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THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE:
A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC,
JOHN OGILVIE, LL.D.,
Author of “The Comprehensive English Dictionary,” “The Student's English Dictionary," &c. &c.
CAREFULLY REVISED AND GREATLY AUGMENTED.
CHARLES ANNANDALE, M.A.
ILLUSTRATED BY ABOVE THREE THOUSAND ENGRAVINGS PRINTED IN THE TEXT.
KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION
PRONUNCIATION. In showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing the word in a different form. In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same sound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound may be expressed in the principal word. The key by this means is greatly simplified, the rearler having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound. Vowels.
Accent.-Words consisting of more than one syllabile ..... as in .. fate 1 o, .... as in ... not.
receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour', ...... far. , ... move
the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The ....tube. .... tub.
accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word, .. me.
being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary met.
. Sc. abune (Fr.u). .. her. oi.
it is denoted by the mark'. This mark, called an accent, pine. ... pin I', .... . .... Sc. fey (=e+i).
is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the .... note.
accent, as in the words la'bour, delay, and comprehen'sion. Consonants.
Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two ac
cents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word ch, .. as in .. chain.
I TH, ..... as in .... then. ch, .. .. Sc. loch, Ger. nacht 'th."
.... thin. excommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth j. . job.
syllable is commonly accented. The accent on the fifth 8. . . . . go.
... wohig. Ó, . Fr. ton.
syllable is the primary, true, or tunic accent, while that on ng, .. .. sing.
the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight The application of this key to the pronunciation of resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utterforeign words can as a rule only represent approximately ance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents the true pronunciation of those words. It is applicable, are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked ", however, to Latin and Greek words, as those languages are and the seco: .dary, or inferior one, by this mark ', as in the pronounced in England.
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS.
By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass. An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in a single line, more information as to details than could be given in many lines of letterpress.
Elements. Symbols. Elements.
Symbols. When a symbol has a small figure or number underAluminium, .. . Al Mercury (Hydrargyrıım), · Hg | written, and to the right of it, such figure or number indiAntimony (Stibium)
Molybdenum, , . .
cates the number of atoms of the element. Thus—0, Arsenic, . . . . . . As Nickel, . . . . . . . Ni Barium,
signifies two atoms of oxygen, S, five atoms of sulphur, and
Co ten atoms of carbon.
When two or more elements are united to form a chemiBromine,
Oxygen, . . . . . .0) Cadmium,
Palladium,. . . . PT cal compound, their symbols are written one after the C'æsium,
other, to indicate the compound. Thus-H,O means water, Calcium,
a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen; Cerium, Rhodium, ..
C.H.,20u indicates cane - sugar, a compound of twelve Chlorine, Rubidium, ... · Rb
atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen, and eleven of Chromium,
Ruthenium, . . . Ru
These two expressions as they stand denote respectively . .
. Si Didymium, Silver (Argentum).
a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the Erbium,
Sodium (Natrium). .
smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the Fluorine,
Strontium, . . . .
free state. Gallium,
To express several molecules a large figure is Glacinium,
prefixed, thus: 2 H2O represents, two molecules of water, Gold (Aurui), Au Telluriuni.
4(C,H,Ou) four molecules of cane sugar. Hydrogen.. . . . . .H Thallium, . Indium,
When a compound is formed of two or more compounds .
Thorium, . . . Iodine,
Tin (Stannum), ... the symbolical expressions for the compound are usually Iridium, . . . . . . Ir Titanium, . . .
connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized Iron (Ferrum),
Tungsten (Wolfram), Lanthaniam, . La l'ranium,
magnesic sulphate is MgSO4, 7H,0. The symbols may also Lead (Plumbum), Pb Vanadium,
be used to express the changes which occur during chemical Lithium, . . . . Yttrium,. . .
action, and they are then written in the form of an equaMagnesium, . . . . . . Mg
Zinc, . . . . Manganese, . ...Mn Zirconium, , . .. . Zr
tion, of which one side represents the substances as they
exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction. When any of the above symbols stands by itself it indi. Thus, 2 H, +0,2 H2O expresses the fact that two molecates one atom of the element it represents. Thus, H cules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of stands for one atom of hydrogen, O for one atom of oxygen, oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two and Cl for one atom of chlorine. (See Atom, and Atomic molecules of water, each of them containing two atrms of theory under ATOMIC, in Dictionary.)
| hydrogen and one of oxygen. (vu)
a.or adj.stands for adjective. abbrev. ... abbreviation, abbreviated. acc.
aorist, aoristic. Ar.
architecture. archæol. archæology. arith.
article. A. Sax.
astronomy. at. wt.
atomic weight. aug.
Bavarian dialect. biol.
Breton (=Armoric). Bulg.
Catalonian. carp. ... carpentry. caus.
chronology. Class. ... Classical (=Greek and
cognate, cognate with.
contraction, contracted. Corn.
Cornish. crystal. ... crystallography. Cym.
dialect, dialectal. dim,
drama, dramatic. dyn.
dynamics. E., Eng. English. eccles.
ecclesiastical. Egypt. ...
ethnography,ethnology. et ym.
galv, stands for galvanism.
genitive. geog. .... geography.
Hindostanee, Hindu, or hist.
history. [Hindi. hort.
indefinite. Indo-Eur. ...
Low German. lit.
literal, literally. Lith.
late Latin, low do. mach.
medicine. Med, L. Medieval Latin. mensur.
Mexican. M .H.G. ...
Middle High German. milit.
mineralogy. Mod, Fr. ...
Modern French. myth,
Norse, Norwegian. n.
noun. nat, hist...
natural history. nat, order,... natural order. nat. phil. ... natural philosophy. naut.
New High German. nom.
Norman. North. E.... Northern English, numis.
obsolete. obsoles. ... obsolescent. 0. Bulg. ... Old Bulgarian (Ch.Slavic). 0.E.
Old English (i.e. English
between A.Saxon and
Modern English). 0. Fr. ...
Old French. 0.H.G. ...
Old High German. 0. Prus. ... Old Prussian. 0. Sax.
p. stands for participle. palæon. ...
Persic or Persian. perf.
phrenology. phys. geog.... physical geography. physiol.
plural. PI.D. ...
Platt Dutch. pneum. ... pneumatics. poet.
Polish. pol. econ. ...
political economy. poss.
past participle. ppr.
present participle. Pr.
privative. pron. ... pronunciation, pronounced. pron,
railways. R. Cath.Ch.... Roman Catholic Church. rhet.
rhetoric. Rom,antiq.... Roman antiquities.
Spanish. sp. gr.
specific gravity. stat.
variety (of species). v.i.
verb intransitive. v.n.
verb neuter. v.t.
debet; a resting: -5. Relian his depen
ce numberdable dbable dexinel.
Depasture (de-pas'tür), v.t. pret. & pp. de. pastured; ppr. depasturing. [L. de pascor, to feed upon.) 1.7 To eat up; to consume. Spenser. -2. To pasture; to graze.
If 40 sheep yield 80 lbs of wool, and are depas. tured in one parish for a whole year, the parson shall have 8 lbs.
Ayliffe. Depasture (de-pas'tur), v.í. To feed or pasture; to graze.
If a man takes in a horse, or other cattle, to graze and depasture in his grounds, which the law calls agistinent.
Blackstone, Depatriate (de-på'tri-át), v.i. [L de, from, and patria, one's country.) To leave one's country; to go into voluntary exile. (Rare.)
A subject born in any state
May, if he please, depatriate. Mason, Depatriate (de-på'tri-át), v.t. To drive from
one's country; to banish; to expel. Depauperate (de-paper-át), v.t. pret. & pp. depauperated; ppr. depauperating. (L. depaupero-de, intens., and paupero, to beggar, from pauper, poor.) To make poor; to impoverish; to deprive of fertility or richness; as, to depauperate the soil or the blood. 'Humility of mind which depauperates the spirit.' Jer. Taylor. (Rare.] Depauperate, Depauperated (dē-pa'peråt, de-pa'pér-at-ed), p. and a. Impoverished; made poor. In bot imperfectly developed; looking as if ill-formed from want of sufficient nutriment. Depauperize (dě-pa'pér-iz), v. t. (L. de, priv. and pauper, poor.) To raise from a condition of poverty or pauperism; to free from paupers or pauperism.
Our efforts at depauperizing the children of pau. pers would be more successful, if the process were not carried on in a lump..
Edin, Rev. Depeach+ (de-pêch), v.t. (Fr. dépêcher, to expedite towards a result. See DESPATCH.] To despatch; to discharge.
They shall be forthwith heard as soon as the party which they shall find before our justices shall be deferched.
Hackluyt. Depectible † (de-pek'ti-bl), a. (L. depecto, to comb off -- de, off, and pecto, to comb. ) Tough; tenacious.
It may be that ... some bodies are of a more depedible nature than oil.
Bacon. Depeculation (de-pek'ü-la"shon), n. (L. depeculor, de peculatus, to embezzle-de, intens., and peculari, to embezzle public money. See PECULATE.) A robbing or embezzling. Depeculation of the public treasure.' Hobbes. Depeinct 1 (de-pant'), v.t. (O. Fr. depeinct, depicted, L. depingo. See DEPICT.) To paint. The Red rose medled with the White yfere,
In either check depeinden lively cheere. Spenser. Depeint, 1 pp. Painted. Chaucer. Depend (de-pend'), 0. (L. dependeo, to hang down - de, down, and pendeo, to hang ) 1. To hang; to be sustained by being fastened or attached to something above: followed by from.
From the frozen beard
2. To be related to anything, as to the cause of its existence or of its operation and effects; to have such connection with anything as a cause, that without it the effect would not be produced ; to be contingent or conditioned: followed by on or upon; as, we de. pend on air for respiration.
Our happiness depends little on political institu. tions, and much on the temper and regulation of our own minds.
Macaulay. 3. To be in the condition of a dependant or retainer; to serve; to attend.
Do not you follow the young Lord Paris ? 'Ay, sir, when he goes before me. You depend upon him, I mean?
Shak. 4. To be in suspense; to be undetermined; as, the suit is still depending in court. See PENDING.-5. To rely; to rest with confidence; to trust; to confide; to have full confidence or belief: with on or upon; as, we depend on the word or assurance of our friends; we depend on the arrival of the mail.
First, then, a woman will or won't-depend on't;
Aaron Hill. 6. To hang over; to impend.
This is the curse depending on those that war for a placket.
Shak. Dependable (dē-pend'a-bl), a. That may be depended on; trustworthy. 'Dependable friendships.' Pope.
We might apply these numbers to the case of giants and dwarfs if we had any dependable data from which the mean human stature and its probable deviation could be ascertained.
Sir 3. Herschel. Dependance, Dependancy (dē-pendans,
de-pend'an-si), n. Same as Dependence. Dependant, Dependent (dē-pendant, dē. pend'ent), n. 1. One who is at the disposal of another; one who is sustained by another, or who relies on another for support or favour; a retainer; as, the prince was fol. lowed by a numerous train of dependants. 2. That which depends on something else; a consequence; a corollary. With all its circumstances and dependents. Prynne. [It would perhaps be better if a distinction were uniformly made between dependant and dependent, as to some extent it is made, the former being more generally used as the noun, the latter as the adjective. We give the adjective under DEPENDENT.] Dependence, Dependency (de-pendens, de-pend'en-si), n. 1. A state of hanging down from a support.--2. Anything hanging down; a series of things hanging to another.
Like a large cluster of black grapes they show,
Dryden. 3. Connection and support; mutual connection; inter-relation; concatenation. A dependency of thing on thing.' Shak.
But of this frame the bearings and the ties,
The strong connections, nice dependencies. Pope. 4. A state of being at the disposal of another for support or existence; a state of being subject to the power and operation of any
other cause; inability to sustain itself without the aid of; as, we ought to feel our dependence on God for life and support: the child should be sensible of his dependence on his parents. – 5. Reliance; confidence: trust; a resting on; as, we may have a firm dependence on the promises of God.
Let me report to him
Shak. 6. In law, the state of being depending or pending; the state of waiting for decision.
An action is said to be in dependence from the moment of citation till the final decision of the House of Lords.' Bell.-7. That of which the existence presupposes the exist. ence of something else; that which pertains to something else; an accident or quality; something non-essential.
Modes I call such complex ideas . . . which are considered as dependencies, or affections of substances.
Locke. 8. The state of being dependent, subordinate, or subject to another: opposed to sovereignty.
So that they may acknowledge their dependency upon the crown of England.
Bacon. 9. That which is attached to, but subordinate to something else; as, this earth and its dependencies.--10. A territory remote from the kingdom or state to which it belongs, but subject to its dominion; as, Great Britain has its dependencies in Asia, Africa, and America. [Dependency is the form exclusively used in this and the foregoing sense.) 11. The subject of a quarrel, when duels were in vogue; the affair depending.
Your masters of dependencies, to take up
Massinger. -Dependence is more used in the abstract, and dependency in the concrete; thus, we say'a question in dependence before a judge, but'a dependency of a state.' Dependent, Dependant (dē-pend'ent, dē. pendant), a. 1. Hanging down; as, a de. pendent leaf.
The furs in the tails were dependent. Peacham. 2. Subject to the power of ; at the disposal of; not able to exist or sustain itself without the will or power of; subordinate; as, we are dependent on God and his providence: an effect may be dependent on some unknown cause.
England, long dependent and degraded, was again a power of the first rank.
Macaulay. 3. Relying on for support or favour; unable to subsist or to perform anything without the aid of; as, children are dependent on their parents for food and clothing; the pupil is dependent on his preceptor for instruction. See DEPENDANT. Dependently, Dependantly (de-pend'ent
i. de-pend'ant-li). adv. In a dependent manner. Depender (dē-pend'ér), n. One who depends; a dependant.
Our refund be in lump