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discovered. Being discovered, they are no more his who discovers them, than the principle of gravity is the property of Newton because he discovered its nature and laws.
117. This conception of Methods of Teaching should not be confused with that of Methods in general, which are ways of procedure in the investigations of subject matter only—they do not aim at mind. Such expressions as " Horner's Method of Approximation,” and the like, correctly use the word Method.
118. In the subjoined quotation the terms Manner and Method are not sufficiently discriminated in demarcation—each includes portions of the conception of Mode.
Perhaps this difference between method and manner will appear better if we use an illustration which is supported by the etymology of the word method : Suppose it is proposed to establish a connection between two cities, for this purpose a road is made ; this road will be used by all that go from one city to the other, and by all kinds of individuals ; it is the same road for all and not liable to be changed by individual whims or notions. But the manner in which the road is used varies very much ; some will walk, others will run, and others still will ride. The road in our illustration represents the method in pedagogics; it may be used by the most widely different individualities; the way
; in which people make use of it is the manner. Manner cannot be thoroughly specified or defined. Here the utmost freedom must be allowed
to teachers and pupils to develop their own individualities." (Soldan, art. Method and Man
” ner, Nat. Ed. Ass. Proceedings, 1874, p. 249.)
119. When the Manner of a teacher has " method in it,”—when it is more or less determined into a System—when it has become a somewhat systematized exposition or application of the principle of adaptation, i.e., of Methods of Teaching, —when Manner has assumed this state, it is called Mode.
120. Methods of Teaching are fundamental and general principles “out of which other matters of a speculative or practical character flow, and become its practical illustrations”'they must be discovered, if known. They can be investigated in their nature—they can not be copied, imitated, or assumed—they can only be stated as principles, which can be illustrated or exemplified in practice in certain ways called Modes, and sometimes Manners. Manner is the term which contains prominently the individuality of the teacher. Mode refers to the systematic application or illustration of Methods—it has little of the notion of individuality in it. Manner can be imitated, but hardly taught. Mode can be imitated and taught. If a teacher writes out a lesson in a methodical order, point by point, and question by question, such lesson is his Mode
-and it may partake of his Manner. The more nearly teachers comprehend the nature of subject-matter as related to knowing mind, and the mind itself, the more nearly will their Modes be identical when teaching the same subject-matter
to classes of similar attainments—and the less of mannerisms will be exhibited by the teachers.
121. If perfection of knowledge and of adaptation were possible, it is extremely probable that all perfect teaching would set the same subjects to the same pupils in exactly the same Mode, which would then reach a perfect illustration of Method of Teaching.
122. The failure to discriminate the provinces of Methods of Teaching, Modes, and Manners, has led to considerable abuse of the former expression. Mode and Manner can be imitated by those even who do not comprehend. the principle which is illustrated ; supposing a principle involved in the case, which principle is sometimes wholly imaginary in actual practice. This being the state of affairs, teachers who rest satisfied with copying another's Mode or Manner must fail, because they do not apprehend the animating principle, the Method of Teaching, which underlies the Mode imitated. Those teachers are dealing with the mere dress, lifeless forms, of Methods. Methods are life, enduring as mind. Modes have a portion of the life of Methods, and a portion from that of the teacher. Manner has only the life of the teacher whose it is.
123. “ While Mode (Lat. modus) is also applicable to way of being, Manner (Fr. manière) denotes way of action. Manner, too, is casual ; mode, systematic. Mode might be defined regular manner.
Hence manner of action implies voluntariness on the part of the agent ;
mode of action, uniformity in the thing acting. Modes of existence. Manners of conduct or operation.” (Smith, Syn. Discr., Mode.) consequence of the authorship-there being a large number of different writers——there is great variety in the modes of treatment."? (The Nation, No. 700, p. 340, Nov. 28, 1878.) “ We all remember how rapidly the theory grew up that in the greenbacks we had stumbled, by a happy accident, on a new mode of acquiring wealth and avoiding financial convulsions, and how rapidly, too, in many minds, they began to wear the air of weapons of war, like a grandfather's sword or musket, hallowed by associations, and unfit subjects for scientific examination or treatment. (Ibid., No. 704, p. 394, Dec. 26, 1878.) “Washburn's Outlines of Criminal Law. A Manual of Criminal Law, including the Mode of Procedure by which it is enforced.' (Ibid., No. 704, Dec. 26, 1878.)
124. “System (Gr. 6votnua, from ouviotavai, to place together) regards fixed subjects which have rational 'dependence or connection. Method (Gr. uera, after, and ódo's, a way) regards fixed processes. System is logical or scientific collocation. Method is logical or scientific procedure. But, inasmuch as a mode of procedure may be itself harmonized, system is frequently used in place of method. We sometimes say, to go systematically to work,' meaning niethodically. Method lays down rules for scientific inquiry, and is the way which leads to system. “ All method,' says Sir
W. Hamilton, is a rational progress—a progress toward an end.' When Watts says, "The best way to learn any science is to begin with a regular system, or a short and plain scheme of that science well drawn up into a narrow compass, he is recommending a method.” (Smith, Syn. Discr., art. System.) System is a connected body of knowledge. (Jevons, El. Les. Logic, p. 346.)
125. In the following quotation, the definitions are not strictly accurate, although they express the outlines :-“ In pedagogy, method is the way chosen, the order followed by the teacher to put his own thought, his intelligence, in relation with the intelligence of his pupils; mode is the way of organizing the school according as it is desired to convey lessons directly or indirectly to the pupils ; and procedures are the secondary means, ordinarily mechanical, which are used to assure the success of the method. They depend generally on the mode adopted.” (L. Mariotti, Conférences de Pédagogie, p. 146, ed. 1873, Paris.)
126. In the following quotation (), or
Applied,” under both the general and the special, contains the conception of Mode.
"Definition of Method.
"General: (a) Theoretical:-The laws ac
cording to which the tendency to acquire knowledge, exerts itself, arranged so as