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Also Manufacturers of the Mineral Acids and Bisulphide of Carbon.

Chemical Works-Inglis Street, Sandridge. DR. CHURCHILL'S SYRUPS

(HYPOPHOSPHITE OF LIME OR SODA)

FOR CONSUMPTION.

THESE Syrups, which have the confidence of all medical men, are especially recommended in cases of Consumption, Chronic Cough, and General Debility. They contain two of the principal ingredients necessary for building up the human frame, and which are considered deficient in the above complaints, viz., Phosphorus and Lime. They are also admirably dapted for Children of a weak and delicate habit.

DR. CHURCHILL'S SYRUP OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF IRON is particularly recommended for the restoration of the constitution when debilitated by the effects of a warm climate.

DR. CHURCHILL'S COMPOUND SYRUP OF HYPOPHOSPHITES is a compound of the Hypophosphites of Lime, Iron, Soda, Potash, &c., and as a general Tonic cannot be too highly estimated.

DR. CHURCHILL'S PECTORAL TABLETS cure Coughs, Colds, Hoarseness, Sore Throats, Loss of Voice, Bronchitis, Asthma, &c. The above are prepared only by Swann, Chemist, 12 Rue Castiglione, Paris. Each bottle

bears Dr. Churchill's signature.

AGENTS FOR AUSTRALIA,

FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO.

31 & 33 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne.

M'Carron, Bird and Co., Printers, 37 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne.

PRICE 29. 6d.

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VICTORIAN REVIEW

!

EDITED BY H. MORTIMER FRANKLYN.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

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1. The Education Question. By Professor CHARLES H. Pearson, M.L.A. 141 II. Astronomy and the Jewish Festival. By RicHARD A. PROCTOR

156 III. The First Australian Settlement. By JOHN B. LAING (Sydney)

166 IV. The Political Situation in Victoria. By W. JARDINE SMITH

178 V. Philological Giving and Taking. By Miss C. H. SPENCE (Adelaide).

194 VI. The International Exhibition of Melbourne, 1880. By JAMES SMITH VII. Herodotus and Macaulay. By R. COLONNA-CLOSE

227 VIII. Turkey and the Turks. By a Correspondent (Constantinople)

242 IX. The Non-Personality of Shakespeare. By S. SMITH TRAVERS (Tasmania) 253 X. The Minah Bird. By JOSHUA LAKE, B.A.

259 XI. The Contemporary Thought of Great Britain, Europe, and the United States

260

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MELBOURNE:
THE VICTORIAN REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED,

COLLINS STREET EAST.
London: GORDON & GOTCH.

New York: THE INTERNATIONAL Paris: LIBRAIRIE GALIGNANI.

News COMPANY. Berlin: Asher & Co.

Philadelphia : PORTER & COATES. Vienna: GEROLD & Co.

San Francisco: SAN FRANCISCO News Sydney (N.S. W.) TURNER & HENDERSON. COMPANY. Adelaide: E. S. WIGG & SON.

Chicago: W. M. SMITH. Brisbane: GORDON & GOTCH.

Calcutta : BROWN & Co. Dunedin: H. WISE & Co.

Bombay: THACKER & Co. Boston: W. B. CLARKE.

Madras: HIGINBOTHAM & Co. [All Rights Reserved.]

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SINGER SEWING MACHINES.

.

Ptices Reduced. SINGER'S SEWING MACHINES.

WE

E beg to inform the Public that the SINGER SEWING MACHINE COMPANY,

having still further increased their facilities for cheapening the cost of production, now offer their Machines with the latest improvements, at greatly Reduced Prices.

SINGER HAND MACHINE,

With Triple Action Balance Wheel, £4 15s.

SINGER TREADLE MACHINE,

With Triple Action Balance Wheel, for Winding Bobbins without running

the other parts of the Machine, £6 10s.

The SINGER MACHINES having become so popular in all parts of the World, are now copied by a horde of German and other imitators.

These German and other imitations are sold under various names, and all are said to be the BEST IN THE WORLD, ACKNOWLEDGED SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS, UNRI. VALLED, and so forth, which are not only COPIES of the mechanical construction, but also of the STYLE OF CASTINGS, Decorations, and GENERAL APPEARANCE of the Singer Machine.

Buy no Machine that has not the words “Singer MANUFACTURING COMPANY” on the top of the arm and on the brass label on the front of the arm.

SINGER MACHINES may be had on TIME-PAYMENT

Of 108. Cash and 28. 6d. per Weck.

PRICE LIST AND CIRCULARS FREE BY POST.

STANFORD & CO.

BOURKE ST., MELBOURNE,

AGENTS

FOR THE SINGER COMPANY.

THE

VICTORIAN

REVIEW.

VOL. III.-No. XIV. DECEMBER 1, 1880.

THE EDUCATION QUESTION.

In discussing the Education Question, I desire as much as possible to consider it apart from its political surroundings. It is unfortunate that the passage of the Education Act was associated with a party triumph; and as long as the question of retaining or amending it is made a party issue, I am afraid no real settlement will be arrived at. Already we have had members, on both sides, pledged everywhere to maintain the Act as it is; that is, to abstain from improving it even though they may see improvement to be possible. It may have been necessary to exact such a pledge, on the ground that no change at all was better than the particular change apprehended; but it is an anomaly and a misfortune that Parliament should be condemned to temporary paralysis. Meanwhile, if our hands are tied from changing the present system till we have consulted the constituencies again, we may, at least, employ the life-time of the present Parliament in calmly determining whether we cannot in any way ease the working of our actual school system. The more moderate Catholics, I believe, demand no more than this, and reasonable Secularists ought not to shrink from it.

The essential argument against the present system has been very well stated by Bishop Moorhouse in his address to the education VOL. III.-No. 14.

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section of the Social Science Congress; and I think it will not be unfair to regard this as an official manifesto of the party who favour denominational education. It was so accepted by every speaker, on either side, who followed Bishop Moorhouse. Moreover, it came with particular force from Dr. Moorhouse, because he associated it with arguments which showed that he did not desire to whittle away or degrade popular education. A reformer who condemns our schools because they do not teach enough, and who wishes to see such subjects as history, physical science, and the laws of health taught to the sons of ploughmen, miners, and artisans, is a reformer whom, in these matters, at least, Liberals may feel to be one of themselves. Neither, I think, do Liberals or any large class of the community differ from Dr. Moorhouse in his belief that the whole fabric of human society is sustained by religious faith. Some among us, indeed may give a wider acceptation to that word than is usually given in clerical circles. We may think that Voltaire had more of the Spirit of God in assailing persecution than M. de Bonald in defending the punishment of death for sacrilege ; and that Hume or Middleton did as good service to the Church in forcing it to reconsider its doctrine of miracles as De Maistre or Mozley have since done in commentating upon Hume. We may think, as Dean Church has admitted, “that mere civilisation may more and more do many things which in past times Christianity did;” or with the Rev. W. Freemantle that “the Agnostic may possibly see some sides of Christian work more clearly than many who seem more certain." But most of us do not even wander into these speculations. We reflect the inherited Puritanisms of English or Scotch households, with their intense faith in the written Word as the sustainer and guide of life. We are glad to hear that Confucius and Epictetus and Professor Huxley agree in advocating religion as the condition of happiness, self-respect, and self-discipline. But it is preaching to the converted to tell us all this. The class of theorists that shall declare religious speculation to be unprofitable, or religious teaching to be unnecessary, has yet, I believe, to be born in this country. There may be indifference on these matters, as there is all the world over; there is, I am convinced, no active unbelief.

It is, therefore, with Dr. Moorhouse's first inference, not with his first position, that Secularists differ. Having stated the premises which I have accepted, “it follows,” says the Bishop, “that no system of education can be complete which ignores religious instruction.” We may agree even with the words of this. Where we come to differ is when

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