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mends committing whole poems, or select passages, to memory ; and this method of instruction appears to have been universal. Above all, the poems of Homer were thought to contain, by precept and example, every thing calculated to awaken national spirit, and to instruct a man how to be beautiful and good.” (Becker, Charicles, trans. by Frederick Metcalfe, ed. 1866, p. 233.)

22. The Latins conveyed a certain notion by doceo, which is rendered in English by : “To teach, to inform, to instruct, to show, to point out, to represent, to exhibit.”

It is compared with edocere, which means to make one learn, to make acquainted with, more energetic than docere.' Perdocere means “ to teach perfectly, to instruct thoroughly." Erudire implies to initiate in learning.

Instruct, in and struo, means : To join together, to pile up, heap up, to erect, to build, to set in array, to join together, to construct. (Bullion, Lat.-Eng. Dict., ed. 1869.) The essential idea with the Latins seems to be that of laying before one some matters as objects to be seen, handled, piled up in layers one upon another (instruct), to show as in an exhibition. The word pictures one as standing at work upon some visible objects, and calling the attention of another to these objects as he piles them up, one upon another. This sense is virtually different from the thought with the Greeks, who rather withdrew themselves from the presence of the things about which they discoursed, and crowded the thought

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home to the conviction of the hearer by words and exhortatory gestures of the right hand. This notion of doceo corresponds with the general characteristics of the Latins, who were a people pre-eminently skilful in the affairs of practical business. They regarded the objects of business directly, rather than through philosophy. Hence, the one would instruct a youth in law by exhibiting to him law practice in the courts, while the other would lecture the youth about the principles of law in the abstract, while seated in his stone chair, or while walking about the groves.

23. The Anglo-Saxons expressed a certain notion by the word tácan, which is rendered in English: “To teach, to instruct, to show, to direct, to command, to see to, to provide, to order, to convince, to prove.

31 (Bosworth, Anglo-Saxon and Eng. Dict., London, 1860.) In this case the notion has an element of power and authority in it ; it shows, with power to command attention ; it directs, but it is imperative about something towards somebody; it does not simply exhort the attention of somebody towards an idea by the right hand in persuasion or welcome, as does the Greek deiknumi—nor does it call the attention of somebody to what the exhibitor has before him, piling it up in order, as do the Latin doceo and instruo; but it shows something to somebody, meaning that this somebody shall attend to this something. This word tácan discloses the characteristic trait of the Anglo-Saxon life, the disposition to do something


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for another, and then to command him to respect what has been placed before him. The word regards with emphasis both what is provided, and him for whom it is provided.

24. These three instances illustrate the differences which exist among peoples when they express a notion that is ordinarily regarded as the same by them all. Each people has its own setting of thoughts which control the form, and assist in conserving the ineaning of subsequent notions. These thoughts, notions, conserved in form, are language. The words“ instruct teach” are both in common use at this time, practically as synonyms. Following the lines of their ancestry, and considering the tendency of the present age, it is determined to use the word teaching rather than instruction in the expression Methods of Teaching. As illustrating the deep-seated element of authority which exists in the Anglo-Saxon notion of teaching, the following quotations are subjoined :

I hope I may be excused for one re

I mark on a tendency in education at present, more especially with regard to the modern subjects, to render the process interesting, as it is usually called, but amusing would probably be the more correct word. It would be absurd to recommend that any subject should be proposed in a purposely repulsive form to students, especially to youth ; but, on the other hand, it seems to me a most enervating practice to shrink from demanding even irksome attention whenever it is necessary.

The lesson that success in any pur



suit demands serious toil must be learned eventually, and like most lessons is learned with least pain in early years." (Todhunter, Conflict of Studies and other Essays, p. 21. London, 1873.)

26. “ Parents and the public have little idea how close a resemblance there is between teaching and writing on the sands of the sea, unless either there is a distinct capacity for learning on the part of the pupil, or some system of examination and reward to force the pupil to apply.” (Jevons, paper in Mind, p. 195, No. VI., April, 1877.) (Reinserted under Memory and "Cram," $ 172.)

Whatever the age and attainment of the pupils under charge, the first requisite for communicating instruction is to gain and keep their attention. Teaching, to be successful, must therefore be adapted to win attention. At the earlier stages of school life this is the one pressing requirement. Somehow, attention must be made possible even to the most restless little ones, to whom the first restraints of school life are irksome. Accustomed to have every new object attract their interest just as long as they recognized any thing attractive in it-permitted to change from one engagement to another as caprice dictated—they must be made familiar with restriction. They must begin to be regulated by the will of another. Taking this as self-evident, we are prone to say that they must do so, whether they will or not. This is one of our superficial current phrases which cover over

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many points needing careful consideration. Attention is not to be secured by mere exercise of authority. Authority has a great deal to do through the whole course of school life, but we cannot command' attention, as we say, by merely demanding that it be given. A radical mistake is made if a teacher lean on his authority in the school as the guarantee for attention by the scholars. He must consider the requirements of the undisciplined mind, and adapt himself to them. Children attend to what interests them. This must determine the kind of assistance to be given them in acquiring habits of attention. To help them in this is an obvious part of a teacher's work.

The master of a school in this respect shares a task which is common to all who essay to teach others. In this appears the true place and power of the profession. (Calderwood, On Teaching, pp. 47–49, ed. 1875.)

28. The conception of Teaching which prevails in these inquiries is limited to that assistance which one person (teacher) consciously gives to another person or thing (learner), when this latter is learning something. Teachers are not necessarily educators. Any thing educates the child that helps to mould its character, or that stimulates its self-control. Fire educates in an imperative manner, but it does not teach. The authority of the parent educates his child, while the child may be taught nothing in regard to the nature or source of authority. A teacher's personal influence may educate a school in ways virtue, while he has taught them nothing about the


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