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existence unfolds, and every bad education excites, just as oxygen positively irritates,-nor in the unfolding of all the powers, because we can never act upon the whole amount of them at once ; as little as in the body susceptibility and spontaneity, or the muscular and nervous system, can be strengthened at the same time." (Richter, Levana, Preface, ix, and pp. 7–33. Boston. 1863.)

17. “ A treatise on education does not include the theory of instruction, whose wide realm embraces the mistakes of all sciences and arts ; nor the theory of remedies, which would require libraries instead of volumes for the complication of mistakes, years, positions, and relations. At the same time no science is entirely disconnected from the rest ; the feet cannot move without the hands." (Ibid., p. 390.)

18. The education that any one receives depends upon the ethical relations by which he is surrounded. But education must regard the nature and powers of the mind of him who is to be educated. Hence education, as a product, is founded upon ethical relations upon the one hand, and the nature of mind, or Psychology, upon the other. Education, in part, is dependent upon teaching or instruction as a means for securing its ends. Teaching, then, directly busies itself with the subject matter that is to be learned, and with the mind which is to learn it.

19.“ The educator of youth does not merely communicate so much instruction from year to year ; he develops the receptive and acquisitive tendencies of mind, which are afterwards to play their part in the intellectual activity of the nation. He trains the intelligence of those who are afterwards to be the teachers of others, as well as of those who are only to be interested inquirers after truth.” (Calderwood, On Teaching, p. 49, ed. 1875, New York.)



20. Having briefly considered the notion of the terms Pedagogics and Education, the reader is directed to the conception of the term Teaching.

Thought is the modification of the activity called Intelligence, and Language is its Form. Language is the mirror which reflects the ideas that are in the mind of him who utters it. Language is a record of thought. Language, in its widest signification, is the instrument for perpetuating the life of a nation, or rather it is the life of a people perpetuated. Language is the form of the matter which once existed in the consciousness of the person who uttered it ; it is a product of thought ; perhaps more exactly it is thought itself. “It is only as there is a loyos in the outer world, answering to the hoyos or internal reason of the parties, that men can come into a mutual understanding in regard to any thought-state whatever." (Grindon, Life, p. 349.)

By Language we do not mean the mere art of speaking and writing according to some specific, arbitrary mode, which though intelli

gible in one country, is unintelligible in another. We mean that beautiful and inevitable flowering forth in speech of the inner, living intellect of man, which, older and more excellent than all prosody and spelling, is an integral work of nature ; and which, weri, cú possible for the accidental forms which it may hold at any given epoch, as English and French, Latin and Greek, to be suddenly and totally abolished, would in itself be unaffected, and speedily incarnate afresh, unchanged save in the extrinsic circumstances of costume.(Ibid, pp. 153, 154, third ed., London.) Nations differ in their language —these differences measure those differences that exist among the ideas or notions which are substantially common to many peoples. The content and extent of words having the same general meaning, when expressed in different languages, are hardly equivalent nor precisely identical. No two nations live and act exactly alike, and as language follows life, it is but in the harmony of things that this should occasion different notions of life and actions in the minds of the various peoples, and hence in language. Two or three examples will illustrate the case :

21. To indicate a certain notion, the Greeks used deiknumi, the English equivalents of which are : “ To bring to light, to display, to portray, to represent to the life as in statuary, to shew, to point out, to make known by words, to tell, to explain, to teach, to prove, to offer, to prof

Buttmann traces the prefix deik to a root dek, which contains the common notion of


stretching out the right hand either to point, or to welcome. (Liddell and Scott, GreekEnglish Lexicon, Oxford, 1871.) The essential idea seems to rest upon the action of pointing to, or towards, a thing. The Greeks cultivated the

graces of action as well as the harmony of sounds, and it is not difficult to conceive the elders among the people pointing out, showing, portraying as artists, the things before thein to the youth, much as a traveller would do at the present time to a youthful companion. The fact that Socrates was at so great pains to develop in his pupils the power to reason would argue that, in his opinion, before his time the powers of perception and memory of the youth had been recognized as of greater value in acquiring an education than the reflective powers.

The word teaching also appears to exhibit some one as in the action of directing the attention of another to something through, or by means of, the gestures of his right hand—it does not so much seem to exhibit one as showing a thing, object, immediately and directly, as it shows indirectly through words and general gestures, and by illustrative sketches—it implies an exhortation to attend to this thing which is in mind as a philosophical truth. It would seem to indicate an explanation of memorized words. 66 When the children could read, and understand what they read, the works of the poets were put in requisition, to exercise their minds, and awaken their hearts to great and noble deeds. Plato, Leg. vii. p. 810, approves of this, and also recom

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