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C. EXERCISES

Parse the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences:

1. Who saw the horse run? 2. Whose house is that on the hill

yonder? 3. Whom did he call? —James. 4. For whom did he

inquire? 5. Which will you have, the large or the small book? 6. Whom did you take me to be? 7. What shall I do? —Wait.

8. What can be more beautiful than that landscape? 9. Which is the

lesson? 10. Who told you how to parse "what"?

Parse the relative and interrogative pronouns in the following sentences:

1. Who is in the garden? —My father. 2. I do not know who is in the garden. 3. Tell me what I should do. 4. What vessel is that? 5. Always seek for what you need the most.

6. Whose house was burned last night? — Mr. Hubbard's. 7. The boy closed the shutters, which darkened the room. 8. What is his name? 9. Whoever enters here should have a pure heart. 10. I gave all that I had.

Parse the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in the following sentences:

1. Virtue is the condition of happiness. 2. Ye are the light of the world. 3. That garment is not well made. 4. One ounce of gold is worth sixteen ounces of silver. 5. The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended. 6. Every man went to his own house. 7. The army is loaded with the spoils of many nations. 8. Be of the same mind one toward another.

9. He sacrificed everything he had in the world: what could we ask more? 10. Who is here so base that would be a bondman? 11. I speak as to wise men: judge ye what I say. 12. Liberty was theirs as men: without it they did not esteem themselves men. 13. The death of Socrates, peacefully philosophizing with his friends, is the most pleasant that could be desired.

14. O Popular Applause ! what heart of man
Is proof against thy sweet, seducing charms?

CAUTIONS IO3

15. What black, what ceaseless cares besiege our state: What strokes we feel from fancy and from fate.

16. Unveil thy bosom, faithful tomb;

Take this new treasure to thy trust;
And give these sacred relics room
To slumber in the silent dust.

17. Thy spirit, Independence, let me share.

Lord of the lion heart and eagle eye:
Thy steps I'll follow with my bosom bare;

Nor heed the storm that howls along the sky. — Smollett.

18. The gay will laugh
When thou art gone; the solemn brood of care
Plod on, and each one as before will chase
His favorite phantom: yet all these shall leave
Their mirth and their employment, and shall come
And make their bed with thee. — Bryant.

CI. CAUTIOUS

Caution I. — Do not omit the sign of possession in forming the possessive case of nouns, nor use it in forming the possessive case of pronouns.

Write correctly:

1. Mr. Arter sells boys or boy's or boys' hats. 2. The girls' or girl's or girls bonnets were blown into the lake. 3. That house is her's or hers. 4. Frances' or France's or Frances mother is an actress. 5. Have you seen Mr. Pierce or Pierce' or Pierces or Pierce's or Pierces'new house? 6. Who's or whose or whoes horse ran away?

Caution II. — Do not use the objective-case forms of pronouns as subjects or predicates.

Write correctly, supplying personal pronouns:

1. — and — study arithmetic. 2. It is —, and not —, who wishes to see you. 3. —, and—, and — were boys together. 4. —and the doctor were there. 5. Did you say it was — who broke the window?

Caution III. — Do not use "who" as the object of a transitive verb or of a preposition.

Write correctly:

1. — are you talking to? 2. Tell me — you work for. 3. He is a man — I do not like. 4. —did your sister marry?

Caution IV. — Do not use "which" as a relative to represent persons, or " who " to represent animals, children, or objects without life.

Write correctly:

1. Those— are rich should not be proud. 2. The dog — you bought, was stolen. 3. They have found the child — was lost. 4. It was old dog Hero — was killed. 5. They — study will learn.

Caution V. — Avoid the use of different kinds of pronouns in the same construction.

Write correctly:

1. If thou or you will go, I will pay your or thy expenses. 2. I hope you or thou will put money into thy or your purse. 3. I will show thee or you what we have, and you or thou may take which will please you or thou. 4. Learn thy or your lesson, then amuse yourself or thyself.

Caution VI.— Do not use a pronoun and its antecedents as subjects of the same sentence.

Correct:

1. The girls they all screamed. 2. Mr. Snell he has gone to Paris. 3. The dogs they barked, and the horses they ran. 4. Many words they darken speech. 5. Ella Jones she is my classmate.

CLASSES OF VERBS 105

THE VERB

CII. ORAL LESSON

John studies.

What is the subject of the sentence? What is the predicate? Does the sentence tell what John studies?

John studies grammar.

In this sentence, the meaning of "studies" is completed by the word "grammar," which is an objective element.

A verb which requires an objective element to complete its meaning, is called a transitive verb; a verb which does not require an objective element to complete its meaning, is called an intransitive verb. What kind of a verb is " studies" in the sentence "John studies grammar"? Why? What kind of a verb is "run," in the sentence "John runs"?

The fields look green.

What is the subject of this sentence? What is the predicate? What is the office of the word " look "? Its use is copulative; and such copulative words are called copulative verbs.

Cin. DEFINITION OF VERB

A verb is a word which expresses being, action, or state; as, I am; George writes; The house stands.

The being, action, or state, may be stated abstractly or represented as belonging to a subject; as, "To write "; "Boys write."

CIV. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO USE

With respect to their use, verbs may be divided into copulative, transitive, and intransitive.

A copulative verb is used to join a predicate to a subject, and to make an assertion; as, " Sugar is sweet."

The copula to be is the only pure copulative. The verbs become, seem, appear, stand, walk, and other verbs of motion, position, and condition, together with such verb groups as is named, is called, is styled, is elected, is appointed, is constituted, is made, is chosen, is esteemed, and some others, are frequently used as copulatives.

Ex.—"The road became rough"; "The men appeared cheerful"; "He is styled the Czar of all the Russias "; "Sir Walter Scott is called the Wizard of the North "; "General Washington was elected first President of the United States."

A transitive verb requires an object to complete its meaning; as, "The hunter killed a bear "; "The scholar learned his lesson "; "That house has seven gables."

An intransitive verb does not require an object to complete its meaning; as, "Flowers bloom "; "Grass grows"; "The wind Slows furiously."

The action expressed by the transitive verb has reference to some object external to the subject, upon which it terminates: the action expressed by an intransitive verb has no such reference, but affects the subject only. If an object is required to complete its meaning, a verb is transitive, otherwise intransitive. A verb is transitive if its subject can be made its object by inverting the sentence.

Ex. — " That boy studies algebra." The verb " studies" is transitive, because its meaning is completed by the object "algebra." "That boy studies." The verb "studies" is transitive, because some word, as "lesson," "grammar," etc., is required to complete its meaning. "The winds blow." The verb "blow" is intransitive, because the action expressed by it affects the subject only, and does not require the addition of an object to complete its meaning. "The letter was written by me," i.e. I wrote the letter. The verb "was written" is transitive, because its subject becomes its object by inverting the sentence.

Some verbs are transitive in one signification, and intransitive in another.

Ex. — " It breaks my chain "; "Glass breaks easily " • "He returned the book "; "I returned home."

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