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Tempest the ocean: there Leviathan,

The river horse and scaly crocodile. Hugest of living creatures, on the deep

At once came forth whatever creeps the ground, Stretch'd like a promontory, sleeps or swims, Insect or worm: those wav'd their limber fans And seems a moving land, and at his gills

For wings, and smallest lineaments exact Draws in, and at his trunk spouts out a sea.

In all the liveries deck'd of summer's pride, Mean while the tepid caves, and fens, and shores, With spots of gold and purple, azure and green: Their brood as numerous hatch, from th'egg that soon These in a line their long dimension drew Bursting with kindly rupture forth disclos'd Streaking the ground with sinuous trace; not all Their callow young, but feather'd soon and fledge Minims of Nature; some of serpent kind, They summ'd their pens, and soaring th' air sublime Wondrous in length and corpulence, involvid With clang despis’d the ground, under a cloud Their snaky folds, and added wings. First crept In prospect; there the eagle and the stork

The parsimonious emmet, provident On cliffs and cedar tops their eyries build:

Of future, in small room large heart inclos'd, Part loosely wing the region, part more wise

Pattern of just equality, perhaps
In common, rang'd in figure, wedge their way, Hereafter, joined in her popular tribes
Intelligent of seasons, and set forth

Of commonalty: swarming next appear'd
Their airy caravan high over seas

The female bee, that feeds her husband drone Flying, and over lands with mutual wing

Deliciously, and builds her waxen cells Easing their flight; so steers the prudent crane

With honey stor’d: the rest are numberless, Her annual voyage, borne on winds; the air

And thou their natures know’st, and gav'st them Floats, as they pass, fann'd with unnumber'd plumes:

Needless to thee repeated; nor unknown [names, From branch to branch the smaller birds with song

The serpent subtlest beast of all the field, Solac'd the woods, and spread their painted wings,

Of huge extent sometimes, with brazen eyes Tilleven, nor then the solemn nightingale

And hairy mane terrific, though to thee
Ceas'd warbling, but all night tun’d her soft lays :

Not noxious, but obedient at thy call.
Others on silver lakes and rivers bath'd
Their downy breast; the swan, with arched neck,
Between her white wings mantling proudly, rows

ADAM’S ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF. Her state with oary feet; yet oft they quit

As new wak'd from soundest sleep The dank, and rising on stiff pennons, tower

Soft on the flowery herb I found me laid The mid aereal sky: others on ground

In balmy sweat, which with his beams the sun Walk'd firm: the crested cock, whose clarion sounds

Soon dry’d, and on the reeking moisture fed. The silent hours, and th' other whose gay train

Strait toward Heav'n my wond'ring eyes I turn’d, Adorns him, colour'd with the florid hue

And gaz'd a while the ample sky, till rais'd Of rainbows and starry eyes. The waters thus

By quick instinctive motion up I sprung, With fish replenish’d, and the air with fowl,

As thitherward endeavouring, and upright Evîning and Morn, solemniz'd the fifth day.

Stood on my feet; about me round I saw The sixth, and of creation last, arose

Hill, dale, and shady woods, and sunny plains, With evening harps and matin, when God said

And liquid lapse of murm'ring streams; by these, Let th' Earth bring forth soul living in her kind,

Creatures that liv'd and mov’d, and walk’d, or flew, Catile and creeping things, and beast of th' earth,

Birds on the branches warbling; all things smil'd, Each in their kind. The earth obey'd, and strait

With fragrance and with joy my heart o'erflow'd. Opening her fertile womb, teem’d at a birth

Myself I then perus’d, and limb by limb, kreumerable living creatures, perfect forms,

Survey'd, and sometimes went, and sometimes ran Limb’d and full grown; out of the ground up rose

With supple joints, as lively vigour led : As from his lair the wild beast, where he wons

But who I was, or where or from what cause, In forest wild, in thicket, brake, or den;

Knew not; to speak I try'd, and forthwith spake; Arcog the trees in pairs they rose,

, they walk'd : My tongue obey'd, and readily could name The cattle in the fields and meadows green:

Whate'er I saw. Thou Sun, said I, fair light, Those rare and solitary, these in flocks

And thou enlighten'd Earth, so fresh and gay, Pasturing at once, and in broad herds upsprung.

Ye hills, and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains, The grassy clods now calv'd; now half appear'd

And ye that live and move, fair creatures tell, The tawny lion, pawing to get free

Tell if ye saw, how came I thus, how here; His hinder parts, then springs as broke from bonds,

Not of myself, by some great Maker then, And rampant shakes his brinded mane; the ounce,

In goodness and in power pre-eminent; The lizard and the tiger, as the mole

Tell me how I may know him, how adore R-ing, the crumbled earth above them threw

From whom I have that thus I move and live, la billoeks: the swift stag from under ground

And feel that I am happier than I know. Bore up his branching head: scarce from his mould While thus I call’d, and stray'd, I knew not whither, Ben-moth, biggest born of earth, upheav’d

From where I first drew air, and first beheld is vastress: fleec'd the flocks and bleating rose,

This happy light, when answer none return'd, plants: ambiguous between sea and land On a green shady bank profuse of flowers


Pensive I sat me down; there gentle sleep

To end me ? shall Truth fail to keep her word,
First found me, and with soft oppression seiz'd Justice divine not hasten to be just ?
My droused sense, untroubled, though I thought But Death comes not at call; Justice divine
I then was passing to my former state

Mends not her slowest pace for pray’rs or cries.
Insensible, and forthwith to dissolve:

O woods, O fountains, hillocks, dales and bowers, When suddenly stood at my head a dream,

With other echo late I taught your shades Whose inward apparition gently mov’d

To answer and resound far other song. My fancy to believe I yet had being,

Whom thus afflicted when sad Eve beheld, And liv'd: One came, methought of shape divine, Desolate where she sat, approaching nigh, And said, thy mansion wants thee, Adam, rise, Soft words to his fierce passion she assay’d: First man, of men innumerable ordain'd

But her with stern regard he thus repellid. First father, call’d by thee I come thy guide

Out of my sight, thou serpent; that name best To the garden of bliss, thy seat prepar'd.

Befits thee with him leagu'd, thyself as false So saying, by the hand he took me rais'd,

And hateful ; nothing wants, but that thy shape, And over fields and waters, as in air

Like his, and colour serpentine may shew Smooth sliding without step, last led me up Thy inward fraud, to warn all creatures from thes A woody mountain, whose high top was plain, Henceforth; lest that too heav'nly form, pretended A circuit wide, inclos'd, with goodliest trees To hellish falsehood, snare them. But for thee Planted, with walks, and bowers, that what I saw I had persisted happy, had not thy pride Of earth before scarce pleasant seem'd. Each tree And wand'ring vanity, when least was safe, Loaden with fairest fruit that hung to th' eye Rejected my forewarning, and disdain'd Tempting, stirr'd in me sudden appetite

Not to be trusted, longing to be seen To pluck and eat; whereat I wak'd and found Though by the Devil himself, him overweening Before mine eyes all real, as the dream

To over-reach, but with the serpent meeting, Had lively shadow'd: here had new begun Fool'd and beguild, by him thou, I by thee, My wand'ring, had not he who was my guide To trust thee from my side, imagin'd wise, Up hither, from among the trees appear'd

Constant, mature, proof against all assaults, Presence divine. Rejoicing, but with awe,

And understood not all was but a shew In adoration at his feet I fell

Rather than solid virtue, all but a rib Submiss: he rear'd me, and whom thou sought'st Crooked by Nature, bent, as now appears, Said mildly, author of all this thou seest (I am, More to the part sinister, from me drawn, Above, or round about thee, or beneath.

Well if thrown out, as supernumerary This paradise I give thee, count it thine

To my just number found. O why did God, To till and keep, and of the fruit to eat

Creator wise that peopled highest Heav'n Of every tree that in the garden grows,

With spirits masculine, create at last Eat freely with glad heart; for here no dearth: This novelty on earth, this fair defect But of the tree whose operation brings

Of Nature, and not fill the world at once Knowledge of good and ill, which I have set With men as angels without feminine, The pledge of thy obedience and thy faith,

Or find some other way to generate Amid the garden by the tree of life,

Mankind? this mischief had not then befall'n, Remember what I warn thee, shun to taste,

And more that shall befal, innumerable And shun the bitter consequence: for know

Disturbances on earth through female snares, The day thou eat'st thereof, my sole command And strait conjunction with this sex: for either Transgress'd, inevitably thou shalt die,

He never shall find out fit mate, but such From that day mortal, and this happy state

As some misfortune brings him, or mistake; Shalt lose, expellid from hence into a world Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain Of woe and sorrow.

Through her perverseness, but shall see her gain

By a far worse, or if she love, withheld RECONCILIATION BETWEEN ADAM

By parents; or his happiest choice too late

Shall meet already link'd and wedlock-bound AND EVE.

To a fell adversary, his hate or shame: Thus Adam to himself lamented loud

Which infinite calamity shall cause Through the still night, not now, as ere man fell To human life, and household peace confound. Wholesome and cool, and mild, but with black air He added not, and from her turn'd; but Eve Accompanied, with damps and dreadful gloom, Which to his evil conscience represented

Not so repuls'd, with tears that ceas'd not flowing All things with double terror: on the ground

And tresses all disorder'd, at his feet Outstretch'd he lay, on the cold ground, and oft

Fell humble, and embracing them, besought Curs'd his creation, Death as oft accus'd

His peace, and thus proceeded in her plaint: of tardy execution, since denounc'd

Forsake me not thus, Adam; witness Heav'n The day of his offence. Why comes not Death,

What love sincere, and reverence in my heart
I bear thee, and unweeting have offended,
Unhappily deceiv'd; thy suppliant

Said he, with one thrice acceptable stroke

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If care of our descent perplex us most,
I beg, and clasp thy knees ; bereave me not,

Which must be born to certain woe, devour'd
Whereon I live, thy gentle looks, thy aid,

By Death at last; and miserable it is
Thy counsel in this uttermost distress,

To be to others cause of misery,
My only strength and stay : forlorn of thee,

Our own begotten, and of our loins to bring
Whither shall I betake me, where subsist ?

Into this cursed world a woeful race,
While yet we live, scarce one short hour perhaps,

That after wretched life must be at last,
Between us two let there be peace ; both joining,

Food for so foul a monster; in thy power
As join'd in injuries, one enmity
Against a foe by doom express'd assign’d us, It lies, yet ere conception to prevent
That cruel serpent : on me exercise not

The race unblest, to being yet unbegot.
Thy hatred for this misery befall'n,

Childless thou art, childless remain : so Death
On me already lost, me than thyself

Shall be deceiv'd his glut, and with us two
More miserable ; both have sinn'd, but thou Be forc'd to satisfy his ravenous maw.
Against God only, I against God and thee,

But if thou judge it hard and difficult,
And to the place of judgment will return,

Conversing, looking, loving, to abstain
There with my cries importune Heav'n, that all From love's due rites, nuptial embraces sweet,
The sentence from thy head remov'd may light And with desire to languish without hope,
On me, sole cause to thee of all this woe,

Before the present object languishing
Me, me only, just object of his ire.

With like desire, which would be misery
She ended weeping; and her lowly plight,

And torment less than none of what we dread;
Iomoveable till peace obtain’d for fault

Then both ourselves and seed at once to free
Acknowledg'd and deplor'd, in Adam wrought From what we fear for both, let us make short,
Commiseration ; soon his heart relented

Let us seek Death, or he not found, supply
Tow'rds her, his life so late and sole delight,

With our own hands his office on ourselves:
Now at his feet submissive in distress,

Why stand we longer shivering under fears
Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking,

That shew no end but death, and have the power,
His counsel, whom she had displeas’d, his aid; Of many ways to die, the shortest choosing,
As one disarmd, his anger all he lost,

Destruction with destruction to destroy ?
And thus with peaceful words uprais'd her soon.

She ended here, or vehement despair
Unwary, and too desirous, as before,

Broke off the rest ; so much of death her thoughts
So now of what thou know'st not, who desir’st Had entertain’d, as dy'd her cheeks with pale.
The punishment all on thyself; alas,

But Adam with such counsel nothing sway'd,
Bear thine own first, ill able to sustain

To better hopes his more attentive mind
His full wrath, whose thou feel'st as yet least part

Lab'ring had rais’d, and thus to Eve reply'd:
And my displeasure bear’st so ill. If prayers

Eve, thy contempt of life and pleasure seems
Could alter bigh decrees, I to that place

To argue in thee something more sublime
Would speed before thee, and be louder heard,

And excellent than what thy mind contemns;
That on my head all might be visited,

But self-destruction therefore sought, refutes Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven,

That excellence thought in thee, and implies,
To me committed and by me expos'd.

Not thy contempt, but anguish and regret
But rise ; let us no more contend, nor blame

For loss of life and pleasure overlov’d.
Each other, blam'd enough elsewhere, but strive

Or if thou covet death, as utmost end
In offices of love how we may lighten

Of misery, so thinking to evade
Each other's burden in our share of woe;

The penalty pronounc'd, doubt not but God
Sace this day's death denounc'd, if aught I see,

Hath wiselier arm’d his vengeful ire than so
Will prove no sudden, but a slow-pac'd evil,

To be forestall'd; much more I fear lest death
A long day's dying to augment our pain,

So snatch'd will not exempt us from the pain
And to our seed ( hapless seed !) deriv’d.

We are by doom to pay; rather such acts
To whom thus Eve, recovering heart, reply'd:

Of contumacy will provoke the Highest
Adam, by sad experiment I know

To make death in us live: then let us seek
How litle weight my words with thee can find,

Some safer resolution, which methinks
Feund so erroneous, thence by just event

I have in view, calling to mind with heed
Found so unfortunate; nevertheless,

Part of our sentence, that thy seed shall bruise
Restor'd to thee, vile as I am, to place

The serpent's head; piteous amends, unless
Of new acceptance, hopeful to regain

Be meant, whum I conjecture, our grand foe
Thy love, the sole contentment of my heart

Satan, who in the serpent hath contriv'd
Living or dying, from thee I will not hide

Against us this deceit: to crush his head
Ribat thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen,

Would be revenge indeed; which will be lost to some relief of our extremes,

By death brought on ourselves, or childless days
U end, though sharp and sad, yet tolerable,

Resolv'd as thou proposest; so our foe
is in our evils
, and of easier choice.

Shall ’scape his punishment ordain'd, and we

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Instead shall double ours upon our heads.

Humbly their faults, and pardon begg'd with tears No more be mention'd then of violence

Watering the ground, and with their sighs the air Against ourselves, and wilful barrenness,

Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign That cuts us off from hope, and savours only Of sorrow unfeign'd, and humiliation meek. Rancour and pride, impatience and despite, Reluctance against God and his just yoke Laid on our necks. Remember with what mild


And gracious temper he both heard and judg'd
Without wrath or reviling; we expected

Immediate dissolution, which we thought

To re-salute the world with sacred light Was meant by death that day, when lo, to thee Leucothea wak’d, and with fresh dews imbalm'd Pains only in child-bearing were foretold,

The earth, when Adam, and first matron Eve And bringing forth, soon recompens'd with joy, Had ended now their orisons, and found Fruit of thy womb: on me the curse aslope

Strength added from above, new hope to spring Glanc'd on the ground; with labour I must earn Out of despair, joy, but with fear yet link'd; My bread; what harm? Idleness had been worse; Which thus to Eve his welcome words renew'd: My labour will sustain me; and lest cold

Eve, easily may faith admit, that all Or heat should injure us, his timely care

The good which we enjoy from Heav'n descends; Hath unbesought provided, and his hands

But that from us aught should ascend to Heaven Cloth'd us unworthy, pitying while he judg’d; So prevalent as to concern the mind How much more, if we pray him, will his ear Of God high-blest, or to incline his will, Be open, and his heart to pity incline,

Hard to belief may seem ; yet this will prayer, And teach us further by what means to shun Or one short sigh of human breath, upborne The inclement seasons, rain, ice, hail, and snow? Ev'n to the seat of God. For since I sought Which now the sky with various face begins By pray’r th' offended Deity to appease, To shew us in this mountain, while the winds Kneel'd and before him humbled all my heart, Blow moist and keen, shattering the graceful locks Methought I saw him placable and mild, Of these fair spreading trees; which bids us seek Bending his ear; persuasion in me grew Some better shroud, some better warmth to cherish That I was heard with favour; peace return'd Our lips benumb’d, ere this diurnal star

Home to my breast, and to my memory Leave cold the night, how we his gather'd beams His promise, that thy seed shall bruise our foe; Reflected, may with matter sere foment,

Which then not minded in dismay, yet now Or by collision of two bodies grind

Assures me that the bitterness of death The air attrite to fire, as late the clouds

Is past, and we shall live. Whence hail to thee, Justling or push'd with winds rude in their shock Eve rightly callid Mother of all Mankind, Tine the slant lightning, whose thwart flame driven Mother of all things living, since by thee Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine, [down Man is to live, and all things live for man. And sends a comfortable heat from far,

To whom thus Eve with sad demeanor meek. Which might supply the sun: such fire to use, Ill worthy I such title should belong And what may else be remedy or cure

To me transgressor, who for thee ordain'd To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought, A help, became thy snare; to me reproach He will instruct us praying, and of grace

Rather belongs, distrust and all dispraise : Beseeching him, so as we need not fear

But infinite in pardon was my Judge, To pass commodiously this life sustain'd

That I who first brought death on all, am grac'd By him with many comforts, till we end

The source of life; next favourable thou, In dust, our final rest and native home.

Who highly thus t' entitle me vouchsaf'st, What better can we do, than to the place

Far other name deserving. But the field Repairing where he judg'd us, prostrate fall To labour calls us now with sweat impos’d, Before him reverent, and there confess

Tho' after sleepless night; for see the morn, Humbly our faults, and pardon beg, with tears All unconcern'd with our unrest, begins Watering the ground, and with our sighs the air Her rosy progress smiling; let us forth, Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign I never from thy side henceforth to stray, Of sorrow unfeign’d, and humiliation meek? Where'er our day's work lies, though now injoin'd Undoubtedly he will relent and turn

Laborious, till day droop; while here we dwell, From his displeasure; in whose look serene, What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks? When angry most he seem'd and most severe, Here let us live, tho' in fall'o state, content. What else but favour, grace, and mercy shone? So spake, so wish'd much humbled Eve, but Fate So spake our Father penitent, nor Eve

Subscrib'd not; Nature first gave signs, impressid Felt less remorse: they forthwith to the place On bird, beast, air, air suddenly eclips'd Repairing where he judg’d them, prostrate fell After short blush of morn; nigh in her sight Before him reverent, and both confess'd

The bird of Jove stoop'd from his airy tour,

Two birds of gayest plume before him drove; As in a glist'ring zodiac, hung the sword, Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods, Satan's dire dread, and in his hand the spear. First hunter then, pursu'd a gentle brace,

Adam bow'd low; he kingly from his state Goodliest of all the forest, hart and hind;

Inclin'd not; but his coming thus declar'd: Direct to th' eastern gate was bent their flight. Adam, Heav'n's high behest no preface needs: Adam observ’d, and with his eyes the chace Sufficient that thy pray’rs are heard, and Death, Pursuing, not unmov'd, to Eve thus spake:

Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress, O Eve, some further change awaits us nigh,

Defeated of his seizure many days Which Heav'n by these mute signs in Nature shews, Giv’n thee of grace, wherein thou may'st repent, Forerunners of his purpose, or to warn

And one bad act with many deeds well done L's haply too secure of our discharge

May'st cover; well may then thy Lord appeas'd From penalty because from death releas'd

Redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious claim; Some days; how long, and what till then our life, But longer in this paradise to dwell Who knows, or more than this, that we are dust, Permits not; to remove thee I am come, And thither must return, and be no more?

And send thee from the garden forth to till Why else this double object in our sight

The ground whence thou wast taken, fitter soil. Of fight pursu'd in th' air, and o'er the ground, He added not, for Adam at the news One way the self-same hour? why in the east Heart-struck with chilling gripe of sorrow stood, Darkness ere day's mid-course, and morning-light That all his senses bound; Eve, who unseen More orient in yon western cloud that draws Yet all had heard, with audible lament O'er the blue firmament a radiant white,

Discover'd soon the place of her retire. And slowdescends with something heav'nlyfraught? O unexpected stroke, worse than of death!

He err'd not; for by this the heav'nly bands Must I thus leave thee, Paradise thus leave Down from a sky of jasper lighted now

Thee, native soil, these happy walks and shades, In paradise, and on a bill made halt,

Fit haunt of Gods ? where I had hope to spend, A glorious apparition, had not doubt

Quiet though sad, the respite of that day And carnal fear that day dimm'd Adam's eye.

That must be mortal to us both. O flowers, Not that more glorious, when the angels met

That never will in other climate

grow, Jacob in Mahanaim, where he saw

My early visitation, and my last
The field pavilion’d with his guardians bright; At even, which I bred up with tender hand
Nor that which on the flaming mount appear'd

From the first opening bud, and give ye names, In Dothan, cover'd with a camp of fire,

Who now shall rear ye to the sun, or rank Against the Syrian king, who, to surprise

Your tribes, and water from th' ambrosial fount? One man, assassin-like had levied war,

Thee lastly, nuptial bow'r, by me adorn'd War unproclaim'd. The princely Hierarch

With what to sight or smell was sweet, from thee In their bright stand there left his pow’rs to seize How shall I part, and whither wander down Possession of the garden; he alone,

Into a lower world, to this obscure To find where Adam shelter'd took his way,

And wild ? how shall we breathe in other air Not unperceiv'd of Adam, who to Eve,

Less pure, accustom'd to immortal fruits ? While the great visitant approach'd, thus spake: Whom thus the angel interrupted mild :

Eve, now expect great tidings, which perhaps Lament not, Eve, but patiently resign Of us will soon determine, or impose

What justly thou hast lost: nor set thy heart, New laws to be observ'd; for I descry

Thus over-fond, on that which is not thine; From yonder blazing cloud that veils the hill, Thy going is not lonely; with thee goes One of the heav'nly host, and by his gait

Thy husband; him to follow thou art bound; None of the meanest, some great potentate,

Where he abides, think there thy native soil. Or of the thrones above, such majesty

Adam by this from the cold sudden damp Invests him coming ; yet not terrible,

Recovering, and his scatter'd spirits return'd, That I should fear, nor sociably mild,

To Michael thus his humble words address'd. As Raphael, that I should much confide,

Celestial, whether among the thrones, or nam'd But solemn and sublime, whom not t' offend, Of them the highest, for such of shape may seem With reverence I must meet, and thou retire. Prince above princes, gently hast thou told

He ended; and th’ Archangel soon drew nigh, Thy message, which might else in telling wound, Not in his shape celestial, but as man

And in performing end us; what besides Clad to meet man; over his lucid arms

Of sorrow and dejection and despair A military vest of purple flow'd

Our frailty can sustain, thy tidings bring, Livelier than Melibæan, or the grain

Departure from this happy place, our sweet Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old

Recess, and only consolation left In time of truce; Iris had dipt the woof,

Familiar to our eyes, all places else His starry helm unbuckled shew'd him prime Inhospitable appear, and desolate, In manbood, where youth ended; by his side, Nor knowing us nor known; and if by pray'r

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