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Antonio Gonzales, with Tristan, was sent in 1440 to the same place, in order to load his vessel with the skins of sea-wolves. Gonzales went back to Portugal with some flaves; but Tristan, having first careened, coasted on as far as Cabo Blanco, or White Cape, where, though he saw the track of people, yet meeting none, he sailed home.
In 1442, Antonio Gonzales returned again to the same coast, carry. ing with him the chief of the Moors he had taken, who promised to give seven Guinea-slaves for his ransom; but being once at liberty, he forgot his promise. However, on his landing, others came to redeem the two young men that were prisoners; giving in exchange ten blacks of several countries, and a considerable quantity of gold dust, which was the first brought from those parts. For this reason, a rivulet that runs about six leagues up the land, was called Rio del Oro, or the River of Gold. Besides these things, they brought home a shield of buckskin, and some ostriches eggs ; every body admiring the colour of the slaves. The gold stirred up covetous desires, and encouraged Nunno Tristan to undertake the voyage again in 1443. Advancing farther, he discovered the island Adeget, one of those of Arguim. Hence they went over to another, which they called De las Garzas, or the Island of Hawks, because of the vast numbers they saw there, some of which they took.
In 1444, Lancelot, the prince's servant, Gilianes (who first passed Cape Bojador), Stephen Alonso, Roderic Alvarez, and Juan Diaz, hay. ing obtained the prince's leave, on paying him an acknowledgment, erected a company in the town of Lagos to pursue these discoveries. Gonzalo de Cintra set out with one ship in 14452
and coming to the islands Arguim, ran up a creek at night, intending to go ashore but the tide ebbing, he stuck; and, in the morning, two hundred Moors coming upon him, he was killed with seven of his company, These were the first Portuguese killed in these attempts; and from the captain that place took name, being called Angra de Gonzalo de Cintra, fourteen leagues beyond Rio del Oro. Antonio Gonzales, Diego Alonzo, and Gomez Perez, set out next year, 1446, in three caravels, bound for that river, with orders to treat about the conversion of those barbarians, of peace, and trade. The proposals were rejected, and they returned, bringing back one of the natives, who came voluntarily to see the country; and John Fernandez remained there with the same design. Nunno Tristan made another voyage, and brought twenty slaves from a neighbouring village. Denis Fernandez, in another vessel, passing the mouth of the river Sanaga, which divides the Affanaji frorri the Jalofs, took four blacks, who were fishing in an almadia, or boat. Sailing forward, he discovered the famous Cabo Verde, set up a wooden cross, and returned.
Antonio Gonzales, Garcia Mendez, and James Alonzo, though separated by a storm, met again in 1447 in the islands of Arguim. Falling upon a village, they seized twenty-five Moors of those which fled from them. He that ran best took most, as Lorenzo Diaz, who took seven, whilst others caught but one, and some none. They called this point Cabo del Rescate, or Cape of Ransom, because some blacks.were
ransomed there. Their joy was the more, in that they found Juan Fernandez, who was left there the last voyage.
Dinisianez de Gram, Alvaro Gil, and Mafaldo de Setubal, with each a caravel, landed in the island Arguim, where they took seven Moors, and, by their help, forty-seven afterwards. They ran along the coast of the continent eighty leagues, and at several times took fifty slaves, losing seven Portuguese ; whose boat being left dry by the ebb in the island De las Garzas, they were all killed. Lancelot, who once before had commanded a small fleet, sailed from Lagos again towards Arguim, as admiral of fourteen vessels. At the same time set out for Madera, Alvaro and Dinis Fernandez, Juan de Castille, and others, who altogether, with the former fourtcen, made up twenty-seven sail. Nine of the fourteen from Lagos came to Arguim. Alvaro de Freytas returned home with his three ships ; but Lancelot with his sailed to the island Tider, being unwilling to return as light as they came out, and designing to sail to the Sarrah of the Affanhaji, and Guinea; but after some small attempts, resolved for the island of Palma. They touched at Gomera, and were entertained by the commanders, Piste and Brucho, in acknowledgment of some kindness they had received from prince Henry.
Lancelot, being homeward-bound, discovered the river Ovedek, which he called Sanaga, because a black of that name was released there. It was then believed to be one of the branches of Nile ; because they were informed it came far from the eastward. Stephen Alonso, in a small boat, went up the river, and took two blacks, after considerable opposition made by their father. Roderigo Anez and Dinis Diaz were here separated froin the rest by a great storm, and arrived in Portugal. Lancelot steering towards Cape Verde, went alhore upon an island, where he found nothing but goats, and these words cut on the bark of a tree, Talent de bien faire. This was Prince Henry's motto, which expressed his designs, and gave Lancelot to understand the Portuguese had been there before. It was Alvaro Fernandez, of Madera, who had conducted them thither. Lancelot stood along the shore, while Gomez Perez going up close in a boat, threw a looking-glass and a sheet of paper with a crucifix on it to some blacks, who break. ing and tearing them to pieces, poured in a volley of arrows; for which they designed to be revenged next day : but a great storm, which dispersed all their ships, prevented the execution. Lawrence Diaz got home first; Gomez Perez put in at Rio del Oro, whence he brought one slave, and many skins of sea wolvess and found the people there somewhat tractable. Alvaro Freytas and Vincent Diaz, in the island Tider, took ñfty-nine slaves. Dinis Fernandez and Palacano, at Cape St. Anne, took nine more, twelve of their men swimming ashore for them. With these, and such like small successes, they all returned home, having lost one small vessel; but the men were saved.
NEW DISCOVERY FOR STOPPING INVOLUNTARY BLEEDINCS.
The Caustic Volatile Alkali has been discovered, by Dr. J. M. de Pira, physician to the King of the Two Sicilies, to be wonderfully efficacious in stopping hæmorrhages from veins or arteries. The proportion of the Caustic Volatile Alkali employed is four cunces to a pound of water.
ANECDOTES OF J--- SWARTS.
SWARTS, a famous German painter, being to work a roof-piece
negligent, so that the magistrates and overseers of the work were every now and then fain to hunt him out of the taverns. Seeing he could not drink in quiet, he, the next morning, stuffs a pair of stockings and shoes suitable to those he wore, hangs them down betwixt his staging where he sat to work, removes them a little once or twice a day, and takes them down noon and night; and, by means of this deception, drank, without the least disturbance, a whole fortnight together (the inn-keeper being privy to the plot, and his very trusty friend. The officers came in twice a day to look at him, and, seeing his legs hang down, suspected nothing, but greatly extolled their convert J. Swarts, as the most laborious and conscientious painter in the world.
The same J. Swarts had admirably well performed the history of our Saviour's passion, large and in oil colours. Cardinal Bpleased with it that he resolved to bring the Pope to see it.-Swarts knew the day, and, determining to put à trick upon the Cardinal and the Pope, painted over the oil, in fine water colours, the twelve disciples at supper, but together by the ears, like the Lapithea and the Centaurs; the pots and dishes flying about their ears like hail ; Christ interposing to make peace among them. At the time appointed came the Pope and Cardinal to see this curious piece-Swarts carried them to the room where it hung---they stood amazed and thought the painter mad. At last says the Cardinal, “ Thou idiot, call you this a passion ?” “ Yes, faith,” said he, “and a very good one too; 1 believe you
never saw the like in your life.” “ I think so too,” says the Cardinal, “ but, sirrah, shew me the piece I saw when last here." L" This is it,” says Swarts, “ for I have no other finished in the house." The Cardinal called him a lyar--the painter swore he had no other the Pope laughed to see the broil. “There,” says Swarts, “
your holiness has seen my lord cardinal's passion, I will now shew you our Saviour's ; only be pleased to retire a few minutes out of this room, but, before you go, examine the length and breadth of this picture; and, if you please, you may leave a servant with me." They did so, and were no sooner retired than Swarts, having prepared a spunge and warm water, immediately expunges the whole history in water colours; then introducing the Pope and Cardinal presents them with a most lively and doleful picture of our Saviour's passion.—They run to the picture, examine private marks, and find them there, and are farther assured by their attendant that it is the same. They stand astonished, judge Swarts a necromancer, and such a change impossible without the aid of the devil. At last the painter explains the riddle, and then they know not which to admire most, his wit or his work.
HOUSE OF LORDS.
Feb. 14. When the House having been summoned upon a motion of Lord Lansdowne, respecting a peace with France, the noble Marquis rose to say, that an inti, mation had reached him from one of his Majesty's ministers, that public business of very great importance made them desire the discussion might be postponed. He would therefore defer his motion till Monday next.
Lord Grenville expressed his obligation to the noble Lord for the attention which he bad shewn to the accommodation of the ministers.
LORD MOIRA'S EXPEDITION. The Earl of Moira rose to take notice of some observations that had been thrown out by an Honourable Gentleman (Major Maitland) in another House, on the Expedition which he had the honour to command. His Lordship explained, at some length, the general outlines of the Expedition, the views of his Majesty's ministers, and the communications which had taken place with the Royalists on the subject. He had been sent for, he said, by his Majetty's ministers on the 17th of October, and informed by them of the succours with which it was intended the Royalists should be furnished. He did not hesitate to undertake the Expedition proposed, nor that responsibility which he considered as attached to it. The Royalists had demanded a certain force to co-operate with them, and his Majesty's ministers had appointed a much greater force than they had requested ; it only remained that a point of junction mould be fixed; and before that could be effected, some signals were agreed upon, and some frigateś sent to repeat those signals ; but they were not answered by the Royalists. On the Toth of November some persons were sent to concert measures with them. The Royalists had required artillery and artillery-men, as they had scarce any one who understood the use of cannon. His Lordship had represented to his Majesty's ministers, who had entrusted him with a discretionary power on this Expedition, the necessity of bringing some persons from Flanders who were acquainted with the management of artillery; and, as he hoped to have formed an immediate junction with the Royalists, he had appointed two French officers of great merit his aides-du-camp, and another as his secretary ; and, under all circumstances, he thought himself justified in making those appointments.
His Lordship said, if it should be thought that he had done wrong, he was willing that the whole expence attending that measure should be deducted out of the appointments which were attached to the command with which he had been honoured. He could not make known the names of these officers because they had children and friends in France, to whom such a publicity might be fatal. But, said his Lordship, whatever difference of opinion men may entertain of the French Revolution, “ God knows these gentlemen have seen the measure of their sufferings amply filled ? Let it * not then be said, that the hand of a British gentleman directed the dagger to increase those sufferings, by adding another wound to the many which they have already received. He concluded by saying, that he took the whole responsibility upon him. self, because his Majesty's ministers had fully approved of the appointments he had recommended to them.
After a few words from Lord Lauderdale, in justification of the notice that had been taken in the House of Commons of these appointments,
Lord Grenville said, that his Majesty's ministers, after having so fully approved of what the Earl of Moira had done, would share the responsibility with him.
17th. The Marquis of Lansdowne rose to make his promised motion for promoting a peace with the Republic of France. It was, he said, the inviolable right f parliament, not to vote away the money of the people without due investigation. Thirteen millions were now called for to prosecute this ruinous war; and it behoved their Lordships, instead of discussing the characters or pretersions of the persons who compose the Convention of France, to examine into the bords and mortgages that VOL. II.
loaded the table, and which bound the people of England to pay every farthing of that immense sum! The individuals of the National Convention were here to-day and gone to-morrow; these were not objects deserving the attention of their Lordships, at a moment when they were called upon to encounter and provide for another campaign, after the blood that had been spilled, and the treasure which had been exhausted during the last ; and in which, considering the little progress that was made, the House could not feel satisfied in contemplating the consequences of another. All the great writers who have turned their thoughts to military tactics, from the earliest period down to that of the intelligent General Lloyd, have uniformly stated the folly of attempting to make any impression on the frontiers of France. This, by all writers on the subject, was deemed impregnable. He concluded, therefore, by moving their Lordships to implore his Majesty to declare without delay his disposition to make peace upon such disinterested and liberal terms as are best calculated to render the peace between any two nations lasting, and to communicate such declarations to his allies, that an immediate end may be put to that daily effusion of human blood which, if suffered to proceed, must change the character of the nations of Europe, and in the place of that improving spirit of humanity which has till lately distinguished modern times, substitute a degree of savage ferocity unexampled in the annals of mankind."
Earl Fitzwilliam said, that consistent with the Address presented to his Majesty from that House, their Lordships could not agree with the present motion. If their Lordships regarded their families, their pofterity, and their country, they must concur in a strenuous opposition of that destructive anarchy which has overrun France. The safety of the country, the preservation of the constitution, of every thing dear to Englishmen, and to their posterity, depended upon the preventing the introduction of French principles, and the new-fangled doctrine of the Rights of Man ; and that this could only be effected by the establishment of some regular form of government in that. country, upon which some reliance might be placed.
The Duke of Grafton agreed with every part of the motion. Addresses, he said, had come from every part of the country during the American war, to make peace. The Americans had been stigmatised with epithets similarly opprobrious with those which we now applied to France; but the result of all of it was, that we had treated with America. Peace, he said; was almost universally desired in this country ; it was the only remedy for the ravages of war. France, if she had been left to herself, would never have endangered the peace of this country; and I shall ever object, said the noble Duke, to this country interfering in the internal regulations of any other,
The Duke of Leeds approved the principle, and defended the prosecution, of the war. A compliance with the noble Marquis's motion he urged, would be a dishonour. able desertion of our allies, and an unjustifiable infringement of treaties.
Lord Lauderdale supported the motion of the Honourable Marquis ; he deprecated the conduct of ministers in the commencement and execution of the war. It had not been attended, he said, with that vaunted success which had been so loudly trumpeted abroad. When the historian should record it, posterity would see nothing that could tinge the cheek of a Briton with the glow of satisfaction. He replied to most of the arguments against him: he vindicated the French from the charge of atheism; he did not believe, he said, that an atheist could exist any where.
Lord Grenville said, the more this point was discussed, he was convinced they would find still firmer conviction of the necessity of still continuing the war with unremitting energy. Our laws, our liberty, our religion, our constitution, depended upon the issue of the present contest. The French character was essentially hostile to all tlie governments of Europe. The war had been entered into with the full consent of Parliament- they had gone up to the throne requesting his Majesty to pursue the most vigorous hostilities--they had gone up to the throne with an address promising to co-operate with his Majesty in pursuing the war with vigour; and within three weeks, said Lord Grenville, shall we change our opinion, relax in our operations, and dishonourably abandon our Allies ?
The Marquis of Lansdowne replied at length to all the arguments used against his motion. ' At two o'clock this morning the House divided, when there appeared For the motion 13-Against it 103.
19th. The Duke of Norfolk rose to say, he wished it might be given in instruction to the committee to whom the Mutiny Bill was referred, that a clause should be intro