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action is as little the new act of the particular volition, as are the words signifying it of the particular thought. The desire of mental progress,

the contrary, enlarges its world for the reception of new creatures, and is as dependent on objects as the pure will is independent of them. The will could reach its ideal, but finds a strange opposition to it, whereas no power stands opposed to thought,—but only the difference between its steps, and the impossibility of seeing whither they reach.

The mental desire of advancement which, in a higher sense than the physical, works by means of, and in accordance with, the will, that is to say, creates new ideas out of old ideas, is the distinguishing characteristic of man. No will restrains the order of a beast's actions. In our waking moments we are actually conscious that we think ; in our dreams we receive, if I may so express it, that consciousness. In the man of genius the formation of ideas appears actually creative ; in ordinary men, merely recollective and necessary.

(Richter, Levana, pp. 342–4.) 165. “ The Intelligence reaches its end according to a certain way, process, or method.

The Formal movements of intelligence accordingly fall under two heads, thus (a) Will-power. (6) Process or Method of reaching Knowledge." Laurie, Syn. of Lectures, p. 10,

( ed. 1877.)

156."No act of intelligence can be performed without some determination of the Ego, no act of determination without some cognition,

and no act of the one or the other without some amount of feeling being mingled in the process. Thus, while each mental state may have its distinctive characteristics, there is unity at the root -the identical Ego, spirit, Will (p. 36). When, therefore, it is asked, What causes the will to effect one volition rather than another ? our answer is, Nothing whatever! Of its own effect, Will, in its proper conditions, is not a partial, but a full and adequate cause.” (Cocker, Theistic Conception of the World, p. 391.)

167. In continuation of what has been said there is added the following, adapted from Porter on the Imagination : "The imagination has various applications. (a) The poetic imagination is that creative power which is employed for the gratification of the emotional nature in the production of pictures more or less elevating in their associations, which are fixed and expressed by means of rhythmical language.

158. (6) "The philosophic imagination is that without which philosophic invention and discovery are impossible. To invent or discover, is always to recombine. It is to adjust in new positions, objects or parts of objects which have never been so connected before. The discoverer of a new solution for a problem, or a new demonstration for a theorem in mathematics, the inventor of a new application of a power of nature already known, or the discoverer of a power not previously dreamed of, the discoverer of a new argument to prove or deduce a truth or a



new induction from facts already accepted, the man who evolves a new principle or a new definition in moral or political science-must all analyze and recombine in the mind thing acts, or events, with their relations, in positions in which they have never been previously observed or thought of. This recombination is purely mental. If there be a discovery or invention, there has never before been such a juxtaposition of the materials nor of their parts in the world of fact or in the thoughts of men. These objects and parts are now for the first time brought together in the mind-i.e., the imagination of the dis

Every discovery is, in fact, a work of the creative imagination.

In the communication of scientific truth there can be no question that a large measure of imagination is of essential service. He that would amply illustrate, powerfully defend, or effectively enforce the principles and truths of science, is greatly aided by a brilliant imagination. This, of all

a other gifts, delivers him from that tendency to the dry and abstract, to the general and the remote, to which the expounder of science is continually exposed from his familiarity with principles which are strange to his pupils and readers, and which need to be continually explained and illustrated by fresh and various examples. The philosophic writer or teacher who is gifted with imagination is more likely to be clear in statement, ample in illustration, pertinent in his application and exciting in his enforcement of the

truths with which his science is conversant, whatever may be the subject-matter with which the science is concerned.

169. “ (c) The practical or ethical uses of the imagination are numerous and elevated. These are sufficiently obvious from the single consideration, that the law of duty is and must be an ideal law : for whether it is or is not fulfilled, it must precede the act which reaches or falls short of itself. Every ethical rule must be a mental creation, an ideal formed by the creative power, and held before the soul as a guide and law.

160.(d) The relation of the imagination to religious faith is interesting and important. The objects of our faith, by their very definition, have never been subjected to direct or intuitive knowledge. Neither sense-perception nor selfconsciousness, have confronted them directly or brought report of them. And yet the imagination pictures these objects as real and most important."

(Human Intellect, pp. 366-73, ed. 1869.).

161. “The fact is, that the educated Native mind requires hardening. That culture of the imagination, that tenderness for it, which may be necessary in the West, is out of place here; for this is a society in which, for centuries upon centuries, the imagination has run riot, and much of the intellectual weakness and moral evil which afflict it to this moment, may be traced to imagination having so long usurped the place of reason. What the Native mind requires, is stricter criteria of truth ; and I look for the happiest moral and intellectual results from an increased devotion to those sciences by which no tests of truth are accepted, except the most rigid.” (Maine, Village Communities, pp. 275-6, ed. 1876, Address to University of Calcutta, March, 1866.)

162. Concerning the subject of memory more shoulū be said, because it is a faculty which performs so lasting and important a part in the existence of man. Various views of memory are expressed by writers who study Psychology ; the prevailing notion appears to be that it is a faculty which retains and reproduces in Consciousness the mental products that formerly were there.

Another view of memory is this : Memory is that endowment of the Mind by which it is able to reproduce its previous modifications. “Modification is properly the bring;

. ing a thing into a certain mode of existence." (Hamilton, Metaphysics, Murray, p. 33.)

163. Regarding the nature of memory as a factor in the conception of teaching, the following opinions are appended :-“With regard to younger boys, he said, It is a great mistake tothink that they should understand all they learn; for God has ordered that in youth the memory should act vigorously, independent of the understanding—whereas a man cannot usually recollect a thing unless he understands it.'" (Life of Dr. Tho. Arnold, pp. 133-4, ed. 1870, Boston.)

164. “ Imagination, Memory, and Hope, are psychologically one and the same faculty. In

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