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nature of virtue. Teaching regards the purely intellectual capacities of Man. Education refers to all the capabilities of Mind. The intellect is taught by a person, and educated by persons and things. The will is educated by any power. Teaching sets the subject matter, trusting the mind to accept the truth ; educating may exert a power without giving any reason or instruction. Teachers should be educators. Parents are educators—they may also be teachers. Good teaching and good educating put the mind of him who is taught or educated, into a frame which acknowledges and accepts testimony and authority from whatever source they spring. That teaching or educating is pernicious which leaves the mind of the learner in a state of undue skepticism towards testimony and authority. (See SS 31–34.)

29. “The communication of knowledge in general is the common idea by which these words—inform, instruct, teach--are connected with each other. Inform is the general term ; the other two are specifick. To inform is the act of persons in all conditions ; to instruct and teach are the acts of superiours, either on one ground or another : one informs by virtue of an accidental superiority or priority of knowledge ; one instructs by virtue of superior knowledge, or superior station : one teaches by virtue of superiour knowledge, rather than station : diplomatick agents inform their governments of the political transactions in which they are concerned ; government instructs its different functionaries

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and officers in regard to their mode of proceeding ; professors and preceptors teach those who attend a publick school to learn.

To inform is applicable to matters of general interest ; we may inform ourselves or others on every thing which is a subject of inquiry or curiosity; and the information serves either to amuse or to improve the mind ; to instruct is applicable to matters of serious concern, or that which is practically useful ; it serves to set us right in the path of life. A parent instructs his child in the course of conduct he should pursue ; a good child profits by the instruction of a good parent to make him wiser and better for the time to come; to teach respects matters of art and science ; the learner depends upon the teacher for the formation of his mind, and the establishment of his principles. Every one ought to be properly informed before he pretends to give an opinion ; the young and inexperienced must be instructed before they can act; the ignorant must be taught, in order to guard them against

Truth and sincerity are all that is necessary for an informant; general experience and a perfect knowledge of the subject in question are requisite for the instructer; fundamental knowledge is requisite for the teacher. Those who give information upon the authority of others are liable to mislead; those who instruct others in doing that which is bad, scandalously abuse the authority that is reposed in them; those who pretend to teach what they themselves do not understand, mostly betray their ignorance sooner or later.

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• To inform and to teach are employed for things as well as persons ; to instruct only for persons : books and reading inform the mind ; history or experience teaches mankind.” (Crabb, Synonyms, ed. 1859.)

30. “Inform (Lat. in and forma, shape or form) relates only to matters of fact made known to one who could not have known them before. Instruction (Lat. instruere, instructus) relates to principles drawn from known facts. Teaching (A. S. técan, to teach), as distinct from instruction, is applied to practice (it may be the practice of an art or branch of knowledge). A child is instructed in grammar, and taught to speak a language. Teach has a purely mechanical application, which does not belong to instruct. A dog may be taught a trick ; but he could not be instructed in any thing. The two processes of teaching and instruction may thus go on simultaneously. In mathematics there is no information, because the propositions are not statements of fact, but are based upon principles assumed. Information is of new facts; instruction is of undeveloped truths. Information extends knowledge ; instruction gives additional understanding ; teaching, additional power of doing. Acquaint (Fr. accointer, Lat. accognitare, from cognosco, cognitus, to know), Apprise (Fr. appris, from apprendre, the Lat. apprehendere), and Advise (Fr. aviser, Lat. ad and videre, visus, to see) closely resemble inform,

inasmuch as they relate to the communication of matters of fact. I inform a man when I simply tell him a fact which he did not know before. I acquaint him with that of which I furnish him with all the details. So I inform him of the fact, and acquaint him with the particulars of it. I apprise him of what particularly concerns him to know, whether it be a good or an evil, or a danger, or a probability of any sort. I advise him of that which I impart to him formally, officially, or as in duty bound, of what occurs in due course.

(Smith, Syn. Discr.)

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IV.

ON AUTHORITIES.

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31. So in literature, men of established reputation, of classical merit, and known veracity, are quoted as authorities in support of any position." (Crabb, Synonyms.)

32. “ Authority may come from superior knowledge or information, or from natural as well as social or professional relationship.” (Smith, Synonyms Discriminated.)

33. "The Principle of Authority.- The principle of adopting the belief of others, on a matter of opinion, without reference to the particular grounds on which the belief may rest.

“The Argument from Authority. It is an argument for the truth of an opinion that it has been embraced by all men, in all ages, and in all nations.

Quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus, are the morks of universality, according to Vincentius Lirinensis. This word is sometimes employed in its primary sense, when we refer to any one's example, testimony, or judgment ; as when, e.g., we speak of correcting a reading in some book on the authority of an ancient MS., or giving a statement of some fact on the authority of such and such historians, etc. In this

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