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A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC,

AND TECHNOLOGICAL.

BY

JOHN OGILVIE, LL.D.,

Author of "The Comprehensive English Dictionary,” “The Student's English Dictionary,” &c. &c.

NEW EDITION,

CAREFULLY REVISED AND GREATLY AUGMENTED.

EDITED BY

CHARLES ANNANDALE, M.A.

ILLUSTRATED BY ABOVE THREE THOUSAND ENGRAVINGS PRINTED IN THE TEXT.

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LONDON:
BLACKIE & SON, 49 AND 50 OLD BAILEY, E.C.;
GLASGOW, EDINBURGH, AND DUBLIN.

THE CENTURY CO. NEW-YORK.

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KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION

AND TO THE ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS EMPLOYED.

PRONUNCIATION.

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not. nove tube. tub. bull.

far. fat. fall. me. met. her.

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11, !!, ü,

oil.

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In showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing the word in a different form. In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same sound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound may be expressed in the principal word. The key by this means is greatly simplified, the realer having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound. Vowels.

Accent. --Words consisting of more than one syllable fate.

receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour, ö,

the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The ū,

accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word, Sc. abune(Fr. u).

being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary oi,

it is denoted by the mark'. This mark, called an accent, pine.

pound. pin. y,

Sc. fey (=e+i).

is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the note.

accent, as in the words la'bour, delay', and comprehen'sion. Consonants.

Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two ac

cents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word ch,

then. eh, Sc. loch, Ger. nacht.

excommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth 1. job).

wig. wh,

whig.

syllable is commonly accented. The 'accent on the fifth Fr. ton. zh,

syllable is the primary, true, or tonic accent, while that on sing.

the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight The application of this key to the pronunciation of resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utterforeign words can as a rule only represent approximately ance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents the true pronunciation of those words. It is applicable, are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked ", however, to Latin and Greek words, as those languages are and the seco: dary, or inferior one, by this mark', as in the pronounced in England.

word excommunica'tion.

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By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass. An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in a single line, more information as to details than could be given in many lines of letterpress.

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Elements.
Symbols. Elements.

Symbols. When a symbol has a small figure or number under-
Alunjinium,
AI Mercury (Hydrargyrum), . Hy

written, and to the right of it, such figure or number indiAntimony (Stibium) Sb Molybdenum,

Mo

cates the number of atoms of the element. Thus–0, Arsenic, As Nickel,

Ni
Barium,

Ba
Niobium,

Nb signifies two atoms of oxygen, S; five atoms of sulphur, and Bismuth,

Nitrogen,

N

Cho ten atoms of carbon.
Boron,
Osmium,

When two or more elements are united to form a chemiBromine,

Oxygen, Cadmium,

Palladium,

Pul cal compound, their symbols are written one after the Cæsium,

Phosphorus,

P

other, to indicate the compound. Thus-H.O means water, Calcium,

Platinum,

Pt Carbon,

a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen; с Potassium (Kaliu'11), K Cerium, Ce Rhodium,

R C.H.,20u indicates cane-sugar, a compound of twelve Chlorine, el Rubidium,

Rb

atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen, and eleven of Chromium,

Cr Ruthenium,
Cobalt,
Co Selenium,

Se

oxygen. Copper (Capr:. Cu Silicon,

Si These two expressions as they stand denote respectively Didymium, D Silver (Argentum),

Ag a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the Erbium, E Sodium (Natrium),

Na

smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the Fluorine, F Strontium,

Sr
Gallium,
Ga Sulphur,

S free state. To express several molecules a large figure is
Glacinium,
G Tantalum,

Ta

prefixed, thus: 2 H,O represents, two molecules of water, Gold (Aurum), Au Tellurium,

Te

4(C,H,Ou) four molecules of cane-sugar.
Hydrogen,
н Thallium,

Ti
Indium,
In Thorium,

Th When a compound is formed of two or more compounds
Iodine,
I Tin (Stannum),

Sn the symbolical expressions for the compound are usually Iridium Ir Titanium,

Ti

connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized Iron (Ferrum),

Fe

Tungsten (Wolframı), W
Lanthanium,

La
Uranium,

U magnesic sulphate is MgSO4, 7 H.O. The symbols may also Lead (Plumbum),

Pb
Vanadium,

V

be used to express the changes which occur during chemical Lithium, L Yttrium,

Y

action, and they are then written in the form of an equaMagnesiuni, Mg Zinc,

Zn
Manganese,
Mn Zirconium,

Zr

tion, of which one side represents the substances as they

exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction. When any of the above symbols stands by itself it indi- Thus, 2 H, +0. = 2 H,O expresses the fact that two molecates que atom of the element it represents. Thus, H cules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of stands for one atom of hydrogen, 0 for one atom of oxygen, oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two and Cl for one atom of chlorine. (See Arom, and Atomic molecules of water, each of them containing two atrms of theory under Atomic, in Dictionary.)

hydrogen and one of oxygen.

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ABBREVIATIONS.

genit.

geol.

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Hung.

pret,

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a.or adj.stands for adjective. abbrev. ... abbreviation, abbreviated. acc.

accusative. act.

active. adv.

adverb, agri.

agriculture. aly.

algebra. Amer.

American. anat.

anatomy. anc.

ancient. antig.

antiquities. aor.

aorist, aoristic. Ar.

Arabic. arch.

architecture. archæol. archæology. arith.

arithmetic. Armor.

Armoric. art.

article. A. Sax.

Anglo-Saxon. astrol.

astrology.. astron,

astronomy. at. wt.

atomic weight. aug.

augmentative. Bav.

Bavarian dialect. biol.

biology. Bohem.

Bohemian. bot.

botany. Braz.

Brazilian. Bret.

Breton (=Armoric). Bulg.

Bulgarian. Catal.

Catalonian. carp. ... carpentry. caus.

causative. Celt.

Celtic. Chal.

Chaldee. chem.

chemistry. chron.

chronology. Class. ... Classical (=Greek and

Latin). cog.

cognate, cognate with.

colloquial. com.

commerce. comp.

compare. compar,

comparative. conch,

conchology. con).

conjunction. contr.

contraction, contracted. Corn.

Cornish. crystal. ... crystallography. Cym.

Cymric. D.

Dutch. Dan,

Danish. dat.

dative. def.

definite. deriv.

derivation. dial,

dialect, dialectal. dim,

diminutive. distrib.

distributive. dram.

drama, dramatic. dyn.

dynamics. E., Eng. English. eccles.

ecclesiastical. Egypt. ...

Egyptian. elect.

electricity. engin.

engineering. engr.

engraving entom,

entomology. Eth.

Ethiopic. ethn.

ethnography,ethnology. et ym.

etymology. Eur.

European. exclam

exclamation. fem.

feminine. fug.

figuratively.
Flemish,

fortification. Fr.

French,
frequentative.

Frisian. fut.

future.

German,

galv, stands for galvanism.

genitive. geog. .... geography.

geology. geom.

geometry. Goth.

Gothic. Gr.

Greek. gram.

grammar. gun.

gunnery. Heb.

Hebrew. her.

heraldry. Hind.

Hindostanee, Hindu, or hist.

history. [Hindi. hort.

horticulture.

Hungarian. hydros.

hydrostatics. Icel.

Icelandic. ich.

ichthyology. imper.

imperative. imperf.

imperfect. impers.

impersonal. incept.

inceptive. ind.

indicative. Ind.

Indic. indef.

indefinite. Indo-Eur. ...

Indo-European. inf.

infinitive. intens.

intensive. interj.

interjection. Ir.

Irish. Iran.

Iranian. It.

Italian. L.

Latin. lan.

language. Lett.

Lettish. L.G.

Low German. lit.

literal, literally. Lith.

Lithuanian. L.L.

late Latin, low do. mach.

machinery. manuf.

manufactures. masc.

misculine. math.

mathematics. mech.

mechanics. med.

medicine. Med, L. Medieval Latin. mensur.

mensuration. metal.

metallurgy. metaph.

metaphysics. meteor.

meteorology. Mex.

Mexican. M .H.G. ...

Middle High German. milit.

military. mineral.

mineralogy. Mod, Fr. ...

Modern French. myth,

mythology. N.

Norse, Norwegian. n.

noun. nat, hist...

natural history. nat, order,... natural order. nat. phil. ... natural philosophy. naut.

nautical. navig.

navigation. neg.

negative. neut.

neuter. N.H.G.

New High German. nom.

nominative. Norm.

Norman. North. E.... Northern English, numis.

numismatics. obj.

objective. obs,

obsolete. obsoles. ... obsolescent. 0. Bulg. ... Old Bulgarian (Ch.Slavic). 0.E.

Old English (i.e. English

between A.Saxon and

Modern English). 0. Fr. ...

Old French. 0.H.G. ...

Old High German. 0. Prus. ... Old Prussian. 0. Sax.

Old Saxon.

p. stands for participle. palæon. ...

palæontology.

paleontol part.

participle. pass.

passive. pathol.

pathology. pejor.

pejorative. Per.

Persic or Persian. perf.

perfect. pers.

person. persp.

perspective. Peruv.

Peruvian.

Portuguese, phar.

pharmacy. philol.

philology. philos.

philosophy. Phen.

Phnician. photog.

photography. phren.

phrenology. phys. geog.... physical geography. physiol.

physiology. pl.

plural. PI.D. ...

Platt Dutch. pneum. ... pneumatics. poet.

poetical. Pol.

Polish. pol. econ. ...

political economy. poss.

possessive. pp.

past participle. ppr.

present participle. Pr.

Provençal. тер.

preposition. pres.

present.

preterite. priv.

privative. pron. ... pronunciation, pronounced. pron,

pronoun. pros.

prosody. prov.

provincial. psychol.

psychology ruil.

railways. R. Cath.Ch.... Roman Catholic Church. rhet.

rhetoric. Rom,antiq.... Roman antiquities.

Russian, Sax.

Saxon, Sc.

Scotch. Scand.

Scandinavian. Scrip.

Scripture. sculp.

sculpture. Sem.

Semitic.
Serv.

Servian.
singular.

Sanskrit.
Slav.

Slavonic, Slavic.

Spanish. sp. gr.

specific gravity. stat.

statute. subj.

subjunctive. superl.

superlative. sury.

surgery. surv.

surveying. Sw.

Swedish sym.

symbol. syn.

synonym

Syriac. Tart.

Tartar, technol,

technology. teleg.

telegraphy. term.

termination. Teut.

Teutonic. theol.

theology. toxicol.

toxicology. trigon.

trigonometry. Turk.

Turkish. typog.

typography. var.

variety (of species). v.i.

verb intransitive. v.n.

verb neuter. v.t.

verb transitive.

Welsh. zool.

zoology.

Rus,

sing. Skr.

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debet; a resting: -5. Relian his depen

ce numberdable dbable dexinel.

Depasture (de-pas'tür), v.t. pret. & pp. de. pastured; ppr. depasturing. [L. de pascor, to feed upon.) 1.7 To eat up; to consume. Spenser. -2. To pasture; to graze.

If 40 sheep yield 80 lbs of wool, and are depas. tured in one parish for a whole year, the parson shall have 8 lbs.

Ayliffe. Depasture (de-pas'tur), v.í. To feed or pasture; to graze.

If a man takes in a horse, or other cattle, to graze and depasture in his grounds, which the law calls agistinent.

Blackstone, Depatriate (de-på'tri-át), v.i. [L de, from, and patria, one's country.) To leave one's country; to go into voluntary exile. (Rare.)

A subject born in any state

May, if he please, depatriate. Mason, Depatriate (de-på'tri-át), v.t. To drive from

one's country; to banish; to expel. Depauperate (de-paper-át), v.t. pret. & pp. depauperated; ppr. depauperating. (L. depaupero-de, intens., and paupero, to beggar, from pauper, poor.) To make poor; to impoverish; to deprive of fertility or richness; as, to depauperate the soil or the blood. 'Humility of mind which depauperates the spirit.' Jer. Taylor. (Rare.] Depauperate, Depauperated (dē-pa'peråt, de-pa'pér-at-ed), p. and a. Impoverished; made poor. In bot imperfectly developed; looking as if ill-formed from want of sufficient nutriment. Depauperize (dě-pa'pér-iz), v. t. (L. de, priv. and pauper, poor.) To raise from a condition of poverty or pauperism; to free from paupers or pauperism.

Our efforts at depauperizing the children of pau. pers would be more successful, if the process were not carried on in a lump..

Edin, Rev. Depeach+ (de-pêch), v.t. (Fr. dépêcher, to expedite towards a result. See DESPATCH.] To despatch; to discharge.

They shall be forthwith heard as soon as the party which they shall find before our justices shall be deferched.

Hackluyt. Depectible † (de-pek'ti-bl), a. (L. depecto, to comb off -- de, off, and pecto, to comb. ) Tough; tenacious.

It may be that ... some bodies are of a more depedible nature than oil.

Bacon. Depeculation (de-pek'ü-la"shon), n. (L. depeculor, de peculatus, to embezzle-de, intens., and peculari, to embezzle public money. See PECULATE.) A robbing or embezzling. Depeculation of the public treasure.' Hobbes. Depeinct 1 (de-pant'), v.t. (O. Fr. depeinct, depicted, L. depingo. See DEPICT.) To paint. The Red rose medled with the White yfere,

In either check depeinden lively cheere. Spenser. Depeint, 1 pp. Painted. Chaucer. Depend (de-pend'), 0. (L. dependeo, to hang down - de, down, and pendeo, to hang ) 1. To hang; to be sustained by being fastened or attached to something above: followed by from.

From the frozen beard
Long icicles de pond.

Dryden.

2. To be related to anything, as to the cause of its existence or of its operation and effects; to have such connection with anything as a cause, that without it the effect would not be produced ; to be contingent or conditioned: followed by on or upon; as, we de. pend on air for respiration.

Our happiness depends little on political institu. tions, and much on the temper and regulation of our own minds.

Macaulay. 3. To be in the condition of a dependant or retainer; to serve; to attend.

Do not you follow the young Lord Paris ? 'Ay, sir, when he goes before me. You depend upon him, I mean?

Shak. 4. To be in suspense; to be undetermined; as, the suit is still depending in court. See PENDING.-5. To rely; to rest with confidence; to trust; to confide; to have full confidence or belief: with on or upon; as, we depend on the word or assurance of our friends; we depend on the arrival of the mail.

First, then, a woman will or won't-depend on't;
If she will do't, she will; and there's an end on't.

Aaron Hill. 6. To hang over; to impend.

This is the curse depending on those that war for a placket.

Shak. Dependable (dē-pend'a-bl), a. That may be depended on; trustworthy. 'Dependable friendships.' Pope.

We might apply these numbers to the case of giants and dwarfs if we had any dependable data from which the mean human stature and its probable deviation could be ascertained.

Sir 3. Herschel. Dependance, Dependancy (dē-pendans,

de-pend'an-si), n. Same as Dependence. Dependant, Dependent (dē-pendant, dē. pend'ent), n. 1. One who is at the disposal of another; one who is sustained by another, or who relies on another for support or favour; a retainer; as, the prince was fol. lowed by a numerous train of dependants. 2. That which depends on something else; a consequence; a corollary. With all its circumstances and dependents. Prynne. [It would perhaps be better if a distinction were uniformly made between dependant and dependent, as to some extent it is made, the former being more generally used as the noun, the latter as the adjective. We give the adjective under DEPENDENT.] Dependence, Dependency (de-pendens, de-pend'en-si), n. 1. A state of hanging down from a support.--2. Anything hanging down; a series of things hanging to another.

Like a large cluster of black grapes they show,
And made a long dependence from the bough.

Dryden. 3. Connection and support; mutual connection; inter-relation; concatenation. A dependency of thing on thing.' Shak.

But of this frame the bearings and the ties,

The strong connections, nice dependencies. Pope. 4. A state of being at the disposal of another for support or existence; a state of being subject to the power and operation of any

other cause; inability to sustain itself without the aid of; as, we ought to feel our dependence on God for life and support: the child should be sensible of his dependence on his parents. – 5. Reliance; confidence: trust; a resting on; as, we may have a firm dependence on the promises of God.

Let me report to him
Your sweet dependency; and you shall find
A conqueror that will pray in aid for kindness.

Shak. 6. In law, the state of being depending or pending; the state of waiting for decision.

An action is said to be in dependence from the moment of citation till the final decision of the House of Lords.' Bell.-7. That of which the existence presupposes the exist. ence of something else; that which pertains to something else; an accident or quality; something non-essential.

Modes I call such complex ideas . . . which are considered as dependencies, or affections of substances.

Locke. 8. The state of being dependent, subordinate, or subject to another: opposed to sovereignty.

So that they may acknowledge their dependency upon the crown of England.

Bacon. 9. That which is attached to, but subordinate to something else; as, this earth and its dependencies.--10. A territory remote from the kingdom or state to which it belongs, but subject to its dominion; as, Great Britain has its dependencies in Asia, Africa, and America. [Dependency is the form exclusively used in this and the foregoing sense.) 11. The subject of a quarrel, when duels were in vogue; the affair depending.

Your masters of dependencies, to take up
A drunken brawl.

Massinger. -Dependence is more used in the abstract, and dependency in the concrete; thus, we say'a question in dependence before a judge, but'a dependency of a state.' Dependent, Dependant (dē-pend'ent, dē. pendant), a. 1. Hanging down; as, a de. pendent leaf.

The furs in the tails were dependent. Peacham. 2. Subject to the power of ; at the disposal of; not able to exist or sustain itself without the will or power of; subordinate; as, we are dependent on God and his providence: an effect may be dependent on some unknown cause.

England, long dependent and degraded, was again a power of the first rank.

Macaulay. 3. Relying on for support or favour; unable to subsist or to perform anything without the aid of; as, children are dependent on their parents for food and clothing; the pupil is dependent on his preceptor for instruction. See DEPENDANT. Dependently, Dependantly (de-pend'ent

i. de-pend'ant-li). adv. In a dependent manner. Depender (dē-pend'ér), n. One who depends; a dependant.

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