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to show their natural order

and relations.
(6) Applied : — The same laws

translated into rules, and ar

ranged in the same order.
Special: (a) Theoretical :-The laws ac-

cording to which the ten-
dency to acquire a knowl-
edge of Physics, Logic, &c.,
exerts itself, arranged so as
to show weir natural order

and relations.
(6) Applied: - The same laws

translated into rules, and ar-
ranged in the same order."
(The late J. W. Arm-
strong, D.D.-A Paper on

Method.)
127. “ The tendency of any power or force
to act in any particular way is called a Principle,
The particular way in which a tendency operates
is called a Law. The statement of a law in such
form as will adapt it to the solution of problems
is called a Rule. (Ibid.)

128. (a) Method, Mode, and Manner of Teaching, may be illustrated and contrasted, perhaps not inaptly, by the following supposition : Suppose an engineer desires to span a stream by a bridge—(1) he rears his abutments on either side—(2) he places the main timbers or "stringers'' from abutment to abutment across the chasm

-(3) he lays a roadway of planks upon the stringers—(4) he travels across the gulf upon

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the bridge. In the analogy, (1) rearing the abutments corresponds to the acquisition of a knowledge of subject-matter (say arithmetic), and of mind of the learner (Psychology), by the teacher

-(2) throwing the stringers across the stream illustrates the process of discovering the principles of adjusting subject-matter to the mind of the learner, which is the Method of Teaching-(3) covering these stringers (which represent the principles of connection with a flooring of whatever nature, suggests the invention of a Mode of Teaching—(4) the general or the particular

' air,' style, bearing, of the teacher while teaching crossing the bridge indicates his Manner of Teaching. Manner also includes a little of the notion of the flooring, as that a part of it is laid of wood, a part of iron, according to the fancy of the engineer.

(6) Another illustration :-“ Another thingat Hillard on the Pacific railway-on the use of which Eastern people venture queer conjectures, is a high, narrow tressel-work bridge supporting a V-shaped trough—an object familiar enough to residents of the Pacific Coast. This is a 'flume, and the wood used in the kilns is floated through it for a distance of twenty-four miles from the mountains. Over 2,000,000 feet of lumber were necessary in its construction, and from its mouth it falls 2,000 feet, the stream rushing through it and sweeping the logs on its bosom with a rapidity and ease that makes us wonder why people ever haul wood in cumbersome waggons.

** (D. Appleton & Co., The Art Journal, New Series, No. 27, p. 71.)

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In this illustration, the principle of conveyance is known in popular language as the “buoying up power of water," the relative specific gravity. This is the Method,—by floating on water. The contrivance, a V-shaped trough, instead of the surface of a river, exhibits the Mode of applying the principle or Method. Whatever is peculiar, or individual about the trough, or the preparation of the wood, or the letting of the water into the flume, indicates the Manner involved in the

case.

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(c) Another illustration :-“A railroad has been constructed to the mines of Summit Hill, about nine miles W. of the town (Mauch Chunk ---Mawk Chunk'-in Pennsylvania). The cars, loaded with coal, descend by their own gravity to the landing, and after being emptied have been heretofore drawn up the plane by mules. But now the labors of the mules are superseded. A ‘ back track 'has been constructed, which is regarded as a master piece of bold and successful engineering.

From the chutes where the coal cars are unloaded at the town of Mauch Chunk, they return by their own weight to the foot of Mount Pisgah. They are then drawn to the top of that mountain on an inclined plane by means of a stationary engine. From the head of this plane they pass by their own gravity along a railway of 6 miles, to the foot of another inclined plane. To the top of this they are again raised by steam, and thence descend to the different mines, where they are filled with coal, and again descend by their own weight to

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the chutes.' (J. Thomas, Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer, ed. 1868, Mauch Chunk.)

In this illustration, three principles of motive power are introduced-gravity, animal-power, and steam. They are the Methods of transportation. The principle of gravity is utilized by carriages on wheels, instead of carriages on runners; the principle of animal-power was utilized by using mules, instead of horses; the principle of steam-power is utilized by means of a stationary, instead of a movable, engine. The carriages on wheels, the mules, and the stationary engine, are objects which are used to apply the Methods, and are Modes of transportation. Whatever is individual, or peculiar, in any of these—not necessary, used instead of something else in form, rate of motion, or way of application, or in construction,-exhibits Manner.

(d) Another illustration :-A gentleman employs a span of horses to draw his carriage. Horse-power is the principle involved in conveying-it is the Method of transporting the carriage. A carriage on wheels is used, instead of a sleigh, or "carriage on runners," as the way of showing the application of the principle of horse-power-this represents the Mode of conveyance used by the gentleman. His particular kind of carriage is a landau, instead of a wag. onette—this notion, together with whatever of

style," or air,” he may choose to introduce, exhibits his Manner of riding in his landau. (See, also, Mill's use of these terms in § 224.)

129. Mr. Page uses Mode correctly in this :

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Right Modes of Teaching--Pouring-in Process, or lecturing ; Drawing out Process, or questioning (Theory and Practice of Teaching, p. 5, Contents, ed. 1853.)

130. The subjoined illustrates Mode, Manner, and the idea of “ leading” the pupil :

“The class were puzzled to understand the resistance of the various media. 'I do not know as I understand what media means,' said one of the boys. • A medium is that in which a body moves,' read the teacher from a book. • A medium?' Yes ; we say medium when we mean but one, and media when we mean more than one.' After a time, the pupil still gaining no light, the regular teacher approached : John,'-taking his watch in his hand' would this watch continue to go, if I should drop it into a pail of water ?' I should think it would not long.' 'Why not?' Because the water would get round the wheels and stop it, I should think.' How would it be if I should drop it into a quart of molasses ?' The boys smiled. • Or into a barrel of tar?' • Suppose I should force it, while open, into a quantity of lard.' John said, “ The watch would not go in any

of the articles.' ' Articles, why not say Media ?'

• Oh, I understand it now.?(ibid., pp. 319-321.)

131. In the annexed extract, the author uses “ Manner” properly, but substitutes Method for Mode : “ The agreeable talents are too much confined to method. They are rendered too abstracted by being reduced to maxims and pre

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