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time represented by the principal verb: it belongs to "train." (Rule XII.)

Their leader having been killed, the robbers fled. "Having been killed" is a participle: it is derived from the verb "kill": compound participle: it belongs to "leader." (Rule XII.)

Whispering is forbidden. "Whispering" is a noun; participial; it is derived from the verb "whisper ": neuter gender, third person, singular number, nominative case. (Rule I.)

CXII. EXERCISES

Parse the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and participles in the following sentences:

1. I have heard the bells tolling. 2. He saw the letter opened. 3. Gambling is a crime. 4. Boys like running, jumping, and skating. 5. The vessel anchored in the bay has lost her sails. 6. Having sold my farm, I shall remove to Iowa. 7. The burning of the capital was a wanton outrage. 8. Have you not seen strong men weeping? 9. The general having been captured, the army was defeated. 10. Your remaining here would ruin us all.

11. Said but once, said but softly, not marked at all, words revive before me in darkness and solitude. —De Quincey. 12. A man hardened in depravity would have been perfectly contented with an acquittal so complete, announced in language so gracious. — Macaulay.

13. I heard the ripple washing in the reeds.

And the wild water lapping on the crags—Tennyson.

14. Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing,

Onward through life he goes,
Something attempted, something done,

Has earned a night's repose. — Longfellow.

15. So that now to still the beating of my heart,

I stood repeating,
'Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door.

— E. A. Poe.

PRINCIPAL AND AUXILIARY VERBS 113

CXIII. THE INFINITIVE

The infinitive expresses the action, being, or state, without affirming it; as, to write; to have written; "He rose to speak."

The infinitive may usually be known by the sign to. This sign is omitted after the verbs bid, dare, feel, hear, help, let, make, need, see, and a few others; as, "Bid them be quiet"; "Let them come on "; "See him run."

The infinitive, as an abstract noun, may be the subject or the predicate of a sentence; may be in apposition with a noun; and may be the object of a transitive verb or preposition; as, " To lie is disgraceful"; "To work is to pray "; "Delightful task, to rear the tender thought"; "I love to read"; "Can save the son of Thetis from to die"

Although the infinitive has the construction of a noun, it may govern an object, or be modified by an adverb. It is never limited by an adjective attribute, but may have a predicate adjective belonging to it; as, " To converse is pleasant"; "To suffer all this wrong is hard."

CXIV. PRINCIPAL AND AUXILIARY VERBS

A verb may consist of one word, or of several words united in a verb group; as runs, is running.

The chief word in a verb group — that which names the action or state — is called the principal verb. It is sometimes a participle and sometimes an infinitive with to omitted and is usually placed last in the group; as, maygo, may have gone; shall be going.

The other verbs which are employed to aid the principal verb by asserting, or expressing some condition of the act or state, are called auxiliaries or auxiliary verbs; as, may have gone, shall go.

ADV. GRAM. —8

Auxiliary verbs are those which are used to make the verb groups with other verbs, used as principals.

The auxiliaries are: do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, must.

Do, be, have, and will are often used as principal verbs; as, "Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them"; "He does well"; "I think, therefore I am"; "We have cares and anxieties "; "He willed me a thousand dollars."

The auxiliaries were originally used as principal verbs, followed by the infinitives of what are now called the principal verbs; as, " I can £to] read"; "You may [to] go"; "He has [to] come." "You must [to] hasten." The sign to is now dropped, and the infinitive is regarded as the principal verb; the auxiliaries being used merely to show the relations of mode and tense.

CXV. DEFINITION OF MODE

Mode is the manner in which the action, being, or state is expressed.

There are four modes: the indicative, the subjunctive, the potential, and the imperative.

CXVI. INDICATIVE MODE

The indicative mode asserts a thing as a fact, or as Actually existing; as, "The man walks"; "The house was burned."

The indicative mode may be used in interrogative and exclamatory sentences; also, in subordinate propositions, to denote what is actual or what is assumed as actual; as, "Is he a merchant?" "The rascal has stolen my horse!" "I learn that you have removed from town."

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE 115

CXVII. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

The subjunctive mode asserts a thing as doubtful, as, a wish, a supposition, or a future contingency; as, "If this be true, all will end well"; "Had I the wings of a dove "; "I shall leave, if you remain."

The subjunctive mode is so called because it is used in subjoined or subordinate propositions only. It represents an ideal act, or an act placed under a condition of more or less doubt, and is joined to the verb of the principal proposition by the subordinate connectives if, though, except, lest, that, unless, and some others. These connectives are called the signs of the subjunctive.

The sign is frequently omitted, in which case the auxiliary or copula precedes the subject; as, "Had I time," i.e. If I had time; "Were I a king," i.e. If I were a king.

In a subordinate proposition expressing a condition or a supposition, the verb may be in either the indicative or the subjunctive mode. Use the subjunctive mode, when it is intended to express doubt or denial; the indicative or potential mode, when the thing supposed is a fact or is assumed to be a fact.

Ex. — "If I go, I shall return": I may go, or I may not; doubt is implied. "If he were honest, he would pay me ": the supposition is that he is not honest. "If he had been there, I should have seen him ": I deny that he was there. In these sentences, the verbs are in the subjunctive mode, doubt or denial being implied. In the sentences, " If he goes, you must stay," and " If he was there, he fought bravely," "goes" and " was" are in the indicative mode, neither doubt nor denial being implied.

Comparatively few modern writers observe the distinction between the indicative and the subjunctive modes in stating suppositions. The directions given state the usage of the best writers.

CXVIII. POTENTIAL MODE

The potential mode asserts the power, necessity, liberty, duty, or liability of acting or being in a certain state; as, "You can read"; "He must go"; "You may retire"; "They should be more careful."

The potential mode, like the indicative, is used in interrogative and exclamatory sentences; also, in subordinate propositions, to represent what is assumed as actual, or what has not been realized; as, "1 know that I may be disappointed "; "He says that I may study algebra."

The signs of the potential mode are the auxiliaries may, can, must, might, could, would, and should.

CXIX. IMPERATIVE MODE

The imperative mode expresses a command, an exhortation, an entreaty, or a permission; as, "Charge, Chester, charge!" "Do come to see us"; "Lead us not into temptation"; "Be silent."

The imperative mode may usually be known by the omission of the subject; as, " Write'' [thou,you, or ye]. It is used mostly in principal propositions, and is made subordinate in direct quotations only; as, "God said, Let there be light."

The expressions "Let Ellen come," "Let him go," etc., are made up of the imperative of the verb let, and the objective case of a noun or pronoun, limited by an infinitive. They are equivalent to "Permit [thou] Ellen to come," etc.

These expressions are sometimes abridged by dropping the verb let, changing the infinitive to the imperative, and the objective case to the nominative; as, "Come one, come all," i.e. Let one come, let all come; "Sing we to our God above," i.e. Let us sing to our God above. In such cases, the noun or pronoun should be parsed as the subject of the proposition, the imperative agreeing with it in number and person.

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