. This last will doubtless be expected with the most eager curiosity.

Mr. Hayley has completed his Life of Milton; and Mr. Cowper his translation of that poet's Latin verses.

PARLIAMENTARY PROCEEDINGS.

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HOUSE OF LORDS, JAN. 21.
S soon as the King liad retired, (see his Majesty's Speech in our last, p. 77.)

and the new bishops had taken their seats, Lord Stair rose, and moved an Address of Thanks to his Majesty. Lord Aukland seconded the motion.

Lord Guildford then rose, and after having spoken at considerable length, moved, as an amendment to the address, “ That his Majesty might be prayed graciously to take into consideration those modes which to him seemed most likely to obtain peace on such terms as appeared proper; and that nothing in the existing circumstances of the French government might be any obstacle to the furtherance of peace."

A long Debate then took place, in which the Duke of Portland, Earl Spencer, the Earl of Mansfield, Lord Grenville, and the Lord Chancellor, spoke in favour of the Address; the Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Derby, Earl of Stanhope, Marquis of Lans down, and Earl of Lauderdale, for the amendment.

The Earls of Carlisle, Kinnoul, and Hardzvick, spoke against the aniendment, and pledged theinselves to support the Minister in the prosecution of the war.

The question being called for, the House divided, Contents for the original motion, 97--Non Contents 12.

23d. Lord Stanhope rose to move the acknowledgment of the French Republic, åş a preliminary to a peace with France. There was not one of their lordships who did not desire a safe and honourable place, and he would be the best subject wlio was inost instrumental in bringing it about. He would candidiy appreciate our means, and those of the enemy, that our projects of success might be justly estimated.

He then entered into a long detail of the delusion arising from the false hopes held out of destroying France, by preventing her being supplied with arms, artillery, money and provisions. All these hopes had been disappointed. The French had arms enough, they had 700,000 musquets in the different departmenis, and they contipued to make 1000 stand of arms a day, at Paris aiune. They had gunpowder in store for five years bloody war, and salt petre far five years more, with the finest artillery in the world; and their army was well clorhed,

It had been said that the French have no money--the same was the case in the American war, and yet the Americans did without it. Lut the French do not want money; they have more sold, silver, and bullion, than all the rest of Europe; this they had brought out by a forced loan, and by a voluntary contribution; their assig. nats since December have risen 40 per cent and their lands to six times the estinzated value. With respect to discipline, his Lordship opposed the confusion of the allied troops in the sortie at Toulon to the attacks made on the Duke of Brunswick and the Austrian generals.--Of provisions, his Lordship said, France was in no want.met was impossible for this country, the Prussians or Austrians, to imitate the French in the raising of troops; there the soldiers being inlisted only for a term of years, the drill serjeants and veteran soldiers have been dispersed though the country, and taught the people military discipline. " If,” said his Lordship, “the ri ing of the people in a mass bę what tlıç French call it, The Lever of Archimedes, the eifect must be Perrific."

His Lordship now proceeded to make some remarks on the object of the war, Lord Hood, he said, had engaged to restore the Constitution of 1789; Dumourier had advised the Prince of Cobourg to issue a proclamation in favour of the Constitution of 1791 : : Wurmser had declpred that things should be rescared to the same rooting in which they were before the revolution; and a prociarnation, or declaration from his Majesty had recommended to the people of France a monarchical government, which might afterwards be modified.-Froin these different proclamations he inferred, that the allies were not agreed in opinion upon the nature of the government proper to be established in France. We had deccived the people of France, or the Royalists, in offering them that protection which we knew we could not give. Let those who had Yob, Il,

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