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ment and modes of social life, constitute a very interesting department of Sociology, and have their place there and nowhere else.

What we do for ourselves, and what others do for us, to bring us nearer to the perfection of our nature, may be education in a precise sense of the word, and it may not. I do not see the propriety of including under the subject the direct operation of rewards and punishments. No doubt we do something to educate ourselves, and society does something to educate us, in a sufficiently proper acceptation of the word ; but the ordinary influ. ence of society, in the dispensing of punishment and reward, is not the essential fact of Education, as I propose to regard it, although an adjunct to some of its legitimate functions.

“ Mill's narrow expression of the scope of the subject is not exactly erroneous ; the moulding of each generation by the one preceding is not improperly described as an Education. It is, however, grandiose rather than scientific. Nothing is to be got out of it. It does not give the lead to the subsequent exposition.

“ I find in the article Education,' in Chambers's Encyclopædia, a definition to the following effect : In the widest sense of the word a man is educated, either for good or for evil, by every thing that he experiences from the cradle to the grave (say, rather," formed," "made,"

” “ influenced ']. But in the more limited and usual sense, the term Education is confined to the efforts made, of set purpose, to train men in a particular way—the efforts of the grown-up

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part of the community to inform the intellect and mould the character of the young (rather too much stress on the fact of influence from without]; and more especially to the labours of professional educators or schoolmasters. cluding clause is the nearest to the point—the arts and methods employed by the schoolmasters ; for, although he is not alone in the work that he is expressly devoted to, yet he it is that typifies the process in its greatest singleness and purity. If by any investigations, inventions or discussions, we can improve his art to the ideal pitch, we shall have done nearly all that can be required of a science and art of Education." (Bain, Education as a Science, Art. I., in Mind, pp. 1-4, No. 5, January, 1877.)

9. “ The true view of education is to regard it as a course of training. The youth in a gymnasium practises upon the horizontal bar, in order to develop his muscular powers generally ; he does not intend to go on posturing upon horizontal bars all through 'life. School is a place where the mental fibres are to be exercised, trained, expanded, developed, and strengthened.

It is the very purpose of a liberal education, as it is correctly called, to develop and train the plastic fibres of the youthful brain, so as to prevent them taking too early a definite' set, which will afterwards narrow and restrict the range of acquisition and judgment. I will even go so far as to say that it is hardly desirable for the actual things taught at school to stay in the mind for life. The source of



error is the failure to distinguish between the form and the matter of knowledge, between the facts themselves and the manner in which the mental powers deal with facts.

It is the

purpose of education so to exercise the faculties of inind that the infinitely various experience of after-life may be observed and reasoned upon to the best effect.” (Jevons, in Mind, pp. 197–207, No. VI., April, 1877.) (Reinserted under “ Memory and Cram," $ 172.) )

10. “Educit obstetrix, educat nutrix, instituit pedagogus, docet magister." (Varro. See also An. and St'd Lat. Lex., unabridged.)

11. “TRAINING (Fr. trainer) is development by instruction, exercise, and discipline, and is applicable to the whole nature of a man, or, specifically, to the faculties which he possesses. It denotes no more than a process of purposed habituation, and is equally applicable to the physical and mental powers, so that it may

include both at the same time.” (Smith, Syn. Discriminated, Art. Education, ed. 1878.) This sense of training is the ordinary meaning now attached to education.

12.“ A thorough and complete education ought to preserve and increase the pupil's bodily health and strength ; give him command of his own muscular and mental powers ; increase his quickness in perceiving through his five senses, and quicken his mental perception ; form in him the habit of prompt and accurate judgment ; lead to delicacy and depth in every right feeling ; and make him inflexible in his conscien


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tious and steadfast devotion to all his duties. In other words, an integral education must include at least these four branches gymnastics, or care of the body ; noetics, or training of the mind ; æsthetics, or cultivation of the tastes ;

l and ethics, which shall include religion as well as duty. And in every part of each branch of education, there will be a double end in view, namely, the increase of knowledge, and the increase of skill. Each study may be made the object of thought, or the object of action ; in the one case it is pursued as a science ; in the other case as an art. (Thomas Hill, The True Order of Studies, pp. 7, 8, ed. 1876.)

13. " The conclusions of the honest and inlligent inquirer after the truth in this matter, will be something like the following :-That education (from e and duco, to lead forth) is development ; that it is not instruction merelyknowledge, facts, rules-communicated by the teacher, but it is discipline, it is a waking up of the mind, a growth of the mind,-growth by a healthy assimilation of wholesome aliment. It is an inspiring of the mind with a thirst for knowledge, growth, enlargement,—and then a disciplining of its powers so far that it can go on to educate itself. It is the arousing of the child's mind to think, without thinking for it ; it is the awakening of its powers to observe, to remember, to reflect, to combine. It is not a cultivation of the memory to the neglect of every thing else ; but it is a calling forth of all the faculties into harmonious action. If to possess facts simply is education, then an encyclopædia is better educated than a man.” (Page, Theory and Practice of Teaching, p. 70, ed. 1853.) 14. Suppose

it were perfectly certain that the life and fortune of every one of us would, one day or other, depend upon his winning or losing a game at chess. Don't you think that we should all consider it to be a primary duty to learn at least the names and the moves of the pieces ; to have a notion of a gambit, and a keen eye for all the means of giving and getting out of check ? Do you not think that we should look with disapprobation amounting to scorn, upon the father who allowed his son, or the state which allowed its members, to grow up without knowing a pawn from a knight?

“Yet it is a very plain and elementary truth, that the life, the fortune, and the happiness of every one of us, and, more or less, of those who are connected with us, do depend upon our knowing something of the rules of a game infinitely more difficult and complicated than chess. It is a game which has been played for untold ages, every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. The chess-board is the world, the pieces are the phenomena of the universe, the rules of the game are what we call the laws of Nature. The player on the other side is hidden from us. We know that his play is always fair, just, and patient. But also we know, to our cost, that he never overlooks a mistake, or makes the smallest allowance for ignorance. To the man who

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