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ness creates the differences it becomes aware of in its objects. They pre-exist and consciousness only discerns them ; so that after all Ulrici's defi. nition amounts to little more than saying that consciousness is a faculty of cognition--a rather barren result. I think we may go farther and add that the powers of cognition, discrimination and comparison which it possesses, exist only for the sake of something beyond themselves, namely, Selection.

Whoever studies consciousness, from any point of view whatever, is ultimately brought up against the mystery of interest and selective attention. There are a great many things which consciousness is in a passive and receptive way by its cognitive and registrative powers. But there is one thing which it does,

. sua sponte, and which seems an original peculiarity of its own ; and that is, always to choose out of the manifold experiences present to it at a given time some one for particular accentuation, and to ignore the rest. And . . from its simplest to its most complicated forms, it exerts this function with unremitting industry." (James, Article in Mind, No. XIII., January, 1879, pp. 6-9.)

147. “I. In the first place, as we are endowed with a faculty of Cognition, or Consciousness in general, and since it cannot be maintained that we have always possessed the knowledge which we now possess, it will be admitted that we must have a faculty of acquiring knowledge. But this acquisition of knowledge can only be accomplished by the immediate presentation of a


new object to consciousness ; in other words, by the reception of a new object within the sphere of our cognition. We have thus a faculty which may be called the Acquisitive, or the Presentative, or the Receptive. Now, new or adventitious knowledge may be either of things external or of things internal. If the object of knowledge be external, the faculty receptive or presentative of the qualities of such object will be a consciousness of the non-ego.

This has obtained the name of External Perception, or of Perception simply. If, on the other hand, the object be internal, the faculty receptive or presentative of the qualities of such subject-object, will be a consciousness of the ego. This faculty obtains the name of Internal or_Reflex Perception, or of Self-consciousness. By the foreign psychologists this faculty is termed also the Internal Sense." (Hamilton.)

“ The two classés of sense-perceptions thus characterized are the original and the acquired. They are thus defined : an original perception is one that is performed by a single sense, when exercised alone. Whatever the mind knows in this way, either of an object or of its relations, is known directly and by an original endowment

It is a pure work or operation of nature, and cannot be traced to art. An acquired perception is one which we gain by experience or exercise. We use the knowledge given directly by one sense, as the sign or evidence of the knowledge which we might, but do not, in this particular case, gain by another.”. (Porter,

of man.


The Human Intellect, p. 159, ed. 1869.) Continuing from Hamilton :

148. “II. In the second place, inasmuch as we are capable of knowledge, we must be endowed not only with a faculty of acquiring, but with a faculty of retaining or conserving it when acquired. We have thus, as a second necessary faculty, one that may be called the Conservative or Retentive. This is Memory, strictly so denominated.

149. “ III. But, in the third place, if we are capable of knowledge, it is not enough that we possess a faculty of acquiring, and a faculty of retaining it in the mind, but out of consciousness. We have a reproductive power. This Reproductive faculty is governed by the laws which regulate the succession of our thoughts,-the laws, as they are called, of Mental Association. If these laws are allowed to operate without the intervention of the will, this faculty may be called Suggestion, or Spontaneous Suggestion;

-whereas, if applied under the influence of the will, it will properly obtain the name of Reminiscence, or Recollection. By reproduction, it should be observed, that I strictly mean the process of recovering the absent thought from unconsciousness, and not its representation in consciousness.

150.“ IV. In the fourth place, as capable of knowledge, we must not only be endowed with a presentative, a conservative, and a reproductive faculty ; there is required for their consummation a faculty of representing in consciousness, and

the ma

of keeping before the mind the knowledge presented, retained, and reproduced. We have thus a Representative faculty ; and this obtains the name of Imagination or Phantasy.

151. “V. In the fifth place, all the faculties we have considered are only subsidiary. They acquire, preserve, call out, and hold

up, terials, for the use of a higher faculty which operates upon these materials, and which we may call the Elaborative or Discursive faculty. This faculty has only one operation,-it only compares.

It may

you to hear that the highest function of mind is nothing higher than comparison ; but, in the end, I am confident of convincing you of the paradox. From this mere act of Comparison, there are created the intellectual products known as Collective Notions, Abstractions, Generalizations, Judgments, and Reasoning

152. VI. But, in the sixth and last place, the mind is not altogether indebted to experience for the whole apparatus of its knowledge. What we know by experience, without experience we should not have known ; and as all our experience is contingent, all the knowledge derived from experience is contingent also. But there are cognitions in the mind which are not contingent, —which are necessary,—which we cannot but think,—which thought supposes as its fundamental condition. These cognitions, therefore, are not mere generalizations from experience. But if not derived from experience, they must be native to the mind. These native cognitions are the laws by which the mind is governed in its operations, and which afford the conditions of its capacity of knowledge. These necessary laws, or primary conditions of intelligence, are phe. nomena of a similar character ; and we must, therefore, generalize or collect them into a class ; and on the power possessed by the mind of manifesting these phenomena we may bestow the name of the Regulative faculty. (Lect. on Metaph., XX.)

163. The following is a tabular view of the distribution of the Special Faculties of Knowledge.


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I. Presentative

51. External-Perception.

12. Internal-Self-consciousness. II. Conservative- Memory.

51. Without will—Suggestion. III. Reproductive

12. With will—Reminiscence. IV. Representative-Imagination or Phantasy: V. Elaborative-Comparison, or the Faculty of

VI. Regulative-Reason or Common Sense.”

154. Some writers on educa'ion call the desire of intellectual progression the faculty of obtaining knowledge, —that is to say, they call painting seeing,—or the intellectual powers, and think of the senses and the memory as also exerting an educational influence ; or they speak of the development of spontaneous activity, as if the will itself were not such a developing power.

The will reproduces itself only, and acts only within, not without, itself; for external


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