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mental act which identifies. The first two constitute the matter of thought, the datum; the last is the thought itself, the identifying cognition—the Judgment.
To the several parts, or to different aspects of the complex procedure in all Thought as thus exemplified in one of its gradations—the Judgment—Psychology has assigned distinctive names, which it may not be inexpedient here to recall. Inasmuch as the original datum or object of thought is given in an indefinite vagueness as one and undivided, and as, in order to be cognized in thought, it must be viewed in relation to some part, it becomes necessary to loosen up, to analyze or separate it as a whole into its parts. This part of the process is called Analysis.
“ The next step is to select the part out of the whole for separate apprehension, and to draw it away, as it were, to abstract it from the
This part of the movement in Thought is called Abstraction. The term, however, it is proper to add, is applied in various ways by different writers or on different occasions, but with the same result. Thus it may be applied to the mind itself ; so that in Abstraction the mind, when confining its view to certain parts of an object, is regarded as being abstracted or drawn
away from the parts that are to be excluded from view ; and this, it may be observed, is in strictness the most correct view. But in a looser sense the term may be applied to the part itself that is selected, and then such part is re
garded as being abstracted from the other parts. Or, in the third place, it may be applied to those other excluded parts themselves, and then they are regarded as being abstracted or drawn away either from the other parts or from the mind's consideration. The result is the same in any view, that one part is separated from the other parts for exclusive consideration, and it is therefore a matter of indifference, so far as the result is concerned, which of these different views is entertained.
“When thus one part is separated from the rest for exclusive consideration by the mind, the act of mind in which it concentrates its notice upon it is called Attention.
“In the next place, the two objects are brought up and viewed face to face with each other in order that their identity or non-identity may be apprehended. This part of the process is called Comparison.
“Finally, the last part of the complex process, in which the thought is perfected by bringing together the two objects attended to into one relative cognition, is called an act of Synthesis.
“ All Thought thus begins with an Analysis, it proceeds by Abstraction, Attention, and Comparison, it ends with a Synthesis. And this is to be understood in a sense more or less full and complete, in modes varying with the nature of the particular gradation of all the acts of thought, whether in judging, conceiving, or reasoning. The two essential elements of thought are analysis and synthesis. With one it necessarily begins, with the other it necessarily ends. For its very function is to lead to truth, to a unity in the intelligence, which supposes an undistinguished manifold as its condition, and a gathering into a unity as its result. The other parts of the complex process, abstraction, attention, and comparison, are the means by which the mind passes from the multiform given in the analysis to the unity in the synthesis.
“Of the two objects of thought identified in a Judgment, one is necessarily viewed as the primitive which is to be identified with the other, or is determined by it. This so viewed primitive or determined object is called the Subject; which may be defined to be that of which we judge. The other, viewed as the determining element, is called the Predicate, which may be defined to be that which is judged of the subject. The Subject and the Predicate make up
the matter of thought or the datum to thought. They are called the Terms of a Proposition (termini). The act of thought itself which recognizes the identity between the two terms is called the Copula, which may be defined to be the identification of two objects of thought. It was called by Aristotle, in reference to the two terms, an Interval.' (Day, Ele. of Logic, pp. 31–5, ed. 1868.)
184. “ The Second gradation of Thought is the Concept. It is derived from the primitive product, the Judgment, by an act of synthesis or composition. It accordingly presupposes two or more Judgments, and, if a valid product of Thought, can always be resolved back into them. It can, in fact, be verified only by being thus referred back to the Judgments from which it is derived. It is formed either by the synthesis of the Subjects of two or more Judgments, or by a synthesis of their Predicates—an alternative which gives rise to the two fundamental classes of Concepts. It may conduce. to clearness to exemplify the process of forming the Concept in these two ways separately.
“First, then, if we synthesize the subjects, the procedure will be as follows: The Judgments, out of which the Concept is to be formed, we will assume to be—Socrates is rational; Cicero is rational; James is rational. By uniting the subjects, we have Socrates and Cicero and James, and marking the union by a single term which shall embrace them all in one, we will say, man, we have the union signalized in language. This union of the differing subjects of several propositions having a common predicate is called a Concept; in this case a Concept in Extensive Quantity.
The formula for the formation of all Concepts of this class is, accordingly : The Judgments, B is A, C is A, give the Concept (B+C), or when signalized in language by one term, the Concept D; or in brief : The Judgments B is A, C is A, give B+C = the Con
The procedure in forming Concepts of the other class is analogous. Here the Subject remains the same, and the Concept arises from the synthesis of the Predicates which differ. Thus,
the Predicates in the Judgments, Socrates is rational, Socrates is animal, being united, we have rational and animal, or signalizing the union by a single term, we have the Concept, Man. The term Man here, it will be observed, means a complement of attributes, as rational, animal, not, as before, of subjects, as Socrates, &c. This is a concept in Comprehensive Quantity ; the formula of which is : The Judgments A is B, A is C, give, by synthesis of the differing Predicates, the aggregate (B+C), which signalized as one in Language is expressed by D. Or the Judgments A is B, A is C, give Concept (B+C) = D.
A Concept may be defined, accordingly, to be a product of Thought, resulting from the synthesis of the Subjects or of the Predicates in several Judgments.
“ The common Subject in a Predi cate-Concept, or the common Predicate in a SubjectConcept, on which the Concept is formed, is called its Base.
“ The name, Concept, is derived from the Latin word Conceptum, meaning something taken with another. The corresponding word used to denote the act of forming a Concept is Conception, which is also in common discourse often used to denote the product. It is used, in fact, like other words of this kind, in the threefold import of faculty, act, and product.
“ The Law of Identity, or as, in its fuller expression, it may be denominated, the Law of the Same and Different, it will have been seen,