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EXERCISES 117

Ex. — "Ruin seize thee, ruthless king."—Gray. "Laugh those who may, weep those who must." — Scott. "Then turn we to her latest tribune's name." — Byron. "Proceed we therefore to our subject."—Pope. "Come the eleventh plague, rather than this should be." — Cowley. "Be it enacted." — Statutes Of Ohio. "Somebody call my wife." — Shakespeare. "Hallowed be thy name."

The imperative mode is sometimes used to denote a wish.
Ex. "Let all the earth fear the Lord."

CXX. EXERCISES

Tell the mode of the verbs in the following sentences: —

1. A great storm is raging. 2. You may go or stay. 3. Bring me some flowers. 4. Hope thou in God. 5. If he study, he will excel. 6. If he studies, it is when he is alone. 7. Were I rich I would purchase that property. 8. Who will go with me? 9. Do let me see your book.

10. I must not be tardy. 11. Lift up your heads, O ye gates!

12. Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

13. He should have told you. 14. They dare not puzzle us for their own sakes. 15. Let us not, I beseech you, deceive ourselves longer.

16. God help us! what a poor world this would be, if this were the true doctrine. 17. If a line is parallel to a line of a plane, it is parallel to that plane. 18. If a plane intersect two parallel planes, the lines of intersection will be parallel. 19. Could ye have kept his spirit to that flight, he had been happy. — Byron.

20. Reign thou in hell, thy kingdom; let me serve
In heaven, God ever blest. — Milton.

21. Place me on Sunium's marble steep,

Where nothing, save the waves and I,
May hear our mutual murmurs sweep;

There, swan-like, let me sing and die. — Byron.

CXXI. DEFINITION OF TENSE

Tense denotes the time of an action or event.

There are three divisions of time: past, present, and future. Each division has two tenses: an absolute and a relative.

The absolute tenses are the present, the past, and the future. They denote indefinite or incomplete action.

The relative tenses are the present perfect, the past perfect, and the future perfect. They denote completed action.

CXXII. PRESENT TENSE

The present tense denotes present time; as, "I walk"; "The army is marching."

The present tense is used in expressing a general truth, or what is habitual; as, " Perseverance conquers all things." "The mail arrives at six P.m." If composed of the copula used as auxiliary, and the present participle of the principal verb, it expresses what is now occurring; as, "The train is moving"

The historical present is the present used for the past, to describe more vividly what took place in past time; as, "Tacitus describes the manners and customs of the ancient Germans "; "Ulysses -wakes, not knowing where he was." — Pope. "Matthew traces the descent of Joseph; Luke traces that of Mary."

The present of the speaker or hearer is what is meant by present time. The present of the reader may not be the same as that of the writer.

When preceded by a relative pronoun, or by conjunctive adverbs of time, the present tense is sometimes future in its reference; as, " He will please all who employ him "; "The flowers will bloom when spring comes.''

PAST PERFECT TENSE 119

CXXIII. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

The present perfect tense represents an action or event as past, but connected with present time; as, "I have learned my lesson."

Have, the sign ot the present perfect tense, originally denoted possession^ It retains this meaning when used as a principal verb. As an auxiliary, it denotes completion; as, "The hunters have killed a wolf." "A man has fallen from the bridge."

When preceded by a subordinate connective of time, the present perfect tense sometimes denotes future time; as, " He will forward the goods as soon as he has received them."

CXXIV. PAST TENSE

The past tense expresses what took place in time wholly past; as, "I wrote"; "I was sailing."

The past indicative, like the present, denotes what was habitual; as, "We walked five miles every morning." It may denote an act in past time, but not completed; as, "He was driving furiously when I saw him."

The past potential denotes (1) a duty or obligation, without reference to time; as, "Judges should be merciful": (2) a habit or custom; as, "He would be absent a week at a time ": (3) ability possessed in past time; as, "He could walk yesterday ": (4) present possibility or power; as, " I could write [now] if I would": (5) a future possibility; as, " If I should write to you [hereafter], you must answer immediately."

CXXV PAST PERFECT TENSE

The past perfect tense represents an act as ended or completed at or before a certain past time; as, "She had finished her task before three o'clock "; "The cars had started before we reached the depot."

The past is frequently used instead of the past perfect, to denote.the completion of an act at or before a certain past time mentioned; asj "The boat left before midnight."

The past perfect subjunctive and past perfect potential deny the action or event; as, "If I had started sooner, I should have overtaken you."

CXXVI. FUTURE TENSE

The future tense expresses what will take place in future time; as, "I shall return soon "; "The lion shall eat straw like the ox."

Shall and will are the signs of the future tense. Shall expresses the action or event (i) as a duty commanded; as, "He shall pay you "; "Thou shalt not steal": (2) as a prediction; as, "I shall make a thousand dollars ": (3) as future; as, "I shall leave at noon."

Will expresses the action or event (1) as something determined upon; as, "I will go: no power on earth can prevent me "; "The cause will raise up armies ": (2) as future; as, "You will feel better to-morrow."

Shall, in the first person, and will, in the second and third, are usually employed to denote futurity; as, "We shall arrive there by noon "; "You will be glad to see us "; "He will be with us."

Will is used, in the first person, to denote determination; and shall, in the second and third, to denote necessity; as, "I will write to you"; "I will not do it, come what may"; "Neither he nor you shall go without me."

CXXVII. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

The future perfect tense represents an action as finished or ended at or before a certain future time; as, " I shall have finished my task at three o'clock"; "We shall have dined before you arrive."

SIGNS OF THE TENSES: ACTIVE VOICE 121

CXXVIII. TENSES IN ALL THE MODES

The indicative mode has all six tenses.

The subjunctive mode has three tenses: the present, fast, and past perfect.

The potential mode has four tenses: the present, present perfect, past, and past perfect.

The imperative mode has one tense: the present.

Tense does not properly belong to the infinitive. Its forms, although usually called tenses, have no regard to time. The present tense denotes progressive or completed action or state, with reference to past, present, or future time; the present perfect, a completed action or state in an unlimited manner.

The auxiliaries, when used as such, except must, which is used in the present tense only, have two tenses: the present and the past.

CXXIX. SIGNS OF THE TENSES: ACTIVE VOICE

INDICATIVE MODE

Present: Simple form of the verb.

Past: When regular, add ed to the simple form.

Future: Prefix shall or will to the simple form.

Present Perfect: Prefix have, hast, or has to the perfect participle.

Past Perfect: Prefix had or hadst to the perfect participle.

Future Perfect: Prefix shall have or will have to the perfect participle.

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

If, though, except, unless, etc., placed before tense forms given in the conjugation, are called signs of the subjunctive mode.

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